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or TBE 



" = flfc ■ '■ ■ ■>■ « 


** Adconjiiium ie republicadanduniy^aput eft nojfe r^mpuhlicam^^ 

.... Cicero, de Oiult. lib. ii; 









1. Lanark 

2. Shotts 

3. Lochwinnoch 

4« Twyneholm & Kirk-Chrift 

5. Urquhart 

6* Oync 

7. Rayne 

8* Elirkbean / 

9. St Fergus 

10. Dollar 

11. Mordington 

1 2. Tillicoutlry 

13. Benholme 

14. Monzie 

15. Dalgety 

16. Baldcrnock . - 
17- Longfide 

18. South Ronaldfay & Burray 

19. Campfi^ 

20. Stronfay and Eday 

21. Glencrofs 

22. Alford 

23. Kilbarch^H; 

24. Earkmichael 

25. Rcdgortcn 

26. Kirknoabreck 

27. Bcdrulc 

28. FoulisWcftcr 
29* Avoch 


Increafe in 1792-49 

Fopulciion in 1755. in 1791-4. 












+ 1015 





475 » 


































































5 23 


* Tbii ii fuppofed (b be the popobtion in IJSS' 
t Thii wu tbc population mini. 


18^ fir 1814 Ttdil1%^ - 

9, — coaft read pariilu 
axy -— Rothiayr^Ku/Rattrty. 
30, — AOchines rtai Anchirict. 
25, ^ftew illam add medietatem. 
6, ftr Z900 rtad 400 barrels. 
28, — reprinted rtad nprinted AA«« 
J I'a, •— his right rud her ri^t, 
. pem. ^ Foxbat read TorboL 
. 32, — fparrsr^o^ parrs. 
. 18, — Garrick rrotf Carrick. 
17, -» Dartick rtad Partick. 
Xy — proprietors rt^d tenantit 
I, •-• 7th readlA* 
33» •— fizty rff«^ fix. 
6, «* I rroi !• hfirt XdO* 
a8, — 17 ready 
%j — 179* »'«*' I7W* 

,^ ^^j XI — no read X50, 

— 368 —— a6, r#a(/ York Building Company. 
«... 36^ .-.^ 3, /or Sunday r<a^ Saturday, 

,, 373 8. - a8 read 38. 

. 376 I 9, — a few read few. , 

...^.i^ 377 ...«. x8, — ^ balked rr«tf baked. 
-,— 379 — 04, — X793 read If 0$. 
^_ 558 — — a7, — Toner readTowa^^ 





t» A R T XV* 

..V. NUMBtRI. 


(Countj^ and presbyter J of Lanark^ and Synod of Qlai^ 
gow and -^jr.) 

Bt Mr. WILLIAM LOCKHARt op Baronald. 

Situation^ Eiient^ and Surf at e^ 

1 HIS PariiDi is situated in the fhire and presbytery ct 
Lanark, and Synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; is between 4 
atid 5 miles in length stretching along the Eastern bank 
of the Clyde, and about th^ee in breadtb^ The genera- 
lity of the^arifli consists of pretty flat and improvable 
lanS ; but along tl^ Clyde ftom Bonniton^fall down*^ 
Ivatd^ for the space of more than 3 miles^ the banks ar^ 
high, precipitous, and rocky, which however are pretty 
generally fringed with natural wood and planting. TImi 

Vol. XV. A 


I o Statistical Account 


'. banks of the Moufs, the only other river of any siie^ 

and which running from East to West, separates thd 
parifli into two distinct parts, are equally precipitous 
an^ rocky, but also clothed with natural wood, and 

I plantatiot.s of forest trees. 

j The highest ground in the parilh, for there is no hill, 

is Lanark and Lee. moors, both b&j^^j^retty equal in 
height, and about 760 feet above sea-AVel. The town 

I of Lanark itself is 6^6 feet 5 inches above the quay at the 

new bridge of Glasgow. 

The parilh may contain above 6000 acres. There are 

' probably upwards of 600 acres of coppice wood and plan- 

^ tations, and 1800 acres o\ moor ground, which leaves a- 

I * bout 3600 acres for cultivation. The moory grounds, 

which also contain some little mofs, belong to two differ- 
ent proprietors. Lanark moor, consisting of about 1500 
acrrs, is the property of the community : and Lee-moor 
consisting of about 300 acres belong! to the estate of Lee. 
About 50 years ago the magistrates of Lanark, let to th6 
inhabitants of the burgh on leases of 57 years, several 
small lots, at the extremity of their moor or common, at 
ffom 6d. to IS. 8d. per acre, with the view of getting 
them inclosed and improven; but the distance from town, 
about two miles, and other circumstances, prevented 
snuch improvement from being made upon them : such 
lots however as were situated nighest the town, and have 
been kept tcnciblc, now let from los. to aos. per acre. 
About 20 years ago, the town planted about 60 acres of 
this moor, iritostly with Scots pines^ which are in a very 
thriving condition ; and their seeds, scattered by the wind 
have of late produced a natural and extensive crop of 
young pines in the moor. 

. William Honcyflaan of Grflemsay ' Esq. Advocate, has 
Utciy feucdfrom the magistrates between 1 and 300 acres 


ff Lanark^ ^ 

of this moor. at 5s, per acre j and has begun to plant*** 
tfnd improve It, so that what formerly afforded a small 
pittance to a few half-*starved cattle, will sooo be enabled 
to maintain families. The expences he has been at are al- 
ready very considerable, but do not intimidate him front 
being still willing to pofsefs and improve more of it, 
which although beneficial to the manufactures of Lanark^ 
tfnd to the nation at large, is opposed by a few burgefseSf 
who say that they have an immemorial right of servitude 
upon this moor for the pasturage of a certain number of 
cattle, and for fuel, feal, and divot ; and therefore, that 
it cannot be disposed of without being liable to such bur- 
dens, — as to which vident jurisconsulti ; but it must be 
matter of great regret to every well-wiftier of his country 
to see so great an extent, of improTable ground in the 
neighbourhood of a populous and manufacturing town, 
abandoned to heath and bent-grafi. 

Lee-moor] is in the like rude and uncultivated state, al- 
though equally improvable, and much nearer to coal and 
lime, than the former.^ This however is the fault of 
the proprietor, or rather owing to that bane of all 
improvementi an entailed estate *. It is couiyiderably 


* He hn planted iboat So teres with Scots pme, larch, beech, ash, ficc: 
% In travelling throagh Scotland, whenever the stranger meets with any 
lirge portion of improvable land in a state of nature, he may rest satis- 
fied that the ground is either under a strict entail, or that the proprietor has 
an overgrown estate. In fliort the fact is so glaring, that for the good of 
society and the nation at large, it were to be wiflicd, that some measure 
could be thought of either to oblige such proprietors to improve those 
grounds themselws, or to feu or sell them by public roup, at least to let 
them, to people willing to improve them, on such terms as may be fixed by the 
Board of Agriculture lately cstablxilicd, Suth a plan \vould so«n bring the 


4 Statistical acfoui/t 

lets in extent than I^ntrk-moor, sod theoce wpuld re^ 
^ire lefs expeace to bring it lender tillage : It is to be 
kpped however from the promising appearance of the 
jQung proprietor, that it will soon be broagbt into a state;. 
of cultivation apd improvement. 

The South and East parts of the parifh, excepting the 
burrow lands, which consist of a rich loam, are in gene- 
ral inclined to be light and gravelly. The estates of Lee, 
Cleghom, Terviswood, the Namphlars, and the rest of 
the parilh, consist of a very improvable clayey soil, a- 
dapted for wheat, provided fhere were spirit enough in 
fhe country to promote the erection of a flour mill ; but, 
as at present there is no flour mill nearer than Hamil« 
ton, 12 n^iles off, there is no encouragement towards 
^be culture of that pro^table and useful crop. 

Minerals, There is nq coal in the p9rifh hitherto dis^^ 
covered ; but in the neighbouring parifbes of Carluke, 
Carmichael, and Lesmahago, there are plenty of coal-pits. 
Coal at Lanark sells in general at about 3s. or 3s. 4d. th^ 
800 weiglit : Cannel coal from Lesmahago parifh, sells 
8f mewhat higher, which being of a very bituminous na« 


country under ctilti>ation, inci^ase iti population and manufactures, prevent 
ip tome measurp eini|r|>atioiis, and woulcl have the tendency of always pre. 
serving peace and good prder in thp country. The greater the number of 
proprietors in a kingdom $0 much the mot^ nuqierous wf'di be the triends and^ 
supporters of its government, as it increases the number of tho^ who arei 
materially interested in its welfare. But lyheneyer thf whole lands Of a 
kingdom, as wa^ the case in France, are absorbed by a fe^^, it is only those 
few that are more peculiarly interested in its welfare ; for people, w|^oSfc . 
property is in money or the produce of their industry, may leave the king- 
dom at pleasure, and cannot pofsibly. take that warm interest in the fate of 
the country which the proprietor and colonist, who in some measurt may 
be said to be chained to the soil, must neceffiariiy do. 

?f Lonaril 5 

ttire, and approaching near to jet, is used bj the poorer 
aort of people in place of candle. 

There is little or no freestone in the pariih. A quar* 
Tj has son^e time ago been opened in Lee-moar ; 
one lately at the BQathonses in the S. £. comer of the 
parifli ; and a coarse; kind of freestone is to be had upon 
the Monfs op the Jerviswood estate, but hitherto has been 
di^coTered no where else. Limestone is wrought in Lee« 
ipoorand Kilncadzow on the holders of theparifh, in con- 
siderable quantities ; and underneath it» is generally 
found a thin scan) of goal, often sufficient to bum what is 
dvg our, into lime. The rocks in the parifli consist ge- 
nerally of a brownifh micaceous moor stone, which splits 
and breaks into thin pieces unfit for any thing but ruble 
ifork. Clay fit either for bricks or pottery work, may 
be had in several parts of the parifli. 

The only appearance of mines is in Jerviswood 
grounds, wher^ there has lately been discovered a thick 
seam| of quartz, bafseting out to the day, intermixed 
with small veins of rich iron ore, but, aa such, by no 
means worth the working. As however lead mines fre« 
fluently put on similar appearances at the top, there is 
no saying what may be discovered on going a little deep- 
cr. Pieces of very pretty jasper have been picked iip, 
in the bed of the M oufs, in detached and water- worn do« 
dules ; as also great plenty of ochres, but no iron stone 
excepting about the coal pits at GiUfoot on the ikirts of 
the parifli. Close by the old bridge of Lanark have been 
found in a detached and water- worn piece of limestone, 
petrified pbohdes and cockle fliells ; which bridge, by 
general Roy's measurement, is 36 a feet 5 inches above 
the quay at the new bridge of Glasgow, and 24 miles 
|istant from it. 

6 Statistic^ acccfun^^ 

Etymology y Langwrge\'and Antiqmties. The Damnii of 
Fcoloxnj among other counties, roost certainlj pofsefsed all 
Lanarkfiiire; Ptolomj however makes no mention of the 
word Lanark, or any of a^sitnilar sound. Baxter, with 
ethers, have deemed Lanark to t>e the Vgrulentuni of the 
anonymous geographer of Ravenna, and not without some 
degree of probability. Baxter's derivation however of t^^' 
ruhntum from the Welfh ugir hni^ which as he says, sig- 
nifies ripahumidi^ vgiaquce^ is totally inapplicable, to the' 
aituittion of Lai^ark, it being situated on a dry and elevat-. 
ed situation, 292 feet i inch above the level of the 
Clyde. He is equally unhappy in his etymology of Lan- 
' ark, which he derives from Lan cerig^ /• r. ripa fluminis,* 
this town not being situated within view of the river, nor 
upon its immediate bank, but about half a mile froa\ 
it * . •. 

It is true we have a late author, (Mr Piukerton) who, 
defends the fabulous kingdom of the Stfatclyde Bri- 
tons of Lanarkfhire, and the Wellh derivation o£ 
Lanark ; but he, in aid of his hypothesis is obliged to 
resort to afsertions totally void of foundation. Thus he 


* Jenes in hia oriffinof Unguajt and o^tionf, (* wbimsicgi boo^,) saji^ 
that Lanark, " is the same as the Welfh Lanercbf an upper or higher yard or 
** inclo$urc*\ which is hardly so improbable as the other. Indeed in the 
Wcllh language' we find many etymons such isUanercb, a green or a bare 
place in a wood ; and Lanberch, a forest, as Llayd tells us. Lanercb is ac- 
tually the name of a lown en the Clwyd in Walet: and Isn io WelOi as ix^ 
■ Gaelic^ signifies a church, churchyard, or indosure. Sut the same Lluydl 
in his Wclili preface to the Arcbealogia tells us. and proves it pretty clear- 
ly, that arery great many of the names of places in Wales itself, can only 
be derived from the Gaelic, the Gael being the original inhabitants of OreaC 
Britain as well as of continental Gaul, which is farther proved by the tracts 
publiflicd in 1737, by Mr Malcolmc, minister ot Duddingston, and of late 
by the two Mcfsrs. M*Phersons, so that the etymology of Lanark falls rather 
tivbr sought for in the Gaelic than Welili. 

1^ Lanark. ^ 

tells us,* tfaati ** In Clydesdale at present if jrou wifl 
** aik the cominon people about anj ancient castle or tte 
^ like, they will tell it was ejected by the Brett or the 
** Piks." Now although they ascribe some of their an- 
cient buildings, such as the high church of Glasgow, to the 
Picts, or Pcghsi as they call them, yet it is matter of noto- 
riety that the word Bret is utterly unknown to the com- 
'0ioa people of 'Clydesdale. This he has advanced nerely 
for thepurp oe of supporting a favourite system, and t0 
mislead in the same way that he, in^ former publication, 
had averred that scraps of the second part of his own Har- 
dyknute were sung immemorially by the common people 
of Clydesdale. Mr Pinkerton also avers that the Ian-* 
gnage of this part of Scotland still retains something of 
the Wclfii accent. This is equally groundlefe, nor can 
he point out one single instance of it ; and although nu- 
merous words used in the county are Gaelic, yet none 
are Welfli, unleb in common with the Gaelic. 

Indeed Mr Pinkerton in his edition of the Vita Sancto* 
rum Scotia^ furniftics us himself \*ith evident proofs of the 
fallacy of his own averments. In the life of St. Kenti- 
gcm or St. Mungo of Glasgow, who flourifhed in 580, 
collected from an old copy in Gaelic, and another in Latin 
by Josceline, about anno 1180, we learn, cap. 4, that 
thi? Saint was called " Kyentyren quod intcrpretatuc 
" cafitalis Dominui,'' which is pure Gaelic at this day ; 
and not Welch. His other name of Mungbu " quod 
.** (says Josceline) Latine dicitur varus amicus^'''* is not 
Wclfli but more probably Gaelic; thus Eun cat^mb may 
have been spelt Munghu, the Gaelic pronounccation being 
Dretty similar, the literal signification of which is Dear 
^ ^ bii'd 

#^lnquiry into the hist, of Scotland, tol. 1, p^ 81. 

% Statistical accovUnt 

, Urd ; and dear bird, or my bird, is Still used &iiiiliarly 
to a young friend or youths whiah KffQtigern was when hd 
received that epithet from St. Servanus the Picti/b Abbot 
of Culrofs. In cap. xu we learn that Glasgow^ formerly 
Cuthures^ was in the Saint's time, from the monastery 
therein situated^ called ** DescbUf quod interpretatar 
f< eara familial Neither is this Welfli: — But the Gae- 
lic words Paiide'caomb, L e. dear children 6r family^ have 
nearly in that language the sound of, and may liave been 
spelt Descbu^ in that early age» in the same way that lies* 
cbu is now pronounced and spelt Glasgow. And in cap* 
xxii. we learn that the JSurHf a Gaelic word used in this 
county for rivulet, and at present called Mokniinar^ 
that runs by the High Church of Glasgow and behind 
die College garden, was called MolUndowor in the Saint's 
time. Now muiUan b a mill in Gaelic, and dombat 
signifies water ; from which it is evident, that the Ian* 
guage of Glasgow in Kentigem's time^ was not Welifa» 
but pure Gaelic ; and that at this early period the Mo« 
lendinor burn^ as it now does, drove a milL* 


* We fliall, in farther proof^) and to illustrate the language of this pariOi 
nod cofonty, adduce some words, among many hundreds, that might be 
mentioned, which are pure Gaelic. Thus Bink^ a stone or gMen lod of 
seat before a door, is pu^e Gaelic. CmmU a cow With crooked horns, also 
a crooked nick, from Cromadb bended^ Body^ a clown or silly person, B9^ 
dacb. P/nrib, a carbuncle on the face, P/wroM. £«r»rA» a chicken, Eirag ^ 
Stoek-in-b^m^ a pipe with a horn used by the fliepherds, from Stoc a pipe, 
Kinnu^, a Rabbit, Coitmin. Brock, a Badger; Broc. Brat, 1 cover or seuif «• 
also a piece of cloth, Sr*t, To toom, empty, Ta^mairu To iti^i orercome^ 
]>Mgmn. GUir, puddle or filth, Ca^n IngU^ the fire, Aimgeal. Gairtam 
farter, Gairtam, Jrrosit, gooseberry, Gtotaid. Gir/£ar, a gully hole^ Guitar ^ 
Saggis, a dilh, Taiggis, Inch, invariably used for an isloid, Imnje or Jmus^ 
ebubam, a village, Clacban. Locb, a Lake, Locb, CarameiU or Caparcile* 
the oiobas tvbcrosvs, being the r«ot so much used t» diet bf the ancient 


of Lanark. 9 

Such being the case, and as la Lanarkffiire there are n6 
Welsh words in use, except such as are in common with 
the Gaelic, we may venture to affirm that the Stratcljde 
kingdom of Cunibric Britons is a mere dream ; and that 
to derive our proper names from the Cumbric is idle. 
Indeed we cannot resort to the WelQi language for the 
etymon of Lanark, seeing we have a Lanark in Stirling- 
ihire, where no Cumbric Britons were ever settled ; and a 
Drum-Lanark and Lanarkland in Dumfriesfhirc, also 
without the bounds of the fabulous Stratclyde kingdom- 

Lanatk, or as locally pronounced Lanerick, or Lande^ 
rick, is therefore more probably Gaelic. Lan^ in Shaw's 
dictionary, signifies land, a house, repository, or a 
church. Dearc is the Gaelic for the Billberry, or Blae- 
berry, so common on high and dry grounds. Landerick^ 
or Lan na dearca^ appears therefore to denote the land, 
house, repository, or church of the Billberries. Lan 
dearcach signifies also Billberry land or repository, pretty 
descriptive of all the Lanarks. But farther, Lan arc 
signifies a full ark, or granary, and Lanark is spelt Lan- 
arc in the old charters, so Lan arc may be the true ety- 
mon. These etymons, though probable, may not be 
just, yet are Icfs liable to obje' tion than any former one ; 
iior would we have dwelt so long upon this article, had 
we not wiihcd to remove the mist attempted to be 
thrown, by the author above-mentioned, over the histo* 
ry of Clydesdale. 

All the other nanies of the parifli are Anglo-saxon, un- 

iefs wc except Cartlane, Baronald or Baronel, Nemphlar^ 

Vol. XV. B 

Caledonians, CarameiUy Salich and Sau^h, the Willow, Seileach, Kist, a 
chest, cisdCf (the C sounding like K. in Gaelic,) and Kistie, the diminutive 
of Kist, Cistag. Indeed the Gaelic diminutives are very common in thO 
l»w«r paru mi Clydesdale, as yam9ck ftr little Jame$, Willock, See. 

10 Statistical account 

and Cleghorn ; which last place may have been the Croir* 
(iadum of Baxter's Glofsarium Antiquitat. Brit, as not 
only the Roman road pafses by it, but the remains of 
• Roman station are still evident in one of the parks to the 
East of Cleghorn house. 

The station or camp at Cleghorn, General Roy thinks 
was the work of Agricola. It measures 600 yards in 
length by 4Z0 in breadth, capable of containing two Re 
man legions on the Poljbian establiflimcnt, or 10,500 
men ; or it would hold one legion with its auxiliaries on a 
much higher establifliment. Near the S. W. angle of 
this camp, there is a small post or redoubt, that seems 
either to have joined to the camp itself, or to have been 
connected with it by means of a line. 

Oil the opposite side of the Moufs from Cleghorn, and 
in Lanark- moor, was situated another small exploratory ' 
camp of the Romans ; and, within about a mile of it, 
there is another of a later construction at Castle-dykes, in 
the parifh of Carstairs, through which runs the great 
Roman road from Lugballuni, or Carlisle, to the wall of. 
Antoninus.* The Roman foad from Castle-dykes runs 
through part of Lanark-moor, thence pafses the river 
Mou£i a little to the Eastward of Cleghorn-bridge, hence 
it goes through the inclosures of Cleghorn, leaving A- 
gricola's cnmp on the right, and so on by Colly-Iaw, Kill- 


I * General Roy tells us that near the kirk of Carstairs some remains of abatb 
and other antiquiiics have been found ; so that Carstairs may be the Corda of 
Ptolemy; and the Castlcdykes the Coriotitar of the Geographer of Ravenna. 
At the latter place Roman bricks and coins have frequently been dug up. 
The late Sir George Lockh?.rt was pofscfsed of some of those coins, {SUrticu- 
lariy a beautiful silver one of Kero^s; an J within these few years a consi- 
derable number, mostly of Adiian, were discovered, the bulk of whicli 
I believe arc now with ^the Antiquarian Society. One of them it in mj 

•f Lanarh 1 1 

cadxow, Coldstreaok aad Zuilfliields, to' Balstane ciear 
Carluke, bearing the name of Watling-street, or rather 
Biggar road ; and from thence to the wall. 

About a mile North of Lanark, and upon the verj 
brink of Cartlane rocks, on the North of the Moofs, are 
the Testiges of an old stronghold, called by some Castle- 
dykes, and bj others the castle of the ^aw. Perhaps 
from the Gaelic Uaidh^ a cave, in allusion to the caves 
or strange artificial archways afterwards to be noticed. 
There are still evident traces of a wide, or rather a 
double ditch on the land side, which incloses about half 
a rood of ground, and on the side next to the river is a 
precipice upwards of 200 feet of perpendicular height. 
The well was very evident about 40 years ago, but 
is since filled up. There are at present no remains of 
any building, excepting some slight traces like a foun- 
dation, and some artificial caves or arched ways of a 
very singular ^construction : one of them, which I 
saw opened, was about 7 or 8 feet in leiigth, and 4 fi^et 
wide, running in a bending direction towards the center 
of the inclosure from the brink of the rock ; the height 
about 3i feet. This archway was composed of huge 
blocks of freestone, rude and unpoli(hed, intermixt wit% 
the common moorstone of the country. It was not 
arched at top ; but the stones laid horizontally one above 
another, still approaching nearer and nearer, tiji the sides 
formed a junctioui and united at the top. In the bottom of 
the archway was a fat black earth intermixed witht some 
bones in the state of afhcs. Several other archways, or holes 
like the above, running in different directions, still exist, 
although not hitherto explored. The most remarkable 
thing attending these vestiges is, that no lime or mortar, 
Aor the smallest appearance of lime rubbiih is to be found 


^?a Statistical Accauni 

among the ruins \ so must have been erected before the 
introduction of mortar bj the Romans. 

, Arthur^ s Oven, a Roman work, was no doubt built 
without mortar ; but this castle, if a heap of narrow arch- 
ways can be called so, seems bj no means a Roman work, 
as no tool, nor the smallest art, has been used upon the 
freestone employed in it. I see by the Statistical Account, 
that subterraneous buildings of a similar kind have been 
discovered in the parifhes of Applecrofs (vol. iii. p. 378.) 
and Tealing (vol. iv, p. foi.)j and as last autumn, 
there was discovered inLesmahago parifli, near the fall of 
Stonebyres, at a place called Cairny Castle, similar arch- 
ways, in which were found two querns, or hand-mills for 
grinding corn, amongst deers horns and bones of animalS| 
I am led to believe that those archways and subterraneous 
pafsages were the temporary abodea of the ancient Bri- 
tons ; that no stone building was erected above them, but, 
if any, only temporary wooden huts, from which, 'in 
case of beinff set on fire by an enemy, the inhabitants 
might escape through the subteranneous pafsages, or 
secure themselves mu them by covering their narrow 
mouths >vith stones. Indeed it would seem that Gildas 
had such strange and fox- like habitations in his eye, 
when he wrote of the third vastation of the Scots and 
Picts, (anno 448.) as he brings them, •' De arctifsu 
** mis foraminum cavernicuiiSf fusci, vermiculorum, cu- 
*« nei, &c.* 


* The next piece of antiquity ,is the Castlchill, clofs by, and on the S: 
W. side of Lanark. It has the appearance of an artificial mount; and per* 
liaps was originally fortified by the Romans, as General R6y makes mention 
of a fine silver Faustina that was found here. Upon this hill there former* 
ly stood a cnstic, which tradition ascribes to David I. The charter by Wil- 
liam the Lien in favour of the town of Ayr, is dated from this castle, vr at 


0f Lanarkl > J 

It does not appear when, or by whom, the old parochial 
phurch of Lanark, now in ruins, which stands about % 
quarter of a mile to the S. E. of the town, was erected. It 
has b^en an elegant Gothic building of hewn stone, divid- 
ed in the middle, from one end to the other, by a wall sup- 
ported upon pillars, forming j or 6 fine arches : and a- 
round it, is the burial ground and cemetery of the town 
and pariih. This church appears from Blind Harry'« 
History of Sir William Wallace, to have been the only 
church of the town in his days. Thus a4 ann. 12971 ^^ 
makes mention of Wallace pafsing 

•* On from the kirk that was without the town.^* 
There is a charter, noted in the general Index of charters, 
in the Signet office, *' Willielmo Clerkson Capellano mo- 
f* derno ad altare gloriosifsimae Virginis Marise, infra 
** ecclesiam parochialem de Lanark." Granted by Jamea 
iv. and dated at Lanark i8th October ijoo. 

The monastery of Franciscans, or Grey Friars, founded 
here by Robert I. in 13 14, was situated tq the West of 
the present parochial church. In the burial ground belong- 
ing to it, still called the Friar's yards, there lately existed a 
beautiful conical hill or tumulus, which has been recently 



Lanark, anno 1197; and there are still in its neighbourhood places called 
Kingtons know, Kingsoru stane, and Kingsons mojr, which favour th« tradi- 
tion of its having been a royal residence. 1 hat it belonged to the crow^i, 
appears from the negotiation between John Baliol and Philip of France in 
1198, where Philip agrees to give liis niece, the eldest d^iughter of the Duke 
of Anjou, in marriage to the son and heir of Baliol : and in security of the 
lady's jointure, which was 1500!. sterling a year, Baliol mortgaged his cs- 
tatcs in France, and same of the crown lands in Scotland, viz. the Castle and 
CastcUany of Lanark, Kadzow, Maulsley. &c. This castle was frequently 
in the hands of the EngUlh during the 13th century, and I have seen scvera 
coins of the first Edward that were found here. A bowUng green is now 
erected upon the site of the Castle. 

^ 4! Statistical accent 

taken down on building the new Inn, in which a great 
tiumber of human bones was discovered, particularlj a 
* human scull of a remarkable large size. 
K A general chapter of all the Gre j-Friars of the king* 

dom was held at this monastery i rth July 1490 ; where 
the Wardens capitulary being afsemblcd, they coutirmed 
an indenture made between the Lady Beatrice Douglas^ 
Countefs of Errol, and the Grey-Friars of Dundee, and 
ordered it to be put in execution.* 

There was also in Lanark, a chapel dedicated to St. 
Nicholas, but where situated I d^o nof know. Mention is 
made of it in a charter granted by Jame^ IV. *• Steph- 
<' ano Lockhart, de loco de Clydesholme, et de cymba 
•* super aquam de Clyde, mortificat. Capcllano ad al- 
** tare Sanctae Katfaarinae fundat. in capella Sti. Nicolat 
f* de Lanark," dated 7th March 1491. 

About half a mile to the Eastward of the town are the 
ruins of the Hospital of St. Leonard's, probably founded 
by Robert L In 1393, Sir John Dalzell, a predecefsor of 
the Earl of Carnwath, obtained from Robert III. to him- 
self in liferent, and to Walter Dalzell his son in fee, the 
whole revenue belonging to St. Leonard's hospital within 
the burgh of Lanark, upon condition that he and his 


f The purport of the Indenture, which is dated in 1482, is as follows : In 
the year preceding the date of the indenture, provisions being verj dear, the 
Grey^friars of Dundee not having wherewithal! to maintain themselves, 
were obliged to pledge their books, cups and utensils. The Countefs com- 
miserating them, gave them 100 1. Scots or jf . 8 : 6 ; 8 Sterling to support 
th^m in their extremities, and to enable them to repair their monastery ; 
snd in return the Friars obliged themselves and their succefsors to ce« 
lebrate daily at the great altar a ma(s, suhmifsa voce^ vel cum flofa,.which 
mafs was called mffsa Domini pro anima dictae Beatricis (Comitifsx,) ac pro 
animabus;Willielroi,olim sponsi sui, et Wiilielmi com. de Errol, fil. ejus, dec. 
and if the Countefs ftiould, as llie designed, build an altar within the churck 
of the three kings at CuUen, then the mafs (hould be said at that altar, fcc. 

ofLahtfrl. |]j 

heirs Ihall provide a qualified person to celebrate 3 mafses 
once cverj seven years for the salvation of Robert IIL 
Anabella his Queen, and all their children for ever. 
The ruins of this hospital have lately been dug up and 
plowed. Some human bones, carved stones, and an urnt 
was discovered among them. The Hospital lands now 
belong to the Burrow, and are held by them of the fa- 
mily of Camwath, for payment of 20 merks annually, 
which, by the charter, is declared to be for the use of 
the poor. 

Agriculture, The land rises from the town in a 
gentle ascent to the East, and consists of a light dry 
soil, upon a gravelly bottom, with a few acres of mofs in 
the common which lyes to the East of the town. 
There is a considerable declivity from the town upon 
the South, West and North, to the rivers of Clyde 
and Moufs, and an acclivity from those rivers. The 
soil here is partly loam upon a rocky bottoiQ, and partly 

The Barrow lands consist of above 600 acres of fine 
rich loam, exclusive of the common. These are in ge« 
neral the property of the inhabitants of the burgh, few 
of whom pofsefs more than 2 or 3 acres, are mostly unin-/ 
closed, and when rented, generally yield from 2 1. to 3 1, 
the acre. Burrow acres sell at from 50 1. to 701. the 
acrc# Preceding the year 1750, the burrow acres were 
kept in constant tillage, under a rotation of bear, oats and 
pease ; each burgefs kept one or two cows, and some of 
them a horse or two, which pastured promiscuously up- 
on the common in summer, and upon the burrow croft 
stubble in winter. Since that period, potatoes have been 
introduced instead of the pease crop, and have been 


15 Statistical account 

planted iii great quantities^ being reckoned a more Bene^ 
ficial^crop than pease. They are generally planted, a^ 
bout 4 bolls to an acre, with a dibber ; and are three or 
four times hand-hoed during the summer. Elach acre pro- 
duces from 60 to 100 bolls Linlithgow barley measure^ 
tvithout dung, which is here seldom or never applied to 
the potatoe crop, as they are found to be much drier, and 
supposed more wholesome without it. Many people 
however have observed that the repeated culture of po- 
tatoes is injurious to the soil : and that the burrow lands 
do not now bear such quantities of good oats and barley 
as formerly. 

Some time ago winter herding upon the commoti i^as 
adopted here, and since that happy period, clover and rye« 
grafs have been introduced in ^ considerable quantities, 
and the inhabitants now find it more for their advantage to 
leather their cows upon their grafs fields th^n to send them 
to the common. An acre of sown leathering grafs has 
been known to let as high as 5I. 

The tends of the out parlfh, till within these 30 years, 
were generally let in small farms for 19 years, the rents 
paid in victual, and the labour performed by the tenant 
and his own family. The mode of agriculture was that 
of keeping a few acres adjoining to their houses in con- 
stant tillage, upon which all the dung of the farm was 
laid ^ and the outfields were kept alternately for three 
years in oats, and three years in pasture. Each farm kept 
4 horses, and a few milk cows, the produce of which 
was entirely consumed in the family; a few colts and 
young cows were also reared, the sale of which furniihed 
the farmer with what littie money was needed. 

Since that period, the victual rents have br^cn abolifhed^ 
and a spirit of industry and improvement has diffused it- 
self over the parifh. About 20 years ago, a few farms 


%f LanarW 1 7 

l^erelet in tack for 38 years, with some little encourage-' 
inent towards inclosing : Some of these have been inclos- 
ed partly with stone fences, and partly with ditch and 
hedge, and kept in a fencible condition. Dung is now 
applied to the outfields, and a regular rotation of crops 
carried on over all the farm. The most approved rota- 
tion seems to be oats from lea; a green crop of pease, 
turnips, or potatoes ; barley sown with grafi seeds ; two 
crops of hay, and three in pasture. By this mode the 
dung is equally distributed over all the farm, a«id the 
land kept in good condition, beiog dungt^d once in eight 

Some years ago, a considerable quantity of oat-meal 
was yearly carried from thib parilh to t!:e Glasgow 
market ; but now, since the intrcduction of cotton ma- 
nufactures, it is all consumefl it home ; and frequently 
Irifh meal is sent up from Gl.^siTow to supply the demand 
at the cotton mills ; nor i.. this p.irilh any longer able to 
maintain itself. O <t-meal stlls g:-T'eraI)y at a penny a- 
peck higher than either at EdinburirJi or Gi isj^ow; a cir- 
cumstance that ought to encourage tlie agriculture of the 
parilh, and stimulate proprietors in this a. id the neigh- 
bouring parifhes, to bring their wajte and moor grounds 
under cultivation. 

The Scotch plough drawn by 3 or 4 horses ; the com- 
mon harrow of 4 bulls and 20 iron teeth ; the roller, and 
single horse carts, are the most general implements of 
husbandry here. A few lig)»t ploughs, made in the ptrifli 
upon Small* s model, are also in use ; and two harrows of 
3 bulls each, with long teeth joined together by a hinge in 
the middle, and two chains at the, are used with ef-i 


yoL. XV. c 

lo Statistical account 

feet, in reducing rough land. They likewise use two 
light harrows for grafs seeds. Mr Honjman employs 
two oxen and two horses in breaking up his moor 
grounds ; but no oxen are used any where else in the pa- 
rifli, excepting at Bonniton, although "the savidg of oats 
ought fircatly to encourage them in a pariili where oat- 
meal gives so high a price. 

Lime is in pretty general use as a manure*; where it 
has not been too frequently applied, it produces fine 
crops; bur where the land has been often limed, it is 
found to succeed best when made up into compost dung- 
hills, and when led out in harvest and laid upon lea 
grounds, it is attended with great advantage. There is 
some very good marie »n the estate ot Boiuiiton, but at 
present it is not dug our for sale. 

There is very lit'le wiieat sown in the parifb, cither 
owing to ihe want of a flour mill, the scarciiv of inclo- 
sures, or the iii^h situation of tlie di-trici. Some years 
ago, severnl acres were anruaily sown with flax, uhich 
yielded irom 24 to 4c stones per acic; bat the trouble at- 
tending the difFtr rent operations, and the distance from wa- 
tering places, prevent it from hemg sown in quan- 
tities ; so that the general crops in use arc barley^ 
oats, potatoes, pease, and rye c^afs and clover. 

Turnips, tiiough a most profitable crop, are by no means 
uncommon use. When tht- old crofts arc laid out in pas- 
ture for milk cows, great quantines of butter and cheese 
are made ; and the produce of each cow, under proper 
^ management, yicl4s from 4 1. to 61. sterling annually. 

Oais nrd pVasr are sown from ^tne first of March 
to the middle of April, potatoes from the middle of A- 


* The price of a full 1 eaped Vi'n of litre Is 36 (hillings; and it gene* 
rally yields from 9 to ias!pglchoisc carts of flicUs. 




of Lanark. J 9 

pril t« the second week of May, and barley from the 
first to the end of May. In common seasons, harvest 
begins about the first 6f September, and ends about the 
middle of October. Even in the year 1782, there was 
little or none to cut down after the first of November^ 
and the ciop for the most part was got in. Harvest 179a 
was almost equally late, and the crop as ufipro.luctive.- 
The great rains prevented the corns from ripening, oc- 
casioned their running to straw and lodging, by which 
the grain did not nil ; and it wa» no uncommon thing to 
send two bolls of oats to the mill, and get only one boll 
of meal in return, alth Ugh in ordinary seasons and in 
ordinary land we have generally boll for boll.* 

Climate and Diseases, Tliis parifli, from its high, dry, 
and airy situation, is perhaps as hcaltliy a one as iii Scot- 
land. Bring situated m the cciure of tlje i^L^nd, it is 
equally free fro.n the En^tern fogs and the violtnce of the 
Western rains, so thit the air is always pure and clear. 
The dimate, although drier tii.'n aLout Glasgow, or even 
Hamilton, .is certainly somt what uctCcr than about Edin- 
burgh, but is more than uimoensatcd by the absence 
of the Eastern fogs, so disagreeable in the neighbourhood 
of tha,t city. Spiiiig droughts trequcntlj retard th^ crops 
very considerably, and som^tiaiCi spring frosts. Hea- 
vy rains in -Juiy ai.d ALii»Ui>t, winch are pie.ty comdion 
here, have a siaiilar tfiecC in keeping back the harvest ; 
but in general the crops are earlier than in the i.e gh- 


* All plants 2nd ▼egetablei common to Scotland are to be '"otind here. 
The sycamore, ^v//ij-o tlie plane tree, scemt hcr<r to b< mdi^ciijus, and ;;rovr» 
atnong the natural woods, as do Xhjt hollj and barberrj. There are tew or 
mi sbcf p Sept in ttiii paiifl^ 

( 20 Statistical account 


Jbourmg paiiflies, and even more so than those lying 
much lower and farth'^r down the ClyJe. 
V ^ ,1° Autumn fevers ana flax-ji are orctty frequent, which 

H have been impute J to livirjg too much upon potatoes ; 

•\ but there is no disease peculiar to rhe parifti. The in- 

■j habitants arc in ;Tencral stout and he dthy, and it is do 

uncommon thing to met .vitli pJo.)Ie walk^ig about, naj 
even working, at the age of 8d. Two or three have died, 
within thtse few yars, aged above 90 ;. o' c of them, a 
, blacksmith, died at tlie age of 1;- 5 bat I do not at present 
rccolle<:t of any perioa who ever reacned his hundredth 

^ Natural Curiosities^ and Romantic Scenery, This pa- 

I riQi contains as mach curi Ub, rouantic, and varied see- 

.fl nery, as any in Scrtland. The falls ol Clyde prmcipallj 

*i interest the stranger, ai;d wt fhall bt gin with the upper- 

most one, ahht ugh to come at it, we are obliged to pafs 
the second fall, or Corra Liu. The uppr^rmost one is some- 
what above ^h miles from L;inark, and from the estat»i 
in which it is situated is called the Bonniton Fall or Lin. • 
From Bonniton house, a very neat and elegant modern, }ou arrive at the Lin, by a most romantic walk 
r.longthe Clyde, leaving the pavilion and Corra Lin upon 
>v ur right hand. At seme little from the fall, 
t: -^ walk, leading to a rock tliftt juts out and overhangs 
l!.L river, brings you all at once within sight of this bcauti- 
li.l shtet of water ; but no stranger rtt>tj> satisfied 
with this view ; he still prefscs onwards along the walk, 
till Irom the rock immediately above the Lin, he sees the 


• n-.e word Lin not hitherto been explained by any v/ritcr. It isDt> 
l^ •thcr than the Cadic \VorcJ Xf.v.?;, i.e. Ice;) C7 fall, dal'crcntly spelt and 



of Lanark. ?f ^' 

^hole body of the river precipitate itself into the chasnt 
below. The rock over which it falls is upwards of I2> 
feet of perpendicular height, from which the Clyde 
makes one precipitate tumble, or leap, into a hollow 
den ; whence some of it again recoils in froth, and smok* 
ing mist. Above, the river exhibits a broad, expanded, 
and placid appearance, beautifully environed with plan<* 
tations of forest trees. This appearance is suddenly 
changed at the fall : and, below it, the river is narrow, 
contracted, and angrily boils and thunders, among rocks 
and precipices. 

The same beautiful and romantic walk conducts yoa 
back again, along the precipice that overhangs the rivcr^ 
both sides of vvhich are environed by mural rocks, equidis- 
tant and regular, forminj^, as Mr P' nnai t exprefccs it, a 
•* stupenduous natural masonry ;*"* from whose crevices 
choughs, daws and other wild birds, are incefsantly spring- 
ing. You descend along the river for ubout half a mile, 
till you arrive at the Corra Lin^ so called from an old cas- 
tle and estate upon the opposite bank. The old castle 
of Corra, overhanging a high rock that overlooks the 
fall, with Corra house, aid the rocky and woody banks 
of the Clyde, form of themselves a beautiful and grand 
€BUp 'd^oeil\ but nothing can equal the striking and stu- 
penduous appearance of the fall itself, which when view- 
ed from any of the different seats placed here and there 
along the walks, must fill every unaccustomed beholder 
with awe and astonifhment. The tremenduous rocks au 
roiind, the old castle upon the opposite bank, a corn mill 
in the rock below, the furious and impatient stream foam- 
ing over the rock, the horrid chasm and abyfs underneath 
your feet, heightened by the hollow murmur of the wa- 
ter and the screams of wild birds, form at once a spectacle 




Stathtical account 


both trcmenduous and pleasing. A summer-house or pa>- 
villion is situated over a hi^h rocky bank, that overlooks 
the Lin, built by Sir Jan\ts Carmichael of Bonniton in 
1708. From its uppermost room it affords a very strik- 
ing prospect of the fall, for all at once, on throwing your 
eyes towards a mirror, on the opposite side of the room 
from the fall, vou !^ce the whole tremendous cataract 
pouring as it were upon your hv ad. ^ The Corra Lin, by 
a late measuremc t, i^ found to be 84 feet in height. The 
river doe-; not rufh ovtT in one uniform fhect like the 
BonnitonLin, but in tluee diiTerent, though almost imper^ 
ceptible, prcipi.t* leaps. Oil the s )utliern bank, and 
when the sun fliint s, a r;a.ibovv is perpetually seen form- 
ing itself upo 1 tl e mi^t and foi^s, arising from the violent 
dalhing of the watvrs. 

The next curiosity, on descending the Clyde, that at- 
tracts the strnnger, is New Lanark, or the; cotton mills. 
The sitiiarion of tMs vill;iL»e is at tie western extremity 
of the Bonr.iton ;]^rcm!ui in a Ioa- den, and within view 
of another o^iuiuil ''cind romanric tall calL d DundafFLin, 
gjffiiifying i'» Gclic hi ick casfie ieup \ and no doubt for- 
merly some f rlrt-fj has b ea sirua:ed hereabouts, al- 
thou'^h no tr.icts now le iain, exrcptin^ in tradition; 
-which still P-' ts out a reck cileci Vailncc's Chair, where 
thai patru t .is ^rici Lo i ..vt c)i;cia!cd himself from the 
Encliftj' ^ ■••^ *'**^^ ^"^ a'ljiuit ^ or 4 feet high, and trouts 
Lave been r ot-rvt d lo piii g pp and gain the top of it 
•with ease. This fill, tho v 1. j.e. (oar lot'ty cotton mills, 
and their hi. y iri'n''' r. ir . t cr^ h- r wirh the wild and 
•woody scdicry arou: 1, mu \ at r.u t the notice of every 
stranger. Belcnv the r .iir lite r; uiantic rocks and "wods 
of BTaxficid, t!ic sear oi tlic j-i. u t Lord Justice Clerk, 
who influenced alone by the good of his country, very 


of Lanark* %\ 

frankly feued the 8i»e of the village and cotton mills to 
the bencToleat Mr David Diilc, at a vcrry moderate feu- 

The next fall of consequence is the Sionebjrcs Lin, si* 
tu3ted about 2i miles below the Corra Lin. It is so cal- 
led from the n'-ighbouriKg estate O' Stonebyres, belonging 
to Daniel Verc E q ; but the grounds adjacent to the 
fall, on both sides of the river, have lately been feued 
or purchased by Mr Dale. This cataract, which is about 
eighty feet in height, is the ne plut ultra of the salmon, as 
none can pofsibly get above it, although their endeavours, 
in the spawning season, are incif^ant and amusing. It is 
equally romantic with the othtrs ; and like the Corra Lin, 
has three distinct, but almost precipitate falls. Wild rug- 
ged rocks are equally visible here, ?nd they are equally 
fringed with wood ; the tr^es however are by no means 
so tall and stately, being compoofd of coppice wood. Sal- 
mon, pars (samlets,) horse muscle, or tlie pearl oyster, 
though numerous below, are never seen ;;bove this fall. 

The next piece of natural cariositv is C\;llane Craigs, 
upon the river Moufs, which enieis CI; de about a mile be- 
low the town of Lanark. This is a curious and rorr.antic 
den, about a quarter oi a mile in krgth, bounded on ei- 
ther side by a reef of lofty precipitous and rugged 
rocks, which are fringed witii coppice wood on the 
north side, and with coppice, wood and thriving planta- 
tions on the south. The rocky bank on the north 
side is about 400 feet in height, and it is not much 
lower upon the fouth side* ' Both banks arc fnely varied 
■with the different appearances of rock, wood and preci- 
pice. At th-e bottom ruj.s the river Moufs, which scarce- 
ly leaves room for the lonely traveller to traverse the 
dcnj however, here the c;:lcb rated botanijf-, Mr Lightfoot, 


pjj, Statistical account 

dftmbered in search of plants, and discoTcred somt rare 
and uncommon ones, as maj be seen in his Flora Scotica* 
At every reach of the Moufs, of which there are manj, 
the scenerj varies, and wherever jou find a prominent 
rock upon the one side, you are sure to meet with a regular 
recefs on the other. Caverns in the rocks are here and 
there observable^ but none of them worthy of any parti- 
cular description. One, still called Wallace's cove, tra- 
dition tells us, was the hiding hole of that patriot. An- 
other equally trifling, but which bears evident marks of 
the chifsel, is said to have been the abode of a hermit in 
former times, but must have been a miserable habitation^ 
hardly affording room to lye down in. Considerable veins 
of the spatum ponderosum run through these rocks ; but 
no other mineral has hitherto been traced in this dreary den 
of foxes, badgers and wild birds. It is somewhat singular 
how the Moufs, instead of following its direct course, by 
Baronald house, where the ground is lower and unob- 
structed by rocks, fhould have penetrated the high hill of 
Cartlane, and forrred a bed through solid rock. It seems 
presumable that this vast chasm has originally been 
formed by some earthquake, which, rending the rocks, al- 
. lowed the water to pafs that way. 

Lakes y orchards y and mineral springs. There is only 
one lake of any consequence in the paridi, which is on 
theBr>nniton estate, and upon which there is a bleachfield, 
particularly famous for bleaching threed. It is called 
Lang Lochy althouoh hardly 500 feet in length ; and con- 
tains both Pike and Perch. 

There are no Orchards of any consequence excepting a- 
bout Holmfoot, in the lower part of the parifh. Small one« 
liave been lately planted at Castlebank, and at Earonald ia 

the netghbonrhood of the town, which thrive tolerably 
well ; but in general the fruit does not succeed so well in 
the higher parts of this pariih, owing to the great eleva<- 
tion. Small fruit, however, such as gooseberries, yield 
considerable returns, and I have kaown some cultivators 
of them draw from lo 1. to 25 1. for a crop, independent of 
other vegetables growing among them. Wild fruits are 
here in great abundance, such as crab apples, haxel nuts, 
geens, bird-cherrj called here hagberry, rasp-berries, Roe- 
buck-berries, and strawberries, &c. The fruit of the 
bird-cherry, (prunuifadus'), or the bark in winter, is an 
excellent astringent, and a specific in Diarrhoeas and fiax^^s. 
The disease common to cows in some pastures, called the 
tnoor-ill, is cured by it, of which I have beea afsured by 
an excellent surgeon now deceased. The Rubus Saxatiiis^ 
and Rubus cbamamorus^ are to be found along the rocks of 
Cleghorn wood, and at Bonniton, by the falls. 
' There are no mineral waters in the parifh other than 
the common chalybeate springs, which are found almost 
every whete in Scotland. 

Roads^ Bridget^ and Improvements^ already made or 
proposed. The distance to Edinburgh is about 30 miles $ 
and a most excellent turnpike road was made some years 
ago to that metropolis. 

The present road to Glasgow, which is 24 miles from 

Lanark, is in bad repair ; and on account of the great 

declivity to the water of Moufs and acclivity from it, it 

has been found expedient lo change the tract of the road 

altogether ; and instead of crof&ing the Moufs, a new one 

is finifhing, that crofses the Clyde at the old bridge of 

Lanark, and from thence runs along the southera banks 

Vol. XV. D 

26 Statistical accomt 

of that riTer by Dalserf and Hamilton to Glasgow" This 
road, which leads through woods and orchards, and 
keeps the Cljde prettj generally in view, bids fair tu be 
the most beautiful one in Scotland ; and were it continued 
southerly as once proposed, by the Howgate mouth to 
Carlisle, (thereby fborteniog the present road frooci Glas- 
gow to that place,) it wouliJ be of considerable adrantage 
to Lanark, as at present there is no thorough^fare through 
Lanark to any town in Britain, it will however be mat- 
ter of regret, if some attention is not also paid to the old 
load by Carluke, as it is the ordinary one to coal and 

There are two bridges over the Clyde in the parifli. 
The old bridge of Lanark, consisting of 3 arches, was built 
in the end of last century, and is at present strong and suffi- 
cient ; but from the late great weight of earth laid upon the 
abuttment next the town, it is somewhat doubtful whether 
it may tiot be hurt by it. The other bridge is the Hynd- 
ford bridge on the high road from Lanark, and from Edin- 
burgh to Ayr. This bridge, consisting of 5 arches, was 
built a few years ago, under the direction of Mr Steven, 
and for elegance and simplicity may challenge any bridge 
of its size in Scotland. There are three bridges over the 
Moufs, Cleghorn bridge, Lockhart-ford bridge, on the 
Carluke road ; and Moufs-mill bridge. 

If ever the proposed canal fhould take place between 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, and fliould the people of Ayr- 
ihirc think of a canal to join it, the southerly tract of 
the Glasgow and Edinburgh panal, pointed out by Luci^ 
us in the Edinburgh Herald, would be the most accom- 
anodating one towards such junction. The Qlaigow canal 
would enter the pariih fro.ii Carluke ; and palsing close 
on by Cleghorn, might there be joined by the branch 


^Lanark ^7 

from Ayr, which could be carried acrofc the Clyde a 
litde above Hyndford bridge, and frpm thence by Doug- 
las to Ayr. This would not only accommodate the 
thriving manufactures of Lanark, and the Cleogh iron 
works, but, as it would pafs over grounds contammg 
coal, lime-stone and . iron-stone, would greatly promote 
agriculture and manufactures of every kind; besides the 
more general advantage arising from the expansion of 
trade from sea to sea. 

Rental and heritors. The valued rent of the parifh 
is L. 4417 : 19 : lo Scots, and the real rent upwards of 
L. jooe Sterling. The principal heritors are Charles. 
WiOiart Lockhart, of Lee Esq; Allan Lockhart of Cleg- 
horn, esq. Lady Rof» Batllie, and the honourable George 
BaiUieof Jervis-wood. Besides those named, there are 
six or seven lefser heritors, 55 smaU ones in the out pa- 
rifli, and 98 proprietors of burrow lands. There are 
only about 3 or 4 heritors that are non residents. 

Population. The population of the parifli, as returned 
to Dr Webster in 1755, amounted to ««94 "uls. On 
May 15th 1794. the number of examinable persons, 1. e. 
all above seven years of age, by the late incumbent's ex- 
amination roll, 2693, exclusive of New La- 
nark, or the cotton mills, to which when we add one fifth 
more for the children under 7 years of age, we (hall have 
the sum total of 313 1 ; so that the populaUon of the pa- 
rifli including New Lanark wUl stand asunder. 



Statistical account 

In the town of L'nar!;, and burgh lands, 
III the villa^re of New Lanark, 
In the country. 



Total Nj. of somIs, 4751 

Increase Since the year 17; 5, or rather since 1785, 
the acra of the Cotton \votk-», 2456 

The medium of births in the parilh for zo years prece^d- 
ing th<? year 1786, i»nou".ts to 68, and the medium for 10 
year^ back from 1786, to 73. MarrUgcs sif»ce the erec- 
tion of rl.e Cotton mills nave greatlj encreased, so that 
fiom being fornrjcrlj dX a medium about 19 annually; 
ihej are now doubled Of the deaths in the piri(h, there 
seems to he no regular regord k^'pt : besides the kirk sef- 
$ioi, who ought alone to have the care of the mort- 
c'oths, there is one kept for the country heritors of tho 
Western parts of the parifh, another kept for the Barro-i 
ny of Lee, another by the deacons of crafts, and of late 
the Guildry has deemed it necefsary to keep one. 

Burgh, — Lanark is an ancient royal burgh erected 
by Alexander I. whose charter, together with the after 
ones of Robert I. and James V. are confirmed by Charles 
1. 20th February 163a. Lanark is clafsed with Linlithgow 
Selkirk and Pebles, in lending a representative |o Parlia- 
ment. The electors consist of the Common^council and 
l>eacons of Crafts. The number of counsellors are fj^ 
including the Piovost, two Bailien «nd I)ean of Guild, 
and there are 7 Deacons of Crafts, The Crafts-men are 
the Smiths, Shoemakers, Wrights, Taylors, Weavers, 
Dyers, and Skinners. The Deacons form a separate hom 
dy> called the Deacon'^ seat j and have no yoic^ in council, 


of Lanark. 2g 

except in the election of Provost, Bailies, Dean of GoOd« 
and delegate for electing a member of Parliament* 

The nqmber of inhsbitants amount to 2260; among 
vhom are the following handicraftsmen, exclusive of 
journeymen and apprentices : 

Smiths, n StockingmakerSy 60 

Shoemakers, 80 Watchmakers, a 

Masons and Wrights, 30 Bakers, 5 

Taylors, ix Butchers, 4 

Weavers, 60 Gardiners, 5 

Dyers, a Tanners, z 

Skinners, 1 

T do not know the exact nnmber of Merchants of Shop- 
keepers, but there are fonr Surgeons, seven Attomies, 
or writers, and 50 Innkeepers or publicans ! 

The town is delightfully sitil^ted upon the slope of a 
rising ground, 29a feet above the level of the Clyde, and 
656 feet j inches, above the quay at the New bridge of 
Glasgow. There are in it, five principal streets, besides 
lanes and closes. The houses formerly were almost all 
of them covered with turf and straw, and the rooms with« 
out ceilings. Since the erection of the Cotton workst 
many houses have been covered with slate, and ceilinga- 
are now pretty generally in use. In (hort the town has» 
within these two or three years, put on a decent ap- 
pearance. A nent additional Inn has lately been bttilr» 
which was much needed, as the resort of strangers to 
see the falls of Clyde, the Cotton works, &c. is verj^ 

There is here a very good meal-market ; and withia 
these two years, a neat market for butcher meat has beea 
erected, together with a slaughter h^use at some const* 
derable distance from it* The only other market requi- 



30 Statistical aceount 

site for the inhabitants, would be one for garden stufTs, 
ivhich might also answer for potatoes, fifh and salt. At 
present garden stuffs are only to be bought at the gar- 
dens. As to filfaf were a particular market once esta* 
bliihed, such as are peculiar to the place, as salmon, 
trouts, pikes, perches, and pars, would more readilj 
be exposed to sale i besides it would encourage the sale 
of herrings and other fifli from Glasgow, &c. 

Cburcbi The church stands in the middle of the town; 
is a tolerable neat modern building ; but no great compli- 
mentcan be paid to its steeple. The steeple contains! bells, 
the largest has 3 different dates put upon it at the diffe- 
rent refoundings; the oldest date is liio. The church, tho' 
large, is rather inadequate to the encreasing number of the 
inhabitants, which circumstance in part gave risf to the 
building of a seceding meeting-house within these two 
or three years. This meeting-house has from 90 to loe 
communicants, and the examinable persons will amount 
to one fifth more. The seceders here aie a verj orderly 
set of men ; and thej and their pastor pof^ef^ more solid 
religioi^ and good sense, than to listen to the wild schemes 
of anarchy and disorder, said to be inculcated by some 
of their sect, in imitation of the atheists of ^ neighbouring 

School. The grammar school here has always been in 
great repute; and many gentlemen at the head of the lear« 
ned profefsions have had their education at it. The 
school has two establiihed teachers : wnd Engliih, Latin and 
Greek are taught in the same rooUi. The Rector's salary 
is L 16: 13 : 4: and the second master's isLS. The 
scholars are from 7^ to 80. The fees for Engliih are, 
IS. 6 d. per quarter, and for Latin is. 6d. The pre- 
sent school-house, consisting of two stories, and slated, 


of Lanark: ^t 

was built from the munificcDce of thfc late William 
SmcUie, M, D. well known from his publications on 
the obstetric art, who bequeathed L, zoo towards re- 
building the school-house, and also left to it his library 
of books, which are kept in the room impediatelj above 
the school-room. •,} 

Mauuf actum. There is a considerable manufactory of 
stockings here, between 75 and 80 stocking frames, being 
constantly employed. The workmen's wages in all are a- 
bout L. ^5 weekly. This businefs has increased considera* 
bly within these 7 or 8 years* Abouc 20 jears ago, there 
were' no more than 5 or 6 frames in the town. 

Previous to the American War, a very great quantity 
of Iboes was' manufactured here for exportation, and sent 
to Glasgow weekly, but since that period the demand ijS 
considerably decreased. 

Tahrs. ' There are at Lanark 7 fairs in the year, all of 
them well frequented. Lammas fair is an excellent market 
for lambs and young colts. This fair ^fome time ago sup- 
plied the Highlands with lambs and (beep ; but of late the 
demand from that countrj is considerably lefsened. Mar« 
tinmas fair is a good market for black cattle, lint, yartt» and 
coarse linneo* 

History. About anno 978, Buchanan inforou us that 
Kenneth ii. Jield an afsembly, or parliament, being the 
first mentioned in history, at Lanark ; a circuflnstaoce about 
which Forduo, our oldest author now extant, is silent. 

Anno 1144$ Fordun tells us that Lanark among some 
other towns was burnt to the ground, but docs Aot mea- 
tion the circumstances. 


3 2 Statistical liccount 

Anno 1297, \ht same author adds, that Sir Williann 
WaUace began here his first great military exploit hj 
defeating the English sherriff of Lanarkshire, William di 
Hesliope^ and putting him to death in this town. Blind 
Harry relates this event at greater lencrth, affixing the 
•ame date to it« He tells us Wallace having maftted a 
ladj of the name of Braidfoot, the heiref^ofLanimington, 
lived with her privately at Lanark ^ that while there, 
« scuffle ensued in the street betweea Wallace and a few 
friends, and a body of £:iglishmen. Wallace being over* 
powered, fled first to his own house and from thence made 
his escape to Gartlane Craigs. The sherriff Hesilrig^ or 
as Fordun calls him Hesliope, seized upon his wife and 
put her to death. To revenge which, WaUace gathers 
« few friends together, attacks Hesilrig in the night, and 
kills him and 240 Englishmen. Tradition tells us, that 
the house where Wallace resided was at the head of the 
Castlegate opposite the church, where a new house has 
lately been erected. It also acquaints us that a private 
vaulted archway fed from this house to Cirtlane Craigs, 
but seemingly without the smallest probability. 

Anno 13 10 Bruce, finally recovered Lanark from the 

By act of parliament ao June 1617, anent weights and 
measures, the care of the weights was committed to the 
burgh of Lanark ; *' In respect that the keeping and oat- 
giving of the weights of old to the burrows and others^ 
&c. was committed to the burgh of Lanark.'' Standard 
weights Were transmitted to Lanark from London at the 
union, but whether they exist at present or not is un« 


• The price of proviBom is as folbws. Oat meal and gram in general 
a^i tumewhat higher here thaa io the J^diuburgh or Glasgow market. 


^Lanark. ^'^ 

Antienifamilus and great mtn. The families of Lee 
and Cie^horn are the most ancient ' in the pariih. Sir* 
William Lockhart of Lee« the great statesman and gene* 
rai under the protector, and Charles 21, and who was aU 
•Q Loro Justice Clerk, was born in this parifiii and had 
his first rudimAiti «of education in Lanark scbooL Dr 
William Smellie author of the treatise on mtdwiferjr, 
thoug 1 bora in the neighbouring pari(h of Lesmahago 
^as educated here. The present Lord Justice clerk, 
('Robert McQueen of Braxfield,) so justly esteemed for 
his abilities as a lawer and a judge» was bom in the pa- 
riihf and had his education at Lanark school. The late 
learned and ingenious general R07, received also part 
of his education here, and was born in the neigh* 
bouring prai(b of Carluke* William Lithgow the 
ncted traveller was bom in the parifli, died in it, and 
is buried in the church yard of Lanark, though no 
vestige of his tomb can now be traced. 

£ Conom 

Oat meal is for the most part td. a peck higher titan at fidiabnrgH^ £eef 
and mutten sells from 3d. i to 4d. § the pound Englifli ; veal from 4d. to 
6d. lamb fd. heosfrom Zf. 3d. to is. 6d. butt.r from 8d. § to iOc«. and czga 
l^om 4d. to 7d the dosen. There %re few swine kept io the pari (h, although 
very profitable i and are seldom seen in the markets, bwect milk is ad 
a Scotch pint» and churned milk has been late'y raised to }per pint. No sal- 
mon can get above the Stonebyres fall, and arc seldom brought to market* 
Trottts ard to be had almost every day, and are pretty reasonable. And ve* 
getablesare to be bad at thegardenv very reasonable. The flour baked 
here into bread comes all from Edinburgh or Glasgow, which greatly en* 
hanres 'he price of bread; About 30 years ago« potatoes were ad a peck 
eggs 1} the doitrn, and bntter 3^ the pound. 

The rate of layout is asfoliovfj. Masons wages are t'rom 2od. to is. 
carpenters is. labourers from is. to is. ftd« • ayloii Si. ••r 1 their 
diet, when in the employers nouse, a custom now a.most <l:»coaiinued: plow* 
aaen get from 81. to lol. annualU with maintainancc, or L14. 10^ and a froa 
houm 9jd garden without it. Maid senmpts from %i. to 41. a year* 


StatisHcai occMnt] 

Cottan MiUi^ and Village o/'A#tv Lanari. New Laa- 
arkt where the couon mili& ace situated, u about a Ibort 
mile from Lanark ; and is the onlj Tillage in the pariih. 
It ib entirelj the creation of the enterprising and well: 
known Mr David Dale ; and as it originated with the 
erection of the first cotton mill, we ihall begin our ac^ 
count with the mills. 

[: MUls. In 1784, Mr Dale feued the she of the Mills 
and village of New Lanark, from the present Lord Jus- 
tice Clerk, with some few acres of ground adjoining* 
Thi& spot of ground was at that period almost a mere 
morals, situated in a hollow den, and of diflBcult acceCi* 
Its only recommendation was the Ttrj powerful command 
of water, that the Cijde could be made to afford it ; in o- 
thet respects, the distance from Glasgow and badnefs of 
the roads were rather unfavourable. 

The first mili was begun in April 1785, and a subtera* 
fieous pa&age of near 100 yards in length, was also iormed 
through a rocky hill for the purpose of an aqueduct to it*. 
In Su&mer 1788, a second one was builr, and was nearly 
rooted m, wheu on the 9th of October, that year, the 
first one was totally cousumed by aocidencai fire, but was 
agam rebuilt and finifiied ia^ 17891 The proprietor hta 


• In September 1785, while digging the open pirt of this aqueduct, 
there was found tSc skeleton of the Bison Scoticut or Urus, described by" 
Cs. Jii Lib ▼!. which has been extinct in ^cotland for above 300 years The 
cotv , orflin< Oi tliC horns are still preserved, one in the college of Glasgow : 
txwi a uT.'iei i.i pol u. y.\ the lastjcnough njt entire is a feet in lengthy 
ind next tne bead measures above 15 inches in clrcuznierence.^ 


^f Lanark. 35 

saaee erected other two, all of which arc meant to be drU 
ven bj one and the same aqueduct. 

In march 1786, the spinning commenced, and notwith- 
standing of the severe check by tlie total destruction of 
the first mill, the manufactory has been in a constant 
prcgrefsive state of advancement. In March i79'» 
from an accurate account then taken, it appears there 
were 981 persons employed at the mills whereas there 
arc now (November 1793^ ^334« 

As already said, there are four houses built for the 
purposes of spinning, the dimensions of which are as un^ 

f. long, 
The first built one is 154 
The second, 154 

The third, 13© 

The -fourth, 156 

The second is the only one as yet completely filled, and con* 
tains about 6,000 spindles. The first one which was burned, 
and now rebuilt has only at present 4500 spindles. In the 
third mill, a considerable number of patent jennies are 
«ow. going by water, bein^ the first of the kind in Great Bri- 
tain : This invention, and for which, a patent, has lately 
beeii obtained, we owe to the gcnifis and spirited indus- 
' trj ef^ Mr William Kelly of New Lanark *. There are 


♦ Tkis gmtlemati has also lately discoyered a new method of erecting tht 
great fcwr or large maohinery of x:otton mil's, so as to reqaire one iwsxxA of 
^ water tlian coQuaoolj oeoded: aad whicb is also applicid3le to com 
m ills. This mode is imx, only le{s expensive but requiret le(s trpwble than the 
old one. It also has the heoevolent tendency of preserving the lives of 
chi'dreniind dfhers that may be entangled by the drum or fliait. He has 
betn honoured with the thanks of the Board of Trustec\ with whom he has 
4ep«8ited a model of hii impiovemeotft. 

:. wide, 




«7 , 






^6 Statiititai accoufU 

about 55 common jennies also at work In this mill. Th* 
4th JVIill is about to be filled in the same waj ; at present 
it is occupied as store rooms for cotton wool, as work 
shops for the different tradesmen employed ; and as a 
boarding bouse for 175 children, who have no parents 
here, and who get their maintenance, education and 
doathing for the{r work. 

Below is a state of the numbers at present employed, 
distinguifl^ing their diff rent employments, &c. 

Masons, Carpenters, and labourers, employed in erect- 
ing buildings, for 7 years past. ^o 

Mechanics employed in making, and repairing 
Machiaary vis. 

Smiths, 20 Turners, 10 

Glockmakers, 12 Founders, z 

Mill-wrightSy 9 Hammermen and Hag- 

Joiners, 19 men, &c* 15 

Ferssns employed in carrying on the manufaciory 
Tiz. in cleaning cotton, carding, drawing, roving, 
winding, spinning, and reeling viz. 
Men, 145 Boys, 376 

B Women, 217 Girls, • 4*9 

I "57 

I Total number employed, 1334 

I Of these last, 32 men, 71 women, 52 boys, an4 51 

girls, reside in the burgh of Lanark, all the rest live at 

ju New Lanark. 109 of the women work at picking 

||| cotton in ther own houses^ and for the most part have 

I fto^UcSy some of whom are employed at the mills* 


of Lanark. 37 

Tt.e ages of the ycung people employed are as fellow. 
Of 6 years of age, 5 Of ii years of age, 99 

Of 7 33 Of 13 9» 

Oi 8 7i Of 14 7« 

Of 9 95 Of 15 68 

Of 10 <)3 Of 16 69 

Of II 64 Of 17 35 

The proprietor likewise employs in the parilh and 
r.ei^hbourhood 324 persons in weaving winding &c« 

The quantity of Cotton wool manufactured weekly a- 
mounts at an average to 69OOO libs. The yarn is part- 
ly manufactured into cloth here by the weavers above 
mentioned, and others in the proprietors employ ^ and 
partly sold to the manufacturers in Glasgow. 

Wich regard to the health of the work people, it is 
sufficient to say that of all the children provided with 
Ttkc-Ki aid clothing by the proprietoi amounting this and 
last year, lO 275 ; and for 7 years back, never fewer than 
80, only 3 have died during the period of seven years : 
in mentioning so extraordinary a fact, it may pet haps be 
expected th^t something ihonld be said of their diet 
* and treatment. 

The former consists of oatmeal porridge, with milk 
|a summer or sowens, i, e. oat-meal flummery, with milk 
an winter twice a day, as much as they can take, barley* 
broth for dinner made with good frefli beef every day ; 
and as much beef is boiled as will allow 7 ounces £a« 
glifh a piece each day to one half of the children, the other 
half get cheese and bread after their broth, so that 
they dine alternately upon cheese and butchermeat^ 
with barley bread or potatses ; and now and then in the 
pjroper season they have a dinner of herrings and potatoes. 
Tbey as well as the othen, begin work at^ six in the 


^ Siatiftical aeeouM 

monuBg^ are allowed half an hour to breakfast* an hour 
to dinner, and quit work at 7 at night ; after which 
they attend the school at the expence of the proprietor 
till 9. The J sleep in well ^ired rooms, three in a bed i 
•nd proper care is taken to remove tho^e under anj di- 
sease to seperate appartments; 

The great improvement arising from Mr Kelly's inven- 
tion of Jennies going by water, reduces very considera- 
bly the number of men that foriaerly were necefsary in 
working the common Jennies. Such being the case, 
widows with large families are much wanted here, as chil- 
dren can manage the patent Jennies with great ease, 
while their mothers are employed in other branches. 

Great attention is paid to the morals of children and 
others at these mills, of which the late incumbent was 
perfectly sensible. Large manufactories have sometimes 
been considered in another light, but Mr Pale and all 
concerned, must here have the voice of the pubhc to the 
contrary* Marriages have greatly increased in the pa- 
rifh since their erection^ as the benefits arising from a fa- 
mily are obvious. Indeed the anxiety of the proprietor 
to have proper teachers and instructers for children wilL 
ever redound to his honour. 

New Lanark. VHas been entirely built by the propria 
tor of the mills for the accomodation of his work people 
and the following is a state of its population at pre- 

Married persons. 
AVidpws and widowers. 








pf Lanark. > ^ 

Unmarried persons above %x year of age 15 %% 

Between ai and %% 



20 and 21 



19 and 10 



f 8 and i9 

/ xo 


17 and 18 



16 and 1.7 



ij and x6 



14. and 15 



13 and 14 



12 and 13 



II and i» 



10 and i< 



9 and lo 



8 and 9 



7 and 8 



6 and. 7 



5 and 6 



4 and 5 



3 «"d 4 



a and 3 



J and a 


. «4 

Between jjear old and i. 



under jjrearold. 



total. • 714 805 

total No. of souls 1519 

Amoag thes are 54 Jenny 7 Clockmatcrs, 

spinners, 5 Wearers, 

45 Labourers^ 3 Schoolmasters, 

I 40 SuaaticaJ adtomt 



1 1 fimithst 3 Shoemakers^ 

10 Wrights, 3 Turners, & 

8 Tmjlor8» 2 Merchants, 

9 masons, 

A great proportion of the inhabitants are Highlanders 
asostly from Caithnefs Inverncfs and Argylefhires. Few 
of those from the west understand £ng i(h. In 1791 a Yef- 
tel carrjing emigrants from ^he isle of Skj to North A- 
SDcfrxta, was driven by strefs of weather into Greenock ^ 
about 200 were put aihore in a very destitute situation. 
Mr Dale whose humanity is ever awske offered them im« 
mediate employment, which the greater bulk of them ac* 
ccpted : And eoon after with a view to prevent far- 
ther emigration to America he notified, to the people of 
Argyleibire and the isles, the encouragement given to fa* 
milies at iht cottonmills ; and undertook to provide hou* 
aes for aco families in the course of the 1792* these were 
all finiflied last summer, (1793) and a considerable num^ 
ber of Highlanders have cf late conx to reside at New 

Families from any quarter pofsefsed of a good moral 
characlcri and. having three children fit for work, above 
nine years of age, are received, — supplied with a house 
at a moderate rent, and the women and children provided 
;with work* The children, both those fit for work 
and those who are too young for it, have the privilege 
of attending the school gratis, the iornoer in the evenings 
the latter through the day. Three profefsed teachers are 
paid by Mr Bale for this purpose, aad also seven aisi- 
tanta who attend in the evenings, one of whom teaches 
imriting. There is ako a Sunday school at which all the 
jmaster*8 and abistants attend. 

q/* Lanarkk 41 

In New Lanark there is a fmall congregational meeting* 
houfe for thofe of the kOt commonly called Independents. 
The Highlanders have fomctimcs, though rarely, been favour- 
ed with a fetmon in Gaelic, by preachers of the church of 
Scotland : and it has been for fome time ill contemplation, to 
ere£t a church for conftant worfliip in that language, at lead 
for one half of the day. The Society for Propagating Chriftian 
Knowledge has been applied to for fome affiftance, which 
probably will be granted, feeing the want of public worfliip 
and in(lru£lion, among fo great a body of people, muft have 
a tendency to hurt the morals of the prefent, as well as to 
difcourage future fettlers from the* Highlands, and of confe* 
quence muft promote emigration. 

Before leaving this article of cotton mills, I cannot help 
noticing a circumftance peculiar to fuch manufactures^ 
which may afford a ufeful hint to poor widows with families. 
In moft other manufafbures, a woman who has a family, 
and becomes a widow, is generally in a moft helplefs fitua* 
tion. Here the cafe is very different, for the greater num* 
bcr of children the woman has, flie lives fo much the 
more comfortably ; and upon fuch account alone, (he is of- 
ten a tempting objeft for a fecond hufljand. Indeed, at cot- 
ton mills, it often happens, that young children fupport their 
aged parents by their induftry. 

Mr Dale has fct apart, and inclofcd apiece of ground clofc 
by the village, for a burying place. 

Character of the People^ i^c. The people are. In genera!, 
induftrious, though not remarkably fo. They are naturally 
generous, hofpitable, and fond of ftrangers, which induces 
them fometimeg to make free with the bottle ; but drunken- 
nefs, among the better clafs of inhabitants, is of late rather 
unufual. It is lefs fo among the other inhabitants ; but, 
upon the whole, they arc a decent and orderly people ; and 

Vol. XV. F cpmes 

4 i Statijlical Account 

crimes are feldomcr committed here, than in any other pari(h 
of equal population. The author knows of no native who has 
ever been tried for a capital crime. In fliort, they arc gene- 
rally honeft, decent, religious, and drift in their attendance 
on divine worfhip. Perhaps, there may be one or two indivi- 

> duals, who, cither from ignorance, or, from violence of 

temper, will not liften to the cool voice of reafon, who chime 
in with the ravings of the Friends cf the People^ as they call 
thcmfelves ; but the reft, although fomc may wifh for a mo- 
derate reform, have too much religion and found fenfe not 
to fee, that thofe people have neither experience nor know- 
• ledge in matters of that nature, and only grafp at feating 

thcmfelves in power upon the ruins of their country ; nor arc 
they fo weak, as not to profit from the example of a neigh- 
bouring kingdom, where Anarchy fits triumphant upon the 
guillotine^ with Murder at her back, trampling upon law, 
liberty, and religion, and treading the rights of mankind 
under her feet 

Eccleftajlical State. The King is patron of the parifli. 
Lord Douglas is titular of the tcinds of the borough 
f lands, and Mr Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath of the reft 

J •f the pariflb. The church, being built in 1777, is in very 

good repair. The manfc and office houfcs, being ereftcd at 
the late incumbent's entry in 1757, are not in fuch good or- 
der. The manfe, olBces, and garden, cover about a rood of 
ground. The glebe is fcrimply 4 acres ; but the incumbent 
' . is entitled to the grafs of the church-yard, and to common 
!ij|*. pafturagcin the moor. 

j;ij . The ftipend payable at prefent is as under, 

B. F. P. L. 



• 4 



In meal. 

87 I 2 2| 

In bear. 

9 3 I 2| 

In money. 

L. 493 3S, lod 

of Lanark. ,43 

which, with L. 35 69. 8d. Sterling of augmentation, obtained 
during the winter feflion 1792, will, at the common con- 
verfion, amount in whole to about L. 90 Sterling. 

Mr James Gray, the late incumbent, fucceeded Mr John 
Orr and was tranflated from Rothes to this parilh in 1756. 
No minider ever condu<a:ed himfclf with greater propriety. 
He never meddled with borough policies, but attended only 
to the duties of religion; and his pious and exemplary con- 
dudl will long be remembcrd by his parifhioners. Mr Wil- 
liam Menzies has of late obtained the prefrntation, is 
agreeable to all thf parifli, and has been favoured with an 
unanimous call. 

A very accurate and diftirifl: record of births and marri- 
ages is kept by the feflion cltrk, commencing in 1648. 

Po^. The poor's funds have been carefully and attentively 
kept, perhaps more fo than was abfolutely neceflary. When 
the funds for the poor are very confiderable, they become in 
fome degree an encouragement to idlenefs and diflipation \ 
befides, people do not give alms for the ufe of after genera- 
tions, but to fupply the neceflities of the prefent. It is true^ 
the Seflion may err in giving too much to the poor, yet fure- 
ly objects will always occur, among induftrious manufadlur- 
ers and tradefmen burdened with great families, where the 
bellowing of a very fmall pittance will not only benefit the 
receivers, but the whole parilh, and even the nation at large 

The number of town poor upon the feflion roll amounts to 
45, including 3 orphan children and a lunatic. The inter- 
eft of 400I. the fum amafled by the feflion *, the collections 
at the church doors \ the rent of 1 \ acre of land, with the 
fines from delinquents, and a confiderable proportion of the 
ikes for proclamation of banns, i t. marriages, have hitherto 
farmed the fund for their, fupply. 

F % The 

44 StatiJlicaJ Account 

The heritors of the landward part of the parifli meet half 
yearly, and aflefs themfclves for the maintainance of their 
poor. The number of their poor at prefent amounts to 1 1 ; 
and the afleflment, including clerk's falary, for laft year, to 
about 27I. This mode of providing for the poor, in the land- 
ward parifh, has been adopted fince the year 1750. Dr 
Anderfon, the editor of the Bee, inveighs warmly againft this 
mode of providing for the poor, alledging that it is contrary 
to law, and invariably followed by a gradual increafe of the 
number of poor- Whatever it may be in other places, from 
the record of this charity, it does not -appear that it has 
been the cafe in this pariQi. The lands belonging to St Leo- 
nard's hofpital, formerly noticed, are under the adminiftraf 
tion of the ma gift rates, and yield, cemmunihus annis^ about 
35I. yearly, divided among 40 poor perfons monthly. The 
different incorporations likewife divide fome money quarter- 
ly among the families of their deccafcd brethren : 30I. Scotch 

; are divided by the minifter and magiftrates, on the morning 

of the firft day of the year, among the poor b\irgeires. This 
is a mortification by James Lord Carmichael in the year 
1662. His lordfhip, in thofe days, had his town refidence 
in this burgh, and obferving the better fort of tiradesmen 
and inhabitants, celebrating the new year's day with feafting 
and merry making, he, from the benevolence of his difpofi- 
tion, as tradition fays, mortified (funk) a fum of money, the 
intereft of which is to be given to the poor, that they may 
like ways have it in their power to buy a hot pinty and partake 
|;|| in the general feftivity. 

Mifcellaneous ohfervations*. The inhabitants of the pariQi 

!l are fomewhat above the middle fize, ftrong built, and of a 




JL * A native of Lanark, one Robert Alexander, a wigmaker, and formerly 

P, i councillor and town treaforer, hat kept a reg[ular regiiler of the weather, 

public occorrences vitbtn t^e burgh, from 1755 downwards. 

«/■ Lanark. 45 

hale complexion. Their drefd is confiderably altered within 
thefe 20 years. A blue or black bonnet is now a fingular- 
ity \ hats are in general ufe ; and both fexes appear at 
church, or at a ball> with almoft as much elegance as the in« 
habitants of the capital. The dialed of the upper ward ot 
Clydefdalci as to pronounciation, is the fame with that fpoken 
in Edinburgh, differing materially from that of the middle 
and lower wards. 

Two cuftoms, almoft peculiar to the burgh bf Lanark, 
perhaps may here be noticed. The firft is a gala kept by the 
boys of the grammar fchool, beyond all memory, in regard 
to date, on the Saturday before Palm Sunday. They thea 
parade the ftreets with a palm, or its fubftitute, a large tree 
of the willow VxnAy faUx capr$a^ in bloflbm, ornamented with 
daffodils, mezereon and box-tree. This day is called Palm 
Saturday ; and the cuftom is certainly a Popifh relic of very 
ancient ftanding. The other is the riding of the marches^ 
which is done annually, upon the day after Whitfurtday fair, 
\>w the maglftrates ai^d burgeffes^ called here the landfmark 


He is now about 98 years of age, and, noewithftanding all kit paft fervice\ 
the only office he now can reach is that of parifli beadle. His annals con- 
fid of 5 or 6 M. S, odavo volumes ; and although fome of them are trifling, 
yet in general they are a curious and ufeful repofitory. 

An improvement, which may be followed with advantage in j»ther placet, 
took effed here about 30 years ago. A country fidler,but a man of penetra* 
tion, having made fome money, purchafed about 3 or 4 acres of ground, of a 
dry gravelly foil, confiding modly of doping banks, which did not yield above 
3I. los. altogether of yearly rent. Thefe grounds were fituated at the bot- 
tom of the town, within 30 or 40 feet of a rivulet, which, pafling throogk 
the town and butcher market, conveyed away a deal of manure, garbage^ &c 
The new proprietor, confcioui of the advantages derivable from this fource, 
was at a confiderable expence in driving a mine through thofe 30 or 40 feet 
of ground, (a high bank,} by which, in two or three years time he To enrich- 
ed his grounds, as to draw 14I annually of rent ; and now 40L Sterling « 
year has been refufcd for Uicfe very lands. 

46 Stati/lical Account 

er langemork day, from the Saxon langemark. It is evident- 
ly of Saxon origin, and probably eilablilhed here in the reign 
ofy or foqietime pofterior to Milcom I. 

The manners of the inhabitants, as tfi diet aild drink, are 
conGderaUy changed within thcCc 20 years, whicli may be 
exemplified fron\ the public entertainments of the magif- 
trates. Formerly their debauch was a moderate meal, wiih 
^ a few bottles of ale or porier, and a dram or two ; and, in 

gala days, a little punch. Now, they have fuperb enter- 
tainments, with punch, port, and even claret. The com- 
mon fuel of the paridi is coal. The (latute labour is com- 
muted. All animals, common to the fouth of Scotland, are to 
be found here. Rabbets, however, arc now entirely rooted 
out^: pheafants, fiippofed from Hamilton houfe, have fome- 
dmes been (hot in the parifh. 

There are few pigeon houfes in the parifli. Crows are nume- 
rous, and do a great deal of mifchief ; as do alfo hares, par- 
ticularly to the fruit trees. The laws, made for the prefervation 
cf game, were certainly never meant to preyent proprietors or 
tenants from defending their property againft fuch depreda- 
tors ; and little fcruple need be made of dcftroying any -one 
of thofe animals, when hurting the property of individuals, 
though it certainly would be a violation of the law, to do it 
for the fake of game alone. 

jidvafitages and D'ifad'oantages. Perhaps no fingle pari(h 
in Scotland affords more eligible (ituations for mills of all 
kinds thai\ this parilh. Sir Richard Arkwright, when here 
in 1824, was ailoniihed at the advantages derivable from 
the falls of Clyde, and exultingly faid, that Lanark would 
probably in time become the Manchefter of Scotland; aspo 
place he had ever fcen afforded better fituations, or more 
ample ftreams of water for cotton machinary. 


tf Lanark. 47 

Lmark, however, has two obftacles to manufafittres* 
The fir ft, the poverty and uncultivated ftate of the countrj 
around, and indeed of die whole upper ward of Lanarkfture^ 
from which circumftance meaU and almoft every other arti- 
cle, is dearer than at Edinburgh or Glafgow, coals and po- 
tatoes excepted. But were the country in an improved ftate, 
arfd did proprietors and huft)andmen do their utmoft to im- 
prove the foil, this drawback, in the courfe of a few years, 
might be got the better of. The next obftacle is the great 
diftance, that raw materials are to be carried ; and the badnefs 
of the roads. Lanark is 24 miles from Glafgow, and 30 
from Edinburgh : the road to Edinburgh is an exceeding good 
one, but that to Glafgow, which is the principal market, is 
exceedingly bad ; befides, it encounters with a very deep 
ravine, formed by the Moufs within a mile of Lanark. This 
difadvantage is in fome meafure doing away, by a new road 
now forming by Lanark bridge \ over which it crofles to Lcf- 
mahago parifh, and from thence runs along the immediate 
banks of the Clyde by Hamilton to Glafgow. The pulls 
here are confiderably lefs than in the former road, and, when 
finiflied, which will berin fpring 1794, it will form one of 
the moft beautiful and romantic roads in Scotland. This, 
however, is a partial remedy, nor can any thing efieAual 
be done to overcome the difadvantage, unlefs the fouthern 
traft of the canal between Edinburgh and Glafgow were to 
be adopted. 

The want of a flour mill not only obftrufts improvements 
in agriculture, but puts the inhabitants under the neceffity 
of ufmg oat and barley bread, or of buying wheaten bread 
at a great price -, all which could be cafily remedied. The 
community of Lanark has a com mill upon jMoufs water, 
which, at a very little cxpence, might be enabled to grind 
both wheat and oats. Encouragement would there be given 



Statijlical Account 

to the introdudion of wheat crops ; and the inhabitants 
would be enabled to live more comfortably, wheaten bread 
hcing of all others the mod wholcfome. 

It is of great difadvantagc to manufaftures, that Lanark 
moor, fo improvable and fo near the town, (hould remain 
in a ftatc of nature t we already owe a great deal to Mi* 
lioneyman ; and if the magiftrates cannot difpofe of ariy 
i^Tore of it, on account of the fervitude of the burgefics, they 
may follow the example of the town of Ayr, and inclofc 
that portion of it which is nigheft the towii, to anfwer for 
this fervitude ; and were it divided into two inclofures, the 
cattle could pafture alternately in both; the fouth moor 
would be fully adequate for this purpofe,* and after fetting 
afide part of the north moor for fuel and divot, the reft of 
It may be either difpofed of to one proprietor, or, which would 
be of greater confequencc to the burgh, the magiftrates 
may feu fmall lots to the weavers and others, efpecially a- 
long the high-way leading from Lanark to Edinburgh, very 
fivourable to the ere£lion of a village or villages. Thofc 
parts neareft the town would certainly yield equal feu duty 
with thofe at Kirkfield bank, viz. 61. or 81. tlic acre; be- 
fides, if a village was once erefted, a demand for ground in 
the neighbourhood would naturally follow ; fo that the ma- 
giftrates would be enabled to let pieces of their moor at leaft 
as high as 5s. the acre, and the whole remainder of the moor 
would in time be brought under culture. 

• This plan would favc the ncceflity and ctpcnce of two common herds i 
the fees, however, ought ilill to be paid to the magiftrates, and th^ money 
srifmg therefrom flioald be laid out on lime, to be fprcad upon the heathy 
parts to iweeten the paflure. Nor would it be deemed an improper exac- 
tion, were the magiftrates to ordain, that every burgcfs, on getting a cart of 
divots or turf from the moor, flioulJ, in return, lay a cart of dung upon the 
ir.clofe4 CQXBmoD. 


ofSbotis. 49^ 



(County of Lanark, Presbytery of Hamilton, 
Synod of Glasgow and Ayr.) 

By the Rev. Mr Archibald Bruce, Minijicr. 

hamcy Situation, and Extents 

X ^1$ pariQi, in the public records, is called BertraU 
Shotts. The name feexns explanatory of nothing pecu- 
liar ^o the place, and the accounts of tradition are fo ap^ 
parently fabulous, as far to exceed the. belief of even th^ 
mod credulous antiquarian. Shott3 is fituated in the north- 
eaft pqint of Lanarkftire. It is one of the largefl lowland 
pariihes in Scotland, forming nearly an oblpng fquarc, lo 
miles in length, and 7 in breadth. 

$«// and Valine. — ^The lands which lie towards the corner 
of the parilh are a mixture of clay and fand ^ will yield ^ 
bolls an acre, and ;nay be rented at 9 s. Thofe tQMrards the 
S. £. are of a black foil, and will yield 4 bolls an acre ; 
rent 7 s. Along the |preater part of the S. and the whole 
Vol. XV. Q W- fid^ 

5^ Statijlkal Account 

W. fide of the parifli, the foil is chiefly clay, and will yield 
i| j- bolls an acre, rent 8 s. By travellers palling along the 
great road, Shotts is reckoned but a barren and bleak part 
of the kingdom. There is, however, on the S. W. boundary 
of this parifh, a trad of ground, ^ miles fquare, that is lit- 
tle inferior to great part of the land upon the Clyde. It 
yields at an average 6 bolls an acre ; rent^ 133. The lands 
in the centre, and along the north fide of Shocts, are of a black 
foil, and chiefly fitted for pafture ; when plowed they may 
yield from 3 to 4 bolls each acre ; the grain is but of an in* 
ferior quality 5 the rent 5 s. an acre. That part of the 
country lying on each fide of the great road, at the entry in- 
to this parifli from the Eaft, was not many years ago nearly 
in its original ftate. This the traveller now fees is fubdividcd, 
and by ftoncs raifed from the furfacc of the land cnclofed, 
in a way which promifes to laft for ages to come. The pro- 
#«4krictQr, * by continuing his operations, with the true fpirit 
of an improver, has at once beautified the country, and 
nearly tripled the value of his etlate. A little weft from 
the kirk of Shotts, and upon the great road, the traveller fees 
a fmall tra<ft of country neatly inclofed. Its produce, with- 
in thefe few years, was little more than the Thrafh ; but by 

^.1 the well dire£led induftry of its proprietor^, it has for fome 

feafons paft yielded crops which vye with thofe of a much bet- 
ter foil. Round the manfion-houfe, which ftands in the mid- 
p die of this lately improved fields there are feveral beltsof plant- 

[ ing, which continue to thrive beyond expectation. Were the 

liil like fpirit transfufed into neighbouring proprietors, a coun- 

i try, hitherto but bleak, might be made more comfortable to 

'/j its inhabiunts, and have a better name abroad. 

!*t'l Manure. — The manure, which fuits all the foils of this 

cxtenfivc parifli, is lime and compoft. The full half of this 
compoft (hould confift of dried turf^ the remaining part of 

^ Sir JosN Inolis of Cramond. \ WLr Datio Youno of little H«irih&w. 




ofSbotts. SI 

dung. Tliis mixture the experienced farmer prefers to pure 
dung, as it is a much better fecuiity againft worms, con- 
tinues longer in the field, and encreafes the foil, where the 
till or gravel comes near the furface. The induftrious far-, 
mer here cafts^ each feafon a quantity of curfj the more ben* 
ty the better ; this, wH^n properly dryed, he (lacks up, and 
after it has been ufed a competent time in byre and ftable, be* 
low and around the cattle, it is carried to the 4unghill. When 
from this it goes to the field, it is fo completely rotten, that 
it yields a manure much fuperior to the compoft mixed in 
the field. By alternate ftrata of this turf and (beep's dung, 
much excellent manure is carried from the fold to the field. 
Crops — Upon the fummer fallow, or field to be broken up, 
the fpirited farmer lays on nearly four chalders of flacked 
lime, with a hundred (ingle carts of the compoft above de« 
fcribed. * The 2d, or perhaps the 3d c;rop of corn, he l^ys 
down with rye-grafs. This for the firft year docs very well i 
but (houM the field be cut a fecond time, through the luxu- 
nancy of the natural grafs the fown fc^rc^ appears. In the 
lower parts of the parifh, a crop of peafe comes in between 
the two crops of com. With the rye-grafs alfo a proper 
quantity of clover is here (own. The produ^ the firft year 
(and there ought to be no more,) may be 200 ftones* The 
ground, after this fucce(&on of crops, being pafiurpd 3 years, 
the fame rotation again cqmmeo^ces. Lint is often a profi»> 
table crop in this pariih, eijfher after the Mt crop of com, 
after peafe, or upqp potatoe hind. A peclf: of feed will yield 
4 ftones of flieaf lint. The be^r crop through Shotts has of 
late been mujcfa diicontinued : for (his the (^fihefs of the foil 
in part accounts } but there is another reafon ^hich weighs 
more with the farmer. Bear requires that quantity of un- 
mixed dung, which prevents him from making compoft for 
his outfields, a circumftance of late much attended to in this 

p a Rivirs, 


ii StatiJHcal Account 

ices in this diftrift. The one of thefc rifes In 'the N, E. cornet 
bf'th'e pari(h,and in*its'progfefst(rrib«rai^,dividirtgShotufrom ' 
Torphichen and KcwmonkUnd, ftll« itito the Ctydc 5 -miles 
above Glafgow. The other Ciilder rifes in the S. E. conM?r of 
this pariQi, and moving towards the Clyde iiearly in the &m^ 
direcSlion with the former, in its coutfe dhrides Shotts from 
Cambufnethan. The waters affo of Avbn and Crsfmond 
"have their firft rife in this pirifli. The Avon, foon after 
leaving bliotts, bends its courfe n tthward, and empties itfelf 
into the Firth of Forth near ^rrowftownhefs. The Cramofid, 
tetween its fourcc and Wid Caldcr, croflcs the great Edinburgh 
5R.oad three timds, and empties itfelf into the fame Firth at^ 
the village and kirk, 'to "which, in all probability, it gave the 

' liamcs. 

A ' Hills and Yro/p/^s.-^Tht Hirjihyi lies a mite E. from the 

^ i !pirk of Shbtts. t)ver thisliill the TOad leading from GlaG 

gow to Edinburgh has, for time immemorial, continued to 
pafs. Here it is fuppofed are tne Mgheft cultivated l:inds ii^ 
Scotland ; this however is thought to be only a popular mif- 
take ; according to General Roy's m^rtfuration, the Hirft b 
upon a level with the Clyde 5 miles above Lanark. There 
are two caufes which feem to have led into this miftake ; 

' 'i the waters hereiffuing from their fourccs, at a fmall diilance 

from cacli other, filn in quite oppofitc direftioiis ; it fol- 
lows not, howeter, from this, that the Hirft rifes to the height 
fuppofed •, but only that in this prccife pt>l«t, the Hirft is the 
liigheft land'bet^eefn the Friths of Forth and Clyde, the two 
Teas into which all thefe waters empty f h^mfelves. In every 
'dircftion alfo from" this hill, flie' country not only begins to 
fall, but wherever oiie turns his eye, for upwards of ab miles, 
no objefl: comes in to mar the View, All the fpacc'there- 
'fore between the Hirft, upon which the fpeftator ftands, and 




^ yShotts. 53 

the f90gt of mouDtaiiis \pliioli, in oppoGce direflions, bound 
Iris profpe^) ieecixs funk beneath him ; though in fa£l^ at a 
certain point fouthward the country begins to ri(e> and the 
Cly4c> 5 miles S. £. of Lanark, is upon a level with the (pot 
On "which he ft^nds. The Tilling and Cant hills, the one a 
little norths and tlie otbsr ^ little fouth of the kirk of Shotts;, 
ihould here alfo be mentioned, not lb much on account of 
their apparent magnitude, as for the wondcxfolly extended 
Iprpfpefi;, which In^ommon with the Hirft thoy afford. From 
the Cant hill8» 6 complete fhires, with 41 .part of 8 more, are 
feen. Here the 'Whole couifl^y, from Arthur!s Seat to the 
'hills in Arran, and'the weftern termination of the Grampian 
-JlaDge, fills the eye. While theobfetver turns round, car- 
drying his eye from S.. to N. the whole fpace from the Pent- 
land, Tinto and Loudon hills^ on the one hand, to the Lo^ 
mMd, the'Ochil, and Campfie heights, on die other, fuccef* 
fiTely comes under his view. Into this dCtenfive^profpeAi 
with the hills already mentioned, enter the towns of Glaf- 
gbw, Paifley, 'and Hamilton, with Tillages and gentlemens 
feats not to be numbered. This great ftretch of country, a 
few miles S. E. of Shotts excepted, lias the appearance of 
much richnefs and cultivation. 

Pfffpriettnrs* nnd i?/«/.— Byrarious £iles on the part of the 
feuers, the number of heritors now in theparifli-of Shotts 
havearifcn to. 45. The chief of thefe are the Duke of Ha- 
milton, Gavin Inglis of 'MurdiAon, Sir J(An Inglis'of Cra- 
rhond, and Col. WilKam Dalrymplc of Ckland. Of thefe 
. 45 

* The whole of thw eitenfive parUb, die lands of Blairmaclu excepted, 
uhich' formerly were the property of the X.aird of Dandafs, but now of Sir 
John Inglis of Cramond, from the year 1378, down to the year 1630, belong* 
ed to the family of Hamilton. The Mirqois of Hamiltonj aj tho lafi of thefe 
'p£riod«|lbld otft the greater part of this czteoiive Barony. 

54 Statijiical Account. 

45 there may be about ii, all of whofe property dott not 
annaaljy yield looo merks Scotch. The valaed rent of 
Shotts is 6566L Scotch. The real rent exceeds 4500I. Ster- 

Roads. — ^The great road, which at prefent leads from Glaf- 
gow to Edinburgh) pafles through this pariih, and divides it 
nearly into two equal parts. In this» as in the other rosKis 
formed at that period, a ftrcight rather than a level line was 
fought. To this abfard and inconGderate idea, are many of 
the pulls in it to be afcribed. A (nil has been lately obtain- 
ed, to carry a road from Glafgow to Edinbuigh, by tlie vil- 
lages of Ardrie and Bathgate. In this bill there is alfo a 
chufe, hnpowering Colonel Dalrympie of Cleland to make a 
line, which leaves the Shotts road at Bells-hill, and returns to 
it at the confines of Whitburn parifh. Each of thefe pafs 
though this parifli, the fifft, two miles N. of the Church, tlie 
iecondy two miles S. of it. In felf defence, the truftees upon 
the Shotts roads have now in many places eafed the pulls in 
it greatly ; and to avoid the Hirft altogether, the road is now 
carried nearly in a dead level, rpund the north end of that 
hilL The advantages derived by the public, from the late 
wonderful improvement upon roads, are indeed aftoni(hing. 
The journey which, 40 years agO| the traveller could only 
aecompliih in t^'O days, he now executes in five or iix hours* 
The expedition, and encreafed burden of draught horfes are 
equally ftriking> and ftiU more beneficial. The (latute wor|c 
of this parUh, though it be commuted, and very regularly le- 
vied, is far from being fuflkient to keep the many ro«^ds, in 
fo wide a di(lri£l of country, in any tolerable repair. 

Ecdeftajlical State. — ^The prefent kirk of Shotts is a long 
narrow buildings fituated due £. and W. What changes 
it has undergone^ fince its creation in 145O1 do not ap- 


ofSbotts. 55 

pear * • It got a few repairs feme years ago ; much remams 
Aill to be doire in this way. The manfe was built in the 
year 1700* Before Mr Brace's admiffion, it had undergone 
repeated repairs. At that period 100 guineas were laid out up- 
on it, which have rendered it, though hi a very expofed fitua- 
tion, abundantly fnug and convenient., The'glebe confifts of 
44 acres. It might rent as a fmall farm at 13K or 14I. Ster- 
ling. In it there is a feam of coal, of the fplint or parrot kiad, 
fully 3 feet thick; There are here two ftrata of iron, ftone, 
the one refling immediately upon the coal, the other a. foot 
nearer the furface, each from 4 to 6 inches thick : there is, at 
a fmall diftance from tliis, another feam of coal upon the 
glebe, of the fmiddy or drofs kind ; this being only two feet 
thick, would, in a country like Shotts, (though it be of an ex- 
cellent quality) nearly exhauft its value in working. The 
living of Shotts, manfe, glebe, and fire included, is worth 
140L Sterling. The Seceders ;^e much more numerous than 
the members of the Eftabliflied Church :(. 

School. The fchool-mailer of Shotts, as in many other places 
of Scotland, adis as feifion-clerk. Th^ emoluments, annex- 
ed to hb office, may be about 31. los. The quarterly allow- 
ance for each fcholar taught EngUfli is 2od. writing as. Latin 

, and 

• Anciently the pariih of Bo t swell extended from the Clyde, (wa(hin|p 
along its S. W. borders) all the way to the confines of Weft Lothian. To 
accommodate the inhabitants in the Eaftem parts of this great parifh^thefirft 
Lord Hamilton, in the year 1450, built a chapel where the kirk of Shoctt 
DOW ftands, called Si Catharime^j Cbrnpel, being dedicated to Sr Catuaeiks 
of Sib UNA. Tt was not, however, till after the Refocmation, that the coun- 
try round this chapel was totally detached from Bothwell, and er^dted into a 
feparate pariih. 

I After a ftniggle which lafted tipwards of fix years, the fettlement of Mr 
JL.AURXNCB Wells, late incumbent in Shotts, was at length efieded in the 
year 1768. Soon after this, a meeting-houfe was boilt, to which the great 
majority of the people called a Burgher clergyman. 


Statijlieal Account 

and Arithmetic 2S 6d. During the harvcft vacation, which 
lafts about two months, the fchoolmafter receives no wages. 
Suppofing the fcholars at an average to be 2;, each at a 
medium yiddJng 2S., the teacher earns yearly by his fchool 
H. 6s. 8d. ; befides an offering given by the fcholars at Candle- 
mas, With a free houfe, 2t. los. ; thefe, with a yearly falary of 
160 merks Scotch, give the fchoolmafter 19!. 17s. ^d. pit an^ 
numy a provifion too fcanty, for the comfbrtable fubfiftence of 
one qualified to difcharge the duties of this important office* 
There has, for this reafon, been thefe 30 years paft a fuc- 
ceflion of teachers in Shotts, unknown, it is fuppofed, in any 
other part of the kingdom. It is painful to add, that, cither 
through the total want of a fchool-mafter, or the carelefsnefs, 
Ae imprudence, -or incapacity of thofe in this office, the ris- 
ing generation, for thefe ten years pad, have, in the golden 
feafon (>f youth, -been in a great raeafure prevented from ac- 
quiring that knowledge, and thofe habits, which, in the fub- 
fequentpartof life, can render them good men, and good 
citizens. For the fame reafon, oonnefted with the- carclcfs- 
ncfs, if not obftinacy of Secedcrs, the pariffa records of Shotts 
are fo extremely inaccurate and deficient, that no decifion, 
even for the fmalleft average, could reft upon their evidence. 
Poor. — ^The poor in Shotts, for many years paft, have been 
fupported by aflcfTmcnt. Upon the firft Tuefdays of Feb- 
xxiary and Auguft» agreeable to aft of Parliament, the heri- 
tors and ciders meet in a conjunft body. After the num- 
ber to be admittted upon the roll, and the fupply to be grao- 
fed eachclaimant, are fettled, the fum wanted for the enfu<* 
ing fix months is laid on. This the treafurcr is authorifed to 
to levy, the one half from the heritors, the other half from 
the tenants, in proportion to their feveral valuations. At 
each meeting a ftanding committee is alfo appointed, to fu- 
pcrintiend the operations of the treafurcr, and to give advice 


ofSbotts. 57 

ot fupply upon extraordinaiy emergencies The number 
upon the poor*s roll of Shotts may be, communibus annisj from 
20 to 28. The alloix'ance granted to individuals may We 
each month from 2 s. to 6 s : It often happens that there 
are pcrfons (landing in need of temporary relief, who wifli 
not to be put upon the roll. Their cafe at each meeting is 
ulfo confidered, and a reafonable allowance granted. The 
fum, annually rcquifite for all the above mentioned purpofes> 
may be about 50 1. Sterling; of which, 40I. or therea- 
bout, is raifcd by aficiTment; the mort- cloths and kirk-dues 
make up for the red. This plan, in a pariQi like Shotts^ 
where the Seflaries are fo numerous, and the heritors of the 
greateft valuation do not refide, feems to be the only equi- 
table one which can be adopted. 

Population^ — ^The enlargement of farms has produced the 
fame cffefls in Shotts that it has produced in other places. A- 
long the N. and £« fides of this parifh, the property of 
the Duke of Hamilton, and Sir John Inglis of Cramond, the 
number of inhabitants is much diminiihed. Of this, the 
ruins of many cottages, and even of fome farm fteadings, afford 
the mod fatisfaAory proofs. The pari(b> however, it would 
appear, has of late been upon the increafe : Within thefe 12 
years there have been built in it, and are now poileiled, 35 
cottages and 3 farm (leadings, for this the late increafe of 
travellers upon the great road, and the Omoa Iron work^tuf" 
ficiently account. The total decreafe within thefe 40 years 
is Aated, along with other particulars, in the following table : 

Population table of the parish of Shotts. 

No. of fouls in 175 J, as returned to Dr Webdcr 2322 

Ditto in 1793 - - - 2C4C 

Decreafe • s- • , 281 

Vol. XV. H Acig. 

5-8 Statijlical Account 

' k 



jl Ages and Sexes. Males, Females. Total 

ij Perfons under 15 years of age, 384 324 708 

li Ditto above that age, - 60 1 73 z 1333 

ii In all 985 1056 2041 

y ' Proprietors, Artists, &c. 

t-A Alajlerj. yourMeymtm or jff^^reHticej. TvtaL 

;ij No. of heritors, refident - - - 29 

— Ditto, non-refident - - 16 

— ^Clergymcn, - - - a 

— School-maftcrs, - - -3 

— Surgeons, - i ' - i 

— ^Weavers*, - - ^3 ^9 4^ 

— ^Licenfed ale and fpirit fellers, - - 10 

-^Smiths, - 4 26 

— Shoemakers, - 10 4 14 

— Tailors, - 12 2 14 

•—Coopers, - - i - i 

—Colliers, - - . i5 

— Miners employed at the iron work, ^ 80 

I I Religious persuasions. 

' ■ t, 

No. of families belonging to the Eftablifhed Church, 122 
Ditto Burgher Seceders, - -» - 363 

Ditto Antiburghcrs, - - - 16 

Ditto Cameronians, - - - -17 

Total number of families, 5 1 8 

Climate. — TIk climate varies confiderably, in the different 

» [i parts of this widely extended parifh. In the low parts of it, 

llretching South, and South-Weft, the air is fenfibly milder 


* Of thefe 19 ^e employed in faAory work, and 23 in country work. 


(^, Sbotts. 59 

than in the country round the church. An impenetrable tili, 
lying at the bottom of a thin ipungy black foil, keeps the fur- 
face generally moift ; this, with the want of (helter from iri- 
clofureSi and belts of planting, renders the air more penetra- 
ting and chill than in other parts of the country, even of 
the fame height, where thefe improvements have been fo 
happily introduced The inhabitants, however, of Shotts are 
equally, if not more healthy, than thofe who live in a warm- 
er climate*. From the quantity of fuel with which people 
of all ranks are here fo plentifully fupplied, dampnefs with- 
in doors produces none of thefe rheumatic difdrders, fo pre- 
valent in warmer climates, where this neceffary article is, 
from it& expence, almoft denied to the bulk of the people. 
The renowned and immortal Dr Cullsn, (who began his 
career in this parifh,) when talking upon this fubjed, ufcd 
to fay that Shotts was the Montpelier of Scotland. 

Collieries. — By feveral late trials, conneftcd with former 
difcoveries, it now appears, that the whole country along the 
South fide of the great road, from the confines of Whitburn 
parifh, is, for lo miles Weft, and 6 South, all covered with 
coal. In the parifh of Shotts^ which occupies a confidcrable 
part of this great fpace, there are 4 collieries- The firft of 
thefe is Benhary the property of Sir John Inglis of Cramond : 
with this coal, which is of the beft quality, the whole country 
weft of Edinburgh upon the great road is chiefly fupplied \ 
nine miners have here conft^nt employn^ent. Thefe bring 
annually from the pitt 1 2,000 carts, weighing each cart near- 
ly 7 cwt. The price at the hill, within diefe few years, has 
rifen from 1$. to i8d. a cart ; the total annual produ£l of 
this work is pool. Sterling, of which fum, at 6d. each cart, 

H 2 30CI. 

• Withio thefe 4 years, three oU perfons have died in the parlAi of Shoct« ; 
the firft, at his death, was eotered into the 90th year of his age, the oCher in 
the 92d, and the third in the 88th year of his age. 

6e ^ Stati/lical Account 

300I. Sterling goes to the miners. Hellis Rigg coal, the pro- 
perty of Colonel William Dalrymplc of Clcland, lies 3 miles 
weft of Benhar. The feam is only 22 inches thick ; the pro- 
prietor here employs 3 miners, more with a view to two 
ftrata of iron ftone, of an excellent quality, than to the coal, 
which» partly from its inferior qaality,- and partly from want 
of market, fells at is. the cart, the purchafcr pleafingbimfelf as 
to quantity. Mr Cleland of Auchinlee, and Mr Cuming of 
Crofs*ha1I, tov^afds the Weft end of tlie parifli,hav^ great fields 
of coal upon their lands. Mr Cleland's feam is upwards of 3 
feet thick. Mr Cuming's in fome places is 3, and in other 
places 9 feet thick \ each of thefe gentlemen at prefent only 
employ two miners ; but did the falc profpcr, it would give 
bread to a much greater number. Mr Cuming's coal is con- 
ntGttA, both with the ball and ftratum ironvftone. 

Fuel. — Plentiful as the coal is through this parifli, yet, in 
the middle, and along the north fide of it, peat is chiefly ufcd. 
This is almoft at every man's door, and is prepared :u a time 
when, according to the mode of farming here pra^iced, little 
elfe is done. 

Propofed CanaL — A canal leading from Edinburgh to Glas- 
gow was laft feafon the fubje£l of much converfation. Of th{ 
three traSs propofed, if coal be the leading obje£l, the one 
South of the kirk of Shotts furely merits the preference. 
Beds of free-ftoiie, fame of them of a very fine gr^in, arc fre- 
quent in this parifh, and the whin-ftone in the centre of it 
may be faid to be inexhauftible. 

Iron WVij.-T-The Omoa iron work, the property of Co- 
lonel William Dairymple of Cleland, lies on the confines of 
this parifli, towards the South- Weft. It was erefled in 1 787. 
The fituation of this work is peculiarly eligible. The Colonel 
has throughout his eftate here, which is of conGderable ex- 
tent, a feam of coal 2 feet 5 inches thick 5 2 feet sbove the 



ofSbotts. 6i 

coal, ball iron-ftonc is found, the balls lying pretty near each 
other. This (lone is fupcrior to any thing of the kind, hither- 
to found in this part of the country : 3 c wt. of calcined ftonc 
yield 1 c wt. of metal \ it fmelts alfo without the help of iron 
ore. . Two feet nearer the furface there are two ftrata of iron 
ftone, each from 6 to 9 inches thick. Below the 2 feet 5 
inches of coal, there is another coal 9 feet in thicknefs, of an 
excellent quality. There is here each day raifed 36 tons of 
coal, 26 tons of which go to the furnace ; the other ten, from 
their fmallnefs, being unfit for charring, either ferve to blow 
the engine, or are fold to the country. Nine tons of calcined 
ftone a- day go to the furnace, which cads at the interval of 
1 8 hours, and yields about two tons of pig iron, generally of 
an excellent quality. There is here a cupola blown by the en- 
gine, which produces caft work of any form employers pleafe. 
Orders of this fort, anfwered by Colonel Dalryniple, have 
given great fatisfa£lion. The cqal is raifed here from i8d 
to 2od per ton, (the coal falling below 4 inches fquare ex^ 
cepted), which brings the miner only 94d. a ton : Ball iron 
ftone in railing 28. 6d : Stratum iron ftone i8d.,, There axe 
employed here 40 miners, befides other 40 fmelters andper- 
, fons otherwife engaged, and 1 2 horfes. The weekly expencc 
at this work is Sol Sterling, which finding its way to farmers 
and workmen of every clafs in the neighbourhood, improves 
their fituation beyond what hitherto they had experienced, 
in this inland country. Another iron work is, againft the en- 
fuing fpring, (1794,^ to be qrcdled upon Mr David Young's 
lancis of Little HairQiaw, which ly about a mile S. W. of the 
kirk of Shotts. The gentlemen engaged in this work fay, 
there is throughout the parifh of Shotts fuch a profufion of 
coal and iron ftone, as might, and in all probability foon will 
employ feveral fuch furnaces as the one now blown in it. 


t± Statifikal Account 

Should this prophecy be verifiedi wh&t a change in the ap* 
pearance and produfi of Shottt may be expeAed ! 

Prises of Labour and Provi/hns. — An expert pl^aghmatl 
gets 1 2I. Sterling annuiilly ; an afliftanl ibout 1 8 years old, 61. 
Sterling ; a herd about 12 years old, through the hefding fea- 
fon, 20s; a dairymaid, or houfe fehrdiit, annually, 3L i6»; 
each of thefe have bed and board fumiihed ; a day-labourer 
hdm March to November 1 4d a-day ; the four remaining 
months 1 id a«day. During the harveft feafon, men reccfv^ 
I4d. women lod. with ^roviGons futniflicd. A tailor geti 
8d. tkrith his viftuals ; a mafon artd carpenter, each finding 
their own provifions, aod. Each of thefe claflea of labourers 
have, within thefe lad eight years, rifen one third in their de- 
mands 5 at ptefent, however, wages feem tather to be moving 
in alt oppofite direftion.— ^-Meal throughout this country 
may be rated at i^d. a peck below the Glafgo^ market. The 
great quantities of Merfe meal brought from the Dalkeith 
market, and cartied through this patifh to Glafgaw, con- 
tribute chiefly to produce this effeft. Frefh butter fells at 
M. a pound ; falted butter fjer ftone las ; ftim'd milkcheefe 
5s. 4d. a ftone ; butter and cheefe Weight 22 oz ; a hen i4d -, 
chickens from 8d. to lod. a paif, eggs 5d a dozen. Carriers 
picking up and carrying thefe articles, either to Glafgow or 
Edinburgh, heighten their prices very much to thofe who 
dwell upon the great road. 

Emitiint Men. — Shotts has given birth to two perfons ftill 
i^iveofvcrydiftinguifhcd merit •, viz. Gavin Hamilton Efq; 
of Murdifton, the mofl: celebrated hiftory painter now in 
Europe, and John Miller, Efq;* profeflbr of law, in the 
univerGty of Glafgow, well known to the world by his in- 
genious publications. 

• This gentleman is by miUakc rcprefcntcd a» a native of Hamilton ; 
Stat. Account Vol a page aoa. 

of Sbqttf. «3 

Atitiqulties There is upon tlie great road, immediately 

below the church, a copious fountain of excellent wat;er, 
known by the name of Catis er Kate's WelL This name it no 
doubt got from St. Catharine to whom it wa$ dedicated* A« 
bout a mile South^Weft from the kirk, there is a fmall conical 
mount, called Laws-caftle. This name feems to indicate, that 
fome fprtrefs had once ftood upon it \ but if there ever did, 
there is no ve&ige of it now remaining, except perhaps a 
quantity of ftones of enormous weight and fize, 

Characierofihe People, — Although there are lo houfes 
licenced to fell malt and fpiritous liquors of home manu- 
fdclure, they are chiefly fupported by the travellers on the 
great road. Even in thofe parts of the pariih, where public 
houfes abound moft, intemperance is not a prevailing vice. 
The people, with a few exceptions, are indullrious and fo- 
ber. Since the prefent minifter's conne£^ion with Shotts, 
' and he believes for many years before that period, criminal 
profccutions have been unknown, one profecution for mur- 
der excepted, where the libel .was not proven. Each, it 
would appear, fober and contented with the fruits of his own 
induftry, feels but little of thofe paflions whofe indulgence 
terminate in ignominy and death. 

Advantages and Dif advantages, — ^The perfeft command of 
fuel is the principal advantage which the inhabitants of tills 
parifti enjoy. It is rather furprifmg that this circumftance, 
connedled with fo eafy an intercourfe between Glafgow and 
Edinburgh, has not, long ere now, paved the way to the in- 
trodu£tion and growth of manufa£tures in Shotts. This, 
however, had not trade lately received fo fevere a check by 
the war, would in all probability foon have been the cafe. 
The fields of mofs with which, for two miles on each fide 
of the great road, this parifli is interfe£led, are a difadvantage 
from which the proprietors of Shotts can promife themfelves 


64 Statijlical Account 

no deliverance. The flatnefs of the fields^ and the barren 
hill) which lies at the bottom of the mofs) exclude every idea 
of cultivation, from the mind even of the moft adventurous 
improver. It may be added, as another difadvantage, that 
throughout this extenfivc parifti there are but two or three fmall 
villages, and that in other parts of it the houfes are fo dif* 
tan^ from each other, that the education of children cannot 
be obtained, without much fatigue to the young one?, and cx- 
pcnce to the parents. 


of Locbwinnoch. ^5 



(County of Renfrew, Presbytery oe Paisley, Synod 
OF Glasgow and Ayr.) 

By the Rev. Mr James Steven, Minijler. 

Name J Exfeniy Soil and Surface^ isfc, 

m, j OCHwiNNocH feems to be derived from the large locli or 
lake, which is nearly in the center of the pariQi, and St. 
Winnoch^ or Jfinnioci\ under whofe protection it was fuppot 
fed to have been placed in the dark ages, and whofe name 
ftill remains, although his hiftory is buticd in oblivion* This 
parifli extends to about 6 miles iquare. The foilis extreme- 
ly various. The higher grounds, exclufive of muir, coih 
fiftof a light dry foil on whin-ftone, or rotten rock, and pro^ 
d\^ce a great quantity of very rich grafs and natural white 
clover. The lower grounds conilfl: of clay and loam, and 
produce good crops of every kfnd. 
Vol, XV. ' 1 CiimaU, 

06 Statiftical Account 

Clmaie^ Dlfeafesj Hillsj ^c. — ^Thc air is rather moift, from 
the frequent rains which prevail in the weftern parts of Scot- 
land, but this circuinftance does not appear to z^cGt the 
health of the inhabitants, many of whom die of old age. 
Confumptions, fevers, and fore throats, are the mod com- 
mon difeafes in this parifli. The moft remarkable hill in 
the pari(h is the Mifiy-LaiVy which rifes to the height of i 240 
feet above the level of the fea ; and commands from its fum- 
xnit an exteniive and varied profpe£t over 12 counties, inclu- 
ding the Frith of Clyde, and the iflands of Arran, Bute, ^\\~ 
fa, &c. This hill is furrounded by the muirland part of the 
pariih, which abounds with game, and affords tolerable paf"- 
ture for (heep, 

Lakesy Fj/bf Birds, Rivers^ and Mills, — There are two 
lakes in this parifli, Caftlifemple Locb^ and ^uenftdeLoch. The 
iormer was, fome time ago, attempted to be drained with? 
out fuccefs, and is now made a moft beautiful piece of water, 
containing above 400 acres, in which there are plenty of pikes, 
perches, and eels. It alfo abounds with fwai^s, g^efe, ducks, 
teals, bitterns, and other kinds of wild fowl. The beauty of 
this piece; of water is confiderably increafed, by the well drct 
fed grounds and good quantity of wood which furrounds it. 
^leenfideLoch is fituated in the muirs, and contains about 
ai acres ; it forms an excellent refervoir, for fupplying two 
large cotton mills in the village of Lochwinnoch. The prin- 
cipal rivers arc the Cafder, whofe banks, from a union of 
wood, water and rugged rocks, exhibit a variety of roman- 
tic and piflurefque fcenery^ and the B/aci Cart. The Cal- 
der flows into CaftlefempleLoch, and the Black Cart is the 
inlet from it. On thefe two rivers, 7 very large cotton 
mills have been erefted within thefe few years. 


of Locbwinnoch ' 67 

B^Wx.— There arc wot above 30 acres of natural \trood in 
this parifti, but the proprietors of Caftlefemple have made 
very extenfive plantations, which, from the goodnefs of the 
foil, and the attention paid to them, ate in a very flourifli- 
ing ftatc. They extend at prefent to above 400 acres, ani 
will probably receive confiderablc additions from the pirefent 
jproprictor. It may be worthy of remark, that In thinning " 
ibme plantations at Caftlefemple, from 29 to 35 years old, 
each larch fold at from 1 2 s. to 22 s, and the bcft of any of 
the other trees did not bring a higher price than 55, 

Roads, — ^The roads were fome years ago in a wretched flate, 
hilly, narrow, and almoft impaffable in wet weather, but many 
of them are now excellent, and great improvements may im- 
mediately be expcfted, from two new lines of turn-pike road, 
propofed to be carried through the parifh to Kilbimic and 
Port-Glafgow. The turn-pike roads in this parifh are con- 
nefted by private roads, to the making and repairing of which 
laft the convcrfion of the ftaiute labour, ambunting tb above 
TTDol. Sterling a year, is folely applied. 

Ecclejtaftical State. — ^The greater part df the inhabitants at- 
tend the eftabliihcd chutch, And there arc not above loe Se* 
ccders, Burghers, &c. in the parifti. William M'Dowallj 
Efq; of Gafthland is patron. The ftipend oonfifts of i ij bolls 
of meal, and 2I. of vicarage j and although the glebe contains 
only fix acres, yet from its fituation it Is worth about 1 il; 
Sterling yearly. An augmentation has been lately propofed 
to the heritors by the patron, to which they have unanimoof* 
ly agreed. The church is very well fiiiifticd, and contains a- 
bout 1300 people; the manfc is beautifully fituated about 
300 yards from the village, and 320L have been lately ex-^ 

I 1 pande4 

68 Staiijlical Account 

pended in putting It into complete rq>air| and building a new 
fet of offices. 

Scko$l — ^The fchool, which is fituated in the village^ is com- 
modiousj and the falary of old amounted to 2co merks \ but 
as the parifli is divided by the Jake, the proprietor on the 
fouth fide wilhed to have a fchool in diat diftricl^ and ob- 
tained 50 merks. The people eredled a fchool- houfe at their 
own txpehce, and the emoluments of the teacher employed 
by them are about 17I. Sterling yearly : the falary 'and emolu- 
ments of the pariHi fchoolmaflier amount to about 30I. an- 

Pocr. — The number of poor on the parifli roll is at pre- 
fent 20, and they receive from is. 6d. to 4s. each, per week* 
This fupply arifcs from 70L or 80I. collefted annually at the 
church door, and -from the inter eft of a few donations, and 
of a fmallfund belonging to the poor. There are two fo- 
cieties cftabhiheii. in the parifli, for fupplying the necef&ties 
of indigent members, ai\d their inflitution has been produc- 
tive of much advantage. 

AfiiiquitUs*. — ^Thc old Qhapel^ or cfoltege of Caftlt'&m* 


• A very fine brafs cannon, with the arms of Scotland, and J. R. S. en- 
graved on it, was found many years ago in the lake, where other 6 are re- 
ported by tradition to "have been loft. Several canoes have been lately found 
in the lake, about i feet beiow! the furface, which evidently prove the hrge 
Coicftt that muft have .formc;rly exifted, in this part of the country, as they 
have been formed in a rude manner, like the Indian canoes, ont of lingle trees. 
About 60 years ago, a laale of Corinthian brafs was found within a mile of 
the village, and the handle ftiU remains entire, at the end of which there is 
a ^auttliil nm*a head. It is in the polfcflion of Mr Barclay, inn-keeper at 

of lacbwinnocb. 69 

pUt% ftill remains cnttTCy is completdf covered iK4t!h iiry, smi 
is ufcd as a burying place. 7%f Pa/7, or PW^, an old cafti^ 
ftands in an ifland in the lake, and has been formerly a place 
of confiderable ftrength, to which the lairds of Semple re- 
treated in feudal times, when unable to hold out in the caftle 
of Semple againft their powerful enemies. 

Mweralst Magnetic Rock^ ^c-rCoal, lime, and free- 
ftone abound in different parts of this pariih, and a very An- 
gular magnetic rock has been difcovered two miles from 
Caftle-Sempk. - The compafs was Cenfibly afFeAed all round 
the rock, to th6 diftance of 1 50 yards. The cffeft was moft 
remarkable on the eaft and weft fide of it, and in every direc- 
tion it was greater, as the compafs was nearer to die rode it- 
felf. In its immediate vicinity, or nearly in a perpendicular 
dire£lion above it, the pofition of the needle was very un- 
fteady and irregular, and as the compafs was gradually brought 
nearer the ground, the deviation from the magnetic meridiaa 
was more remarkable, and the vibrations more rapid. . When 
the compafs was fet on the ground, the north pole of the 
needle invariably diret^ed itfelf to one very fmali Ipaceof die 
rock, on whatever Tide of it the needle was placed. 

Houfts and Jl^nufa^ures —When the prefcnt incttmbent waas 
fettled in this parifli, no new houfes were building in the vlU 
lage ; and although from its vicinity to Paiiley, fevcral people 
were employed in weaving filk, gauze^ and lawns, as well as m 
the manufa£ture of thready which is carried on to a -coafider- 


5 This chapel was founded by John firft Lord Semple, in the year 1505, 
** in honour of God, and the blcfled Virgin Mary ; and for the profperityof 
*< King James IV. and Margaret his queen, and for the falvation of his owa 
**> foul» and the foub of hit two wives,' &c. 

JO Statijiical Account 

sble extent} yet U had a very poor appearance. Since that pfcriod 
53 new houfes have been built ; many additional feus have been 
granted by Mr M*Dowall the proprietor;, and the population, 
the wealth and the induftry of its inhabitants have been in- 
creafed in a moft furprinng degree, within a very (hort time. 
The local fituation of Lochwinnoch is extremely favourable, 
from its being in the neighbourhood of coal, lime, and free- 
Hone, and froni its being abundantly fupplicd with fine fpring 
water ; but its rapid increafe has been principally occafioned 
by the ereftion of t^t> large cotton mills, by Meffi*s Henfton, 
Burns and Co. and Mefirs Johnftons and Co. The mill erec- 
ted by Mefirs Henftoii, Bums and Co, employs at prefcnt 
140, and when finifhcd will employ about 350 people. The 
wheel is 24 feet diameter, and is fupplied with water from 
a circular dam, builc acrofs the river Calder, 19 feet 8 inches 
high, and 85 feet in circumference : the number of fpindles 
in this mill will amount to 9144. The mill erefted by 
Mcffrs Johnftons and Co, which is 164 feet long, 33 feet 
wide, and 3; feet high, is fupplied with water from the mill 
of Meilirs Henfton, Burns and Co, employs at prefent 240 
people, and when the machinery is completed, will employ 
600 : the wheel is 2*2 feet in diameter and 10 feet broad ; the 
fpindles in this mill will amount to 19,485. A cotton milt 
haa been ere£ted half a mile from the village^ on a fmaller 
fcale, which will employ about 80 people : Mcffrs Johnftons 
and Co. arc at prefent procuring a very large field, adjoin- 
ing to their cotton mill, for bleaching, which is carried orl 
with great activity and fpirit by Mr Henry Wilfon, in a dif- 
ferent part of the parifh : 339, 612 yards of dimities, mufli- 
nets, jaconets, and booked muflins, from lod. to 20s. per 
yard, and, 4000. fpintls of thread and yarn, were bleached by 
him in 1791, and 45 people were employed in the work. 

of Locbwinnocb. ;i 

jile-H^uJes. — ^In this parifli, there arc 14 ale-houfes, which 
fliould be confiderably dimimlhed. It is to be expe£led from 

fomc refolutions lately publi(hed, that the juftices of the peace, 
to whofe fuperintendance this material ofaje£l of police is 
committed by the Legiflature, will take this fubje£l ferioufly 
into their conflderation, and apply an eSeiEiual remedy to an 
evil, which is produdivc of the moft pernicious confequen- 
ces to the health, the morals, and the induftry of the people- 

Population and Employments,- — The following table exhi- 
bits, at one view, the great increafe of nie population of this 
parilh, as well as the various employments of the inhabi- 

Population tab^e of the parish of Lochwinnoch, 

A^o. of Families. Males. 

Females. TctaL 

In the year 1695, 290 

In 1791, 557 1289 

1324 2613 

In ^ *7S5» 




In the village, 557 

557 '^'4 

In the country, 732 

767 14^9 


Tarmcn, - - 148 Wrights, 


Employed in the cotton mills, 380 Maiwns, 


Weavers, - - 135 Smiths 


Tailors, - - 19 Surgeons, 


Shoemakers, - - 14 Minifter, 


Oroccff, • . . a Writer, 


$akers» . . j^ School-mafters, - % 

Butchery - - a Alc-fcUers, 


Abstract ^Births andMAKKiAGEsfor thi lajl twi^ve years. 

Years. Males- Females. 

lotal. Marriages. 

1780 22 16 

38 26 

1 7 81 20 29 

49 23 



7^ StatiJHcal Account 











J 784 













































Annual avenge 

, 28 




Longevity. — Margaret Patton, who was bom in this 
parifh, is menlioncd by Lynch on health, as a remarkable in- 
llance of longevity. Her pifture and a print from it, which 
the writer of this account has feen, were done from the lifc> 
by J» Cooper in 1739, with the following infcription : " Mar- 
« garet Patton,born in the parifh of Loghnagh, near Paifley 
^ in Scotland, living in the work-houfe of St Margarets^ 
** Wcftmiiifter, aged 138 years.-' 

Rent and Proprietors. — ^The valued rent of the parifli is 
6^9 2I. 6s. 8d. Scotch, and the real rent about 7 600I. Ster- 
ling. Mr M^Dowall is proprietor of a confiderable part of 
the parifli, and the remainder holds of him as fuperiov, 
with a few exceptions. The other proprietors amount to 
120, and the uncommon number of them feems to have a- 
rifen, from the feus granted by the families of Dundonald 
and Semple, who were formerly proprietors of the greater 
part of this parifli. They refide in general in the parifli, mar- 
ry into each other's families, and cultivate their own property, 


^ Locbwinnoch. 73 

to which, they are particularly attacliLed. TKtir houfcs arc 
comfortable, many of them extremely good^ and the old wood^ 
of plane and afli trees, with which they arc univerfally for* 
rounded, contribute much to the beauty of the country. 

Agriculturey Farm Rents^ Produce, fa'r. — •The arable land 
of this parifli amounts to 5476 acres, of which 1494 arc year- 
ly in tillage ; and it is all enclofed with ftonc walls, hedges, 
or funk fences, ^^ith a hedge planted at a proper diflance 
-from the bottom, which is a very ftrcng ^nd beautiful fence. 
The rent of the land is from 12s. Sterling to 2I. per acre ; and 
tlie farms are generally let for 19 years, at ffom 15 1. to iioL 
annually. A certain proportion of the arable land is likewife 
let to the manufacturers in fmall lots. The tenants are bounds 
by their leafes, to plow 2, and reft 4 years, and to have on- 
ly one third of the farm in tillage. They put their whole 
manure on the firft year, and lay down the fecond crop with 
rye-grafs and clover, which is a confiderable improvement^ 
though it has only become a common prafticc within thefd 
few years* 0«ts, (which are fown in March and^eaped in 
September,) and potatoes, are the principal crops in this pa- 
ri (h. Barley, or rather bear^ is like wife raifcd in fmall quan- 
tities ; and the culture of flax has been attended with fiiccefs, 
and has entitled many of the farmers to premiums. From 
the nature of the foil, which produces tery fine paflure, wprth 
from 58, to 303. a great quantity of butter and cheefe is an- 
nually made ; and the farmers principally depend on the fale 
of thefe articles, and the rearing of cattle, to the breed o£ 
which they are particularly attentive* 

HorfeSi Cattle^ Shiep, {jfc. — ^The horfes are remarkably good^ 
and the milk cows fell at from 61. to 1 2 1. The total 
number of thefe, and the other live ftock, are as follows : 

74 Statijlical Account 


- 170 

Milk cows 






Fat ditto 



- a866 



Young cattle 




Prices of Labour and Pravijions. — Men fervants hired by the 
year receive from jo 1. to 12 1. 5 maid fervants 4 1. ; mafons 
per day, from 2 s. to 2 s. 2d ; wrights from is. 8d. to 2s, and 
mill- Wrights Jis high as 2S.-6d j a day-labourer from ts. 4d. to 
I s. 8d ; oat meal fells at from 16 s. to 17s 6d. per boll ; beef 
and mutton from 4d. to 7d, per lb ; butter from lod. to 1 id ; 
cheefe, made of flamed milk, from 2d. to 3d, and of fweet 
milk, from 4 J to 6d j eggs at from 5d. to pd. per dozen; 
potatoes from ics. to n^, per boll.; hens from is. 2d. to is. 
6d ; and chickens from 4d. to 6d. each. 

Advantages and Hints for Improvement, — The advantages of 
this parifh arife from the plenty of coal, lime and free-ftone 
in the gredteft part of it ; from its vicinity to Paiflcy, Port- 
Glafgow and Greenock ; from the good roads already made, 
(including the new lines of road to be immediately fei on foot) 
and from the rapid increafe of manufaftures, which muft 
very confiderably augment the value of the land. With 
thefc ^vantages, it is hoptd that many of the feuers and 
farmers, who pcrfift in the old fafhbned fyftem of agricul- 
ture, may be induced, from the example of others, and a re- 
gard for their own intereft, to ufe better implements of 
husbandry, to follow a proper rotation of crops, and to at- 
tempt the culture of turnips, which are particularly adapted 
to the foil of this parifli. 


of Twynebolm and Kirk^CbrisL 75 



(County and Presbytery of Kirkcudbright, Synod of 

By the Re^v. Dr. John Scott, Minijler. 


Origin of the Name. 

\ radition hath handed down a report, that nigh to the 
(^urch, a great battle was fought, and a king flain. A large 
fingle block of granite, fet up upon one end, is (howp as the 
monument of the unfortunate monarch ; and fome derive the 
name of the pariih from the vanguiHied being obliged to 
Twynehatne^ that is, to return homeward in a winding direc- 

Forffif Extentj and Situation* — The form of the united Pa- 

rifties of Tyvynetolm, or Twynekame^ (as it is anciently and 

perhaps n^ore properly wrote,) and Kirl-Cbrijty is oblong; 

Ka the 

j6 Statijlical Accouni 

the extent is about 9 mics by 2 ; though, from the rcmotcft 
houfe in the one end to the remotcll houfe in the other, the 
direft diftancc will ilot beniuch above 6 miles. The river Dee 
divides them from Kirkcudbright, upon the S. S. E. and S. 
E. and th: water of Tarf from Tongland upon the E : A 
pnall bay of the fea waihes the coaft from the W. to the S. 

Surface and Soil. — Tlie furface is moftly high-hnd, and, fecn 
at a diftance, looks like an elevated plain ; but when entered 
upon, it rifes into knolls and arable hills, with fmall valleys and 
fome merfe land upon the borders of thp Tarf and the Dec, 
until you approach the extremity towards the N. W. by N., 
when the view is bounded by hills covered with heath.*— 
The foil is various, and generally formed from ragy and what is 
/called in this country, raiUnfoney decompound<;d by the in- 
flucnce of fun and air, &c. and fallen into earth. A great part 
of the foil lies upon this kind of rock, and fome of it upon 
a till bottom. There are clay, mois, gx;avcliy, and fandy 
foils, though very little of this lad. In general, the foil is 
light, dry and rich, and, when properly managed, repays the 
induftrious farmer with exuberant crops of grafs and corn. 

Climate and Dtfeafes. — A good deal of rain falls generally 
upon the weft coaft, and thefe pariflies have their (hare of 
it, but not more than what is neceflary, confidering the dry- 
nefs of the foil. — Bordering uf on the Weftern Ocean, our 
frofts in winter are of fliort continuance, and fnow very fei- 
jdom lies fo long, as to do material damage to the ftorc farr 
mcr. The height of the ground in general, the drynefs of the 
foil, and the fea air, all contribute to the health of the inha- 
bitants \ (o that for 3 1 years, no epidemical difcafe * has 


♦ About 30 ycwf aj;o, the ague prevaflcd, biit for many yews it feemi cp 


ofTwynebolmandKirkJObrisL 77. 

^n Ifnown to prevaili except the fmall-pox and meazlej. 
]«noc\iladon is almoft univcrfally^ pra£lifed amoiigft all rank^ 
which prevents the ravages of that* loathfoxne difeafe tlie 



Lahes^ Riversy Fip^ M'lllsy ^c, — ^Thc variegated furfacc, 
and the rifing hills, malce this parifli, for we (hall now conGder 
them both as one parifh, under the name of Twyneholm, a- 
bound in rivulets and fprings. There are two lochs or lakes, 
the one upon the extremity of this pariih, and dividing it 
from Girthon, called Loch-Whinniorf^ abounding in yellow 
trouts ; the otiier called the Lech of Trcftrie, abounding in 
pikes. The river Dee^ (which is navigable the whole way it 
runs along this pari(h, and upon which there is a ferry boat 
between it and Kirkcudbright) abounds with falmon, grilfe, 
trouts, fea-trout&y and hirlings ; and at the fouthern extre- 
mity of the pariih, there are fome fmall cod and whitings 
taken by lines- The water of Tarf^ (navigable for veffels of 
50 tuns burthen up to its lower bridge, upon which, in this 
parifh, there are a flour, a barley, and a corn • mill, ) Ka$ 
fome falmon, abounds in yellow and fca trouts, hirlings, and 
pars, a fmall red fpotted trout never found bat where thei^ 
are falmon. The burn of Tivymho/m, which divides this pa- 
rish in the middle, and which drives a corn and a barley mill, 
abounds in all the fpecies of fi(h found in the water of Tarf, 
except falmon. Another ftream of water, which runs along 


ba've left this <orner. The flow, Dcrvpns. a^d even in epidemical pvtrid fe- 
ver, freqcetitly, during the above period, furrounded thefe parifrec, aod foxoc 
hekngiiig to them were brpught home from Deighbouring parilhes, in the 
wrofd kind. But no fever, for the above period, has either fpread of become 

^ By am is always me»flC «v«r in tUs coviitiy. 

78 Statifticat Account 

almoft the whole S. W. extremity of the parifli, abounds irt 
trouts^ and alfo drives a barley and a corn mill, llie Lake 
of Gkngape abounds in large yellow trouts* The three milla. 
abpve mentioned are remarkably well fituated for exporting 
their flower, barley, and meal. The corn mill lies clofe upon 
the fmali bay of the fea. The other two lie, the one within a 
Ihile, and the other within half a mile of the harbour above 
mentioned, upon the water of Tarf, and not above two'lniles 
irom two harbours upon the water of Dee, where yeflels of 
confiderable burthen can eafily come. 

Population — As the feffion records have never been regu- 
larly kept, the ancient ftate of the population cannot now 
be afcertained. The variations, however, of the number ot 
people Within jhefc 40 years, will appear from the follow- 
ing ftatement. A late aft of Parliament, now repealed, pre- 
vented the regiftration of births, marriages and burial^ fo 
that none has been kept for fome years. 

Statistical t^ble of the united parishes of Twtne- 
ppLM AND Kirk-Christ. 

Ko. of fi>oU IB I755» M returned to Dr 

Webfter, . - - 519 

Ditto in 1763, - - 510 Dccr«afc in 18 years i| 

Ditto in 1 79 1, - - 61 r Incrcafc in 8 yean loi 

Ditto in 1794, ^ - 6»o Dittoinjycaw 9 

EzaA increafe within thefe 40 years loz 

Aces and Sexes, &c. - Anno 1763 1791 1794 

Ko, of fouls 8 years old and upwards, 408 493 *^0"^ 50Q* 

Bitto under that age, - about * 101 iiS iio* 

51O 61X 610 

•»» Thcfc numbers are^atednpon tbe ufual average. All the reft in the *- 
Wve uble were uken {rom dilTcrent accurate enumerations. 

sfT'voyneholm and Kirk-Cbrift. 


^nn» 17 

No. of males, ... 

— — Female*, 

I Widowers, 
-I Widows, 

< Perfons under le yean of age 

.^_ — Betwoen 10 and to 
■ — ■ 20 and JO 

■■ ■ - 50 and 70 

• 70 and 80 

• 80 and 96 






* s 











In all 620 
Conditions, Peofessions, &c. Country and Religion. 

No. of proprietors, rcfidcnt, 8 No. of Pcrfops born in Ireland, a- 

7 bout - 35 

— ■ — — in the Ifle of Man, 3 

44 .-P-— Antiburgher Seccderi, ; 1 

— — ditto noo-refident, 

**• farmers and cottagers, and 

their familiei , 
No. of cailore, 

— weavers, 
— — mafons 

■ joiners, 
—^ Smiths, 
— — MiUer^, 
•«— Shoe- makers, 
— .^ Miniders, 
— — Surgeons, 
_ School mafters, 
— ~— . Scholars, 
_- Poor on the roU, 

— HouTespoflefTed by families, 129 
...... Ditto by individuals, lo 

. Twins born in the parilhf , 10 

• Roman Catholics, 
Rent, Stock, &c. 
Valued rent in Scotch money, L. 279^ 





Real ditto Sterling }, 

No. of horfes, 

Black cattle, 

-^ — Milk- cows, 
— — Sheep, 
— — Goats, • 

— Ploughs, 

— Ditto in 1763 T, 
.^i.. Bu&els of oats fold annual- 
ly out of the parifli, xo,5i» 

^— Ditto of barley, - X,2A0 
*— - Ditto of potatoes, x6o 


t Five women were delivered of thefc twins within the courfc of two yeara. 

I In this eftimate, the grounds pcffeffed by the proprietors are cakulttod 
in proportion to the rents at which the others arc let. 

5 At that period, though marl had long been ufcd as a manure, it was 
carried xo bags on the backs of horfes* 

So Statijiical Account 

ManufaEhires and Fillagi, — Several years ago, a gentleman 
generally cfteemed, and of a remarkable mechanical geniiM, 
under the patronage of Lord Daer, built a houfe in this 
parifli, not far from the river Dee, for diftilling Britiih fpi- 
rits. An alteration in the diftiliery laws, and other circum* 
ilances, occafioned him very foon to drop this branch of 
bufinefs ; upon which he propcfcd to convert the houfe in- 
to a manufafluring houfe for cotton ; but the ftagnation of 
tliis branch of bufinefs put an immediate ftop to that under- 
taking aJfo. It is now, by the fame gentleman, joined in com* 
pany with others, under the fame patronage, converted in- 
to a woollen manufacture; and they have creeled a teafing, 
or fcribling, and a carding machine, which arc driven by a 
fmall Arcam of water ; they have alfo fcveral hand jeanies. 
Upon account of fomc improvements made in tlic machi- 
nery, they have greater demantis for their yarn, than others 
engaged in this branch of bufinefs : and if the war now raging, 
tlie failure of credit in general, the fcarcity of money, or the 
increafing value of that article, do not put a ftop to this ma- 
nufaAure, a village begun nigh the abov& building will ra* 
ptdly iiicreafe, and increafe not only the population of this 
parifli, but that of Kiikcudbright alfo. There are, properly 
fpeakiog, as yet no villages in tliis parllh ; for a few houfes 
built upon the military road below the church, , and the be- 
gun Village above menticned, do not deferve tbat name. 

State cfPropertyy RentSy ^c — ^More than die one half of 
the parifli in value, though. not in extent, belongs to the Earl 
of Selkirk. His Lordflilp's rent?, however, amount not ta 
the one half at prefect. Eight of the proprietors^ ciihcr farm 
the whole, or a part of their own lands. Th« average rent 
of the arable land, except tlwcc farms ia the N. part> rurw 


o/Twyn&boIm and Kirk'CbriJl. 8i 

from 108. to il. Sterling per acre. There aye two farms let 
for grazing, without the liberty of plowing, for 1 1. is. and 
il. 3s. Sterling per acre. Since 1763, the arable land yields 
^bove four times the rent it drew then : And one farm, be- 
longing to the Earl of Selkirk, yields 14 times the rent it 
paid in the year 1 761 ; yet the rents are better paid> and 
the farmers live better, than they did at that period. 

Cultivation^ Inclofuresy t^fc, — This is a country fully bet-, 
ter calculated for gracing than for the plough, though i^ 
produces large crops when properly reftcd and manured. 
Hence the bed farmers have conftantly in view the me- 
lioration of their grafs. Though fenfible of the benefit of 
inclofures, and even willing to pay ^j^d, per cent per annum 
of the money laid out upon them, very little as yet is effectu- 
ally done in that way, owi;ig to our ftones being hurt by the ac- 
tion of the fun and air, which makes the fences foon give way \ 
pur ground, interrupted by rocky and gravelly knolls, renders 
hedging and ditching ineffedlual, unlefs a degree of labour, 
care, agd attention be given them, which the farmer has nei- 
jtime n6r inclination to beftow. The want of wood fcr 
-coping expofes the young thorns to the ravages of cattle ; 
and a polled Galloway cow, if once ihe can thruft in her 
liofe, with (hut eyes will force her way through a ftrong 
hedge. To remedy tliefc defedis. Lord Selkirk plants hit 
liedges in a (lone facing, and builds up th^ (tones for coping 
and fencing. Oiie thing is ftall wanting ; viz. that his Lord- 
ihip fhould agree with a gardener, or £kilful workman, to keep 
lus hedges in proper order, at fo much per rood, the tenants 
paying ti^e expence along with the rent \ this he has already 
done with refpe£i to clearing his eftate of moles. 

Vol. Xy. L Mam^rts. 

8l Statiftical Account 

Manures. — ^Tl^e manures uCsd arc (hell mari, fca (hells^ 
y^ater lathing, paring ai|d burning the furface, and dung. 
Shell marl, as a manure in this part of Scotland, was iirft 
difcovered and ufed in this parifh, it being above 60 ye^ra 
fincc it was applied for that purpofc. Of all manures, when 
the ground is gently ufed, and not worn out by the plough, 
it remains the longel^ ; its efFeds are moft confpicuous upon 
the grafs, producing the different clovers, particularly the 
white, and grafles of the bed quality and kinds ; and caufmg a 

Seat luxuriance in their growth, and deepnefs of green in 
eir colour. Ihe quantity laid upon an acre is from 40 to 
fSo cart loads, drawn by two horfes. There is ftill a large 
quantity of this excellent manure in the parl(h, particularly 
in Lord Selkirk's grounds. Sea (hells are of two kinds \' 
thofe that are brought in by every tide, into the fmall bay at 
the S. corner of the parifli, and carted off at the ebb 5 and a 
pretty large bank running along the fide bay, and beneath an 
arable field, called dry landjhells. The firft, wet with a con- 
fjderable mixture of fand, are heavier to kad, but fpeedicr 
in their eiFe£l. The quantity laid upon an acre of each is 
from 20 to 30 tons. Lime brought from England, and land* 
pd at the fide of the Dee, or the TarfF, cofts the farmer is. 
Sterling, the Carlyfle bufhel of fhells, equal to three Winchef- 
ter bufhels. From 30 to 70 bufhels unflacked are laid upon 
?in acre. Leading a ftrcam of water over the furfacc of a 
ley field with the plough or the fpade, called waUr-tathing^ 
prevailed very much formerly in this parifli, before the life 
of the forementioned manures bec^nie fo general, and produ- 
ced exce-llent grain and grais. It leaves the land hard bound, 
and unfit for the other manures, which produce Kttle or 
po effe£k upon water^tathed land \ and it cannot be repeated 
^vith any profit but at a confidcrablc diftance of time, except 


of twynebohn and Kirk-Cbrijli 8^ 

tipon meadow and grafs grounds. Paring and burning li 
in general the worft huibandry, except upon a deep moff/ 
fi>i]» with a clay bottom, whai fo miick of the mofs is burnt 
as to allow the plough to reach the clay, and mingle it, mofs 
mnd aflies together \ then it produces luxuriant crops of grain 
and grafs^ Dung, the principal manure in farming, is tod 
little attended to in this country : .The want of inclofuresf 
and draw yards, moft of the cattle lying oilt in winter, are all 
reafons why fo little attention is paid to this valuable article. 
What is colle£ted is genetally expended upon our third crop 
ground, in producing potatoes and a few turnips. One oC 
the three firft arc generally laid on ley, 6t ground unbroken 
up *, and if laid on at lead one year before it is plowed^ they 
gradually (ink into the ground, mix with the roots of thd 
grafs, are produ£tiYe the firft year, and do not fd fodn fink 
out of the reach of the plough; Sometimes they arc laid 
4ipon a fallow, and the author hds known them hdd in the 
month of May upon the fpringing corn. 

Ploughs^ Crops^ is^i. — Our ploughs, light, drawn by twd 
horfcs, or three when old ley is broken up, without a drfvcr^ 
are moftly of the Englifli kind, with the Scotch head, whicU 
is found to anfwer beft in ftony grodnd. Though formerly 
the ox plough generally prcrailed, yet it was totally liid a- 
fide, till LoVd Daer revived it, by ufing both oxen and heif- 
ers on a farm whicli he is improving in this parifli. One of 
the three firft kinds of manure above mentioned being laid u- 
pon the ground, it is fown with oats the firft two years. The 
third year dung being laid upon the field, if the farmer cart 
procure this article, it is partly planted with pi6tatdes^ and fowrl 
with turnips, and the reft of the field either fown with peafe 
and beans, or left fallow. The fourth year, it is fown with 

1/ * barkyi 

84 Statijlical Account 

barley, lyc grafs, rib'd grafs, and the different dovers^ cut 
for hay one year, and paftured 8, then again broken up fof 
corn. Wheat feldom turns out a profitable crop, Qwing to 
the wetnefs of our climate, and other caufts* 

Experiments tried with our roiten-ftone quanicsi where 
the three firfl kind of manures are not to be obtained, might 
have a happy effe£l. In many places remote from thefe arti- 
ficial manures, mofs and turf are plenty. Kilns made of foda 
or turf might be ercfled, and the half dried peats burnt to 
aflies, at no great expence, which are well known to be an 
excellent manure for turnips, grafs and grain. There are dif-» 
ferent opinions, with rcfped to the quantity, to be laid upon 
an acre, of the manures of the firft three claflesf mentioned \ 
fome thinking a fmaller quantity, frequently repeated, beft ; o- 
thers, a large quantity laid on at once, and not repeated for 
fome cdnfiderable length of time. Tliis depends in a good 
meafure upon the foil, and upon the manner of cropping the 
land. When the ground is treated, as above mentioned, and 
is kept fo long in pafture, the large quantities are, perhaps, 
beft, as having the moft effect upon the grafs ; and as it is by 
fermentation thefe manures operate, fuch a quantity, as will 
fully promote this, will be found neceffary, while a fmal- 
ler quantity will only produce a partial fermentation \ as 
beer, not having a fufficient quantity of yeft, is always mud* 
dy, iluggifli and never clears. 

Prices of Labour and Provifions. A farm fervant receives 
from 61. to 9L Sterling yearly, befides lodging, wafliing, and 
food. A cottager's benefit, when converted into money, a-» 
mounts to about 1 5 1. Sterling yearly. A reaper in harvcft 
receives from 1 7s. to iL 5s. during the feafon. A woman 
fervant from al. to 4I. Sterling yearly. A day-labourer'a 


ofTwynebolm and Kirk-^Cbrifi, 85 

wages are from lod. and is. in winteri to is. and i8« 6d. in 
fummer, without visuals : A mafon's and joiner's per day, 
without meat is. 6d : A taylor's 8d. with viduals. The prices 
of all forts of provifions frequently vary, and depend very 
much upon the Whitehaven, Liverpool, and Glafgow mar-* 
kets, to which we have ready and eafy acccfe by fea. 

Horfis and Black Cattle, — ^Thcre are a good number of hor- 
fes bred in this parifli, both for ufc and fale. They arc 
moflly of tlie draught kind. Tlie old breed of Galloways, fo 
highly valued for fplrit and fliape, and which continued a 
long time after the wreck of the Spanifb Armada, when feve* 
rai ftallions were thrown upon this coail, is almoft entirely, if 
not totally extizi£^. The price of our horfes is from icL to 30L 
Sterling. Our cattle, fo highly valued by the Norfolk farmers, 
are for the mod part polled, k>ng haired, ihort and thick leg- 
ged for their height, ftraight backed, round bodied) well fpread 
«t the loins, and deep dew-lapped« Our calves fuck their 
mothers \ Aone are fold to the butchers ; the males are cut 
young, the females generally about one year old \ and when 
cut, or fpavedy they then with us obtain the name of heifers. 
At one year old, they will bring from 2I. to 5L Sterling ; at 
two they will bring from 4I. to 9I \ at three from 61 to loL 
The beft of our two-year-olds are almoft always fent with 
Qur three-year-olds to the £ngli(h market. Our farmers can- 
not be too careful to pieferve this breed \ for any trials to 
meliorate it by crojftng with other bulls, have hitherto failed. 
A gentleman in this country, who had a large dairy, remark- 
able for rearing the beft cattle, and who kept and fed them till 
a proper age, when he fent them with other cattle which he 
bought from bis tenants, to the Englifli market, to try an ex* 


86 Statijlical Account 

perimcnt, bought one of Mr BakeweU^s bulb. He put the 
half of his cows to this, and the other half to a Mooi;land 
bull, bred upon his own eftate. He fed the produ£k equal-^^ 
ly, till they were fent to market at Norfolk, when thofe bred 
from the Galloway buU, brought confidcrably more money 
than the others, befidcs being eafier to feed. 

Sheep and Wool. — Our Sheep arc of five kinds* In the up- 
per part of this parifh, where there are two flieep farms, the 
flocks are of two different kinds : the one, a fmall fheep, with 
flecked or fprittle face and legs, and fine wool. This breed 
has been from time immemorial in the country. The other, 
black faced and black legged, with large coarfe wool, brought 
lately from the head of Nithfdale. The wool of the firll kind 
fells at from 8s. to ics. per ftone; the wool of the other at 
from ^8. to 6s. In the lower part of the pari(h, there is the 
long legged Engliih Mug^ with wool, long, fine> and fit for 
combing ; and the broad fliort legged, fine, ihort wooHcd 
kind, called the Culltj breed. There is a fifth breed, of the 
fmall, white faced, (hort fine woolled fpecics, which differ in 
nothing from the Cheviot breed. The wool of thefe diflerent 
kinds fells at from ns. to ids. per ftone : ^Slb. Avoirdupois 
makes our ftone of wool. Lord Daer, who, in many in- 
ftances, has materially contributed to the advantage of this 
country, has introduced a breed from a Spanifli ram in hi* 
poflfeflion ; but as yet, there has not been time to reap the 
benefit of this improvement. 

Woods and Plantations^ — ^The old timber found in our mof* 
fes ftiows plainly, that woods had formerly abounded in this 
parilh, though they are now entirely gone, except the above 
mentioned wood at the old Caftle of Cumpfton. lliere are 


of Twyntboltn and Kirk- Cbrift. 8 ^ 

ibme other fcnall plantations, in difierent parts. But, in a 
few years, the rifin^ grounds along the Dee &ie oppo&te to 
St. Mary's ifle will be covered with wood. Lord Daer having 
already planted with different kinds of trees a great many 
acres of ground^ and defigning to adorn Lord Selkirk'^ ex« 
tenfive cftatc, in this and the neighbouring pariOies, with feat- 
tered plantations. Wood, indeed, unlefs (heltered from the 
W. or S. W. winds, does not thrive. Northern and Eaft^rn 
expofures are the beft in this country, for planting every 
kind of trees. 

FueU — ^Peats, turfs, and furze, or whins, were the general 
fuel of the inhabitants of this parifh till lately. The moiTes 
]h the lower part of the parilh being exhauded, and tlie im- 
provement of the land having in a great meafure banifhed 
the f irze, coals from Whitehaven, the duty being now ta- 
ken of, are the fuel already ufed by a great rwmber of the 
inhabitants of this part of the parifh. The Northern part 
ftUl make ufe of peats and turfs, as the nioffes aboun<i in that 
quarter. The coals are fold for a guinea /^r toriy as it is cal- 
led, though it confifts of 36 cwt. 

Churchy School f and Poor. — The church, which is placed ex- 
a£ily in the center of the parifh, at the fide of the military 
road, where three other roads meet, was built in the year 
1730, and the manfe in 1763. The ftipend is 59 1. 17s. 6(?> 
all paid in money. The glebe confifts of near 30 acres, 
being the two glebes of Kirk-Chrift and Twynehamc joined 
together at the churcli. The Earl of Selkirk is patron.— There 
is an eflablifhed fchool hard by the church ; the number of 
fcholars is about fixty. If once a houfe was built, and other 
funds, provided for the fchooKmafter^ were fettled^ the living 


Sf itatifiical Account 

triB be worth between 30 1. and 40 1. Sterling yearly.— The 
poor are liberally fupplied by the weekly coUeftions, and by 
ihc private charity of the inhabitants, who are oppreflcd by 
Irifh beggars ai;id dther vagrants ; owing to the military road, 
from the border of England, to Port-Patrick pafEng through 
tfie midft of the parifti. There is no funk money belonging 
to it. 

Raads oTid Bridges. — In the year ! 763, there were no good 
loads in this pariih -, a little after that period, the military 
road from the border of England to Port-Patrick was made, 
which paffes through the midft of the pariih, and has contri- 
buted greatly to the improvement of the country. After 
ihts, a road was made to Kirkcudbright, by the bridge of 
Tongland, which parts from the military road at the church 
of Twyneholm, and another road from the military road at 
the Gatehoufe of Fleet to Kirkcudbright, by the ferry boat 
over the Dec, which paffes through this parifh. An A£i of 
Parliament to convert the ftatute labour, contributes in fomc 
meafure to keep all thefe roads, except the military one, in 
repair. But the beft diredled roads in the pariftiy are two 
from the church of Twynehame, (the one to the ferry boat 
of Kirkcudbright, and the other to the bay at the extremity 
of the pariQi); and a third from the ferry along the fide of 
the Dee, till it joins the latter one at the faid bay ; opening 
sm eafy communication from Kirkcudbright to the pariih of 
Borgue, and a fpacious bay called Balmangan Bay, Thefe laft 
mentioned roads were planned and dire£led by Lord Daer, 
and executed moflly at his expence. As good roads are the 
firft and moft neceflary improvement in any country, though 
much hath been done, yet there ftill remains much to do, not 
only in this pariih, but in every part of the country j and as 


of Twjneholm and kirk-t/brisi. 9^ 

the eonverfioii monej at the prcfent rate is tcnally inadequ«te> 
Tome other method muft be adof^ted. Upon thefe accountsi 
the above mentioned noble pdtton propofed a bill to the 
county for their approbation^ drawn up on the moft liberal^ 
and at the fame time the moft equal plan. Oppofition was 
made to it through miftake, through prejudice, and through 
party, and a clamour raifed agaiiift it, which obliged it to be 
dropt for the prefent ; but till fome fuch plan is adopted, our 
roads will gb to ruin, and will never be conducted upon si 
liberal plan. The bridges are four ; ontf over the Tarf, noa^ 
the foot of that river, one over the Kirk-bum of Twyntholm^ 
upon the military road nigh the churchy aiid two others over 
fmaller ftreams. 

Antiquities^, — ^Therie arc the remains of two old fauildingg 
in this parifh, both of theni belonging to the Earl of Selkirk; 
The one, called the Cqftle of Cufnpfionty is placed in a pleafant 
Gtuation, nigh io the jundion of the rivers Tarf aiid Dee, fur* 
rounded with a fmall fpot of natural wood, the only one in- 
deed in the parifh. The other old building is fituated in the 
farm of Nuntown, oppoGte to St Mary's Ifle. Thete are two 

Vol. XV. M bmsi 

f A frcDtleman who lived in this parifh, and pofleiTed an eflate in it, anil 
who died fome yeart ago upwards of So, acquainted the writer, that ihthe 
ohi burial place of Twyneholm, which was fitoai&l about a ^n-fliot from 
the prefent, nigh one bf the doons, and not far from three of the moat9^ 
(but of which no veftige now remains, it being part of a com field,) there was 
tamed up by labourers employed by him to temove part of an old fetKc, a 
round piece of gold which he fuppofed to be the handle of a coffin. Thia 
piece he fcnt to Bdiaburgh, and received for it only three guineas, the pexfod 
that bought it alledging that it was not gold; but, as he obferved^ if it ha4 
not been of chat toetal, the dealer would not have given ib mucb* 

90 Statijlical Account 

Doom X^ five mbals, and a hi]i oppoCte to two of them, caU 
led the Gallows- Hill ; but, as the figure, ufe, and defign of 
thefe rcli£bs of antiquity have been fo often explained by 
others, a repetition here is unneceflary. 

Propoftd ImprovanenU^ — ^Thcre is a creek at the fide of tlie 
Dec, very nigh the manufa£^uring houfe formerly mentioned, 
that might eafily be turned into a good harbour, fheltered 
• from every ftorm. The adjacent field is commodious for wet 
and dry docks, fuch as they have at Liverpool ; the ftream 
of water that drives the machinery would ferve to clean 
them ; fpring tides 30 feet perpendicular \ and there is at the 
fame time confiderably more than 17 f«et of water upon the 
barr at the mouth of the river. A great road opened from 
the kirk of Twyneholm to the N. N. W. through an open- 
ing in the hill of Glcngape, would give accefs to manure 
landed in tlie Tarf or the Dee, for wild and barren grounds* 

Di/advantages.'-^The wetnefs of our climate, the fcarcity 
of fuel, and no rock fait upon our coaft, with other caufes, 
render that neceffary article at times fcarce and dear. For 
thefe two years paft, the fcarcity of this article has been 
fo great, about the term of Martinmas, as materially to hurt 
the fale of our fat cattle. This might be eafily remedied by 
albwing rock fait to be imported, or fait ready made from 
liverpool, at the Scotch duties. One of thefe meafares ought to 


f Some time ago, there was raifcd from beneath a heap of ftones, not far 
. from that fpot, what appeared like a coffin made up of different ftones, in 
which was found an inftrument refembling a hammer^ and fome coins ; bu£ 
of what metal the inftroraent was made, or where to be found, or of what 
kind the coins were, no Information can now be obtained. There have been 
fefcral coiot found sigh to thefe moats, bat n«ne of them are prefer ved. 

ofTwyneholm and Kirk-Cbrist. 9! 

t>c adopted, or fmuggling will become general. The varie- 
ty of weights and meafuresy which univerfally prevails both in 
England and Scotland, demands the attention of the Lcgifla- 
ture. In London ^ ftone weight of feveral commodities is 16 libs 
-avoirdupoize ; in Liverpool, or Whitehaven, the fame nominal 
quantity of the fame goods is only 14 lib. ditto ; in Dumfries, 
or in that part of this county that lies upon the other fide 
of the river Urr, a Scotch ftone of any commodity is 24 libs ; 
in New Galloway, which is in the fame county, it i» 26lb, and 
in all this part of the country round Kirkcudbright, it is 28 
libs, ditto: In other places, only 22 libs, make the ftone. 
Almoft every county in England has its tu/helf and every 
county in Scotland its peckj all differing one from another. 
The Winchefter bufhel is now generally ufcd in this county, 
to meafure all forts of grain ; and an hundred weight of pota- 
toes and a peck are the fame. 

CharaBer and Manners. — ^The people in general are chcar- 
ful, fober, induftrious, and humane ; of an afpiring and in- 
dependent fpirit. There arc not at prefent above four men 
in the tlation of fervants, that were born and educated in 
this parifti. Seventeen young men, if not more, within 
thcfe few years, have gone to England, America, and the 
Weft Indies, in the mercantile line j three to the fea ; befides 
fisveral faroilie& that emigrated before the commencement of 
the American war, Since the year 1763, there is a vaft dif- 
ference in the houfes, drefs and manner of living. There 
were then only two houfes covered with flate ; now there arc 
about thirty. Englifti broad cloth, and fancy vcfts of cot- 
ton, are the drefs of the men, when they go to church or 
market. Silk cloaks and bonnets, printed gowns, and cotton 
ftockings, the drefs of the women. In the year 1763, there 

M 2 wcrp 

92 StatifHcal Account 

wer^ otilf three fistinilies in which tea wa&oocafiqnaUy drunls. 
Now it is u&d in every family* In 1763, at Martio- 
tnas, there were not more than three beeves killed in the 
parifhy our remotenefs from public market making it neceC- 
fary to ialt provifion^ for winter ; now there are about forty, 
. befides a great many fwine, a pig being kept and fed by al- 
moft every houfeholder, together with lamb and mutton in 
fummer and harveft ; butcher meat, of one kind or another, 
making a great part of the diet of the farmers and their fer- 
yams, ^irhich, perhaps, is cheaper upon the whole, than the 
low diet upon which they we:^c formerly fed. 


ofUrqubart^ 53 



By the Rev. Mr Wil&iam Cordon, Miniftfr. 

" t ■ ■ .1. ^ < . . ■ . I I .1 . . ■ II II 

Naniif Extent^ and Situation^ (SV, 

H& etymology of the. name cannot be afcertained Mrith 
precifioD. If it be of Gaelic e:ittni^oiH fome information 
may be received from thofe quaxters where that language i$ 
underftood. There are other two pariAes of the fame name, 
the one a few miles from Invernefis, and in that county ; the 
other in RoA-ihire. This pariih extends about 4 miles from K 
to W. and 3 from N. to S -,. and lies at an equal diftance from 
Elgin on the W. and the river Spey on the £ *, the poft road 
paffing along it on the S. 

Surface^ Sea Coa/l^ Futl^ tJ*^.— That part of the pariih 
which lies to the N. W. is flat and low, rifing a few feet on- 
ly above the level of the fea> and has probablyj at fome for- 
• ' mcr 

5^4 Statijiical Account 


iner period been covered by water, as there are evident 
marks of the fca haying receded from ^e coaft : The reft 
is a good deal more elevated, and of an unequal waving fur- 
face. The fea coaft, which is about 4 miles in extent, is 
low and fandy ; it contains no creek nor landing place of 
any kind. Our grain, which is our only article of exporta- 
tion, is (hipped from Speymouth or Lofsiemouth ; and our 
gireat article of importation, which is coals, is imported at 
the lame harbours •, the former of which is at the diftanc^ of 
4 miles, and the other of 6. It is proper here to mention, 
that this, as^well as feveral other neighbouring pariflies,' was 
fortiierly ill fi^pplied with feic} ; but how, that article is ren- 
dered much lefs cxpenGve, by taking off the high duty on 
coak, that was laid on with little attention to political e- 
conomy, and which has lately been abolifhed by the ex- 
ertions of a great ftatefman ; to whom this country is more 
obliged' on accpunt of that meafu^e, and many others, thai^ 
to any other native of this part of the united kingdom. 

GHntaUy 55V. — ^The air is dry and falubrious, an^ the pto^ 
pie in general healthy ; there are, however, few inftances of 
remarkable longevity to be met with. The climate here, like 
that of all that narrow traft of land, which lies along the fouth 
fide of tlic Moray Firth, is mild and temperate to an extra- 
^yrdfinary degree : Its fuperiority, in that refpcft, over the 
high country, is moft remarkable in the Spring months. Of- 
*ten in that feafon, while all the operations of husbandry arc 
going forward in the low parts of Moray, there are many 
places in the high country, diftant only a few miles, where 
ihcfe operations meet with a total interruption, from the in- 



©/' Urqubart, 9| 

tenfencfs of the frofts) and from deep falls of fnow.'* Onr" 

winters likewife, ia general, are fo open, that feveral plants 

connmonly ranked amongd the hot-houfe divifion, (land | 

throughout that feafon in the gardens of Innee, expofed to 

the open air, and lofe little of their verdure. 

Soil and Culti'uatkn^ &c.— The foil is various, and, though in 
general light and fandy, is of a kindly and fertile nature, ex^ 
ceedingly well adapted for raifing turnips, potatoes, barley, and 
all kinds of artificial grafles. And a conGderable part of it 
would be extremely fit for wheat, if there were any opportuni- 
ty of procuring fufficient quantities of manure. Notwithftand* 
lug the mildnefs of tlie climate, and the kindlinefs of the foil, 
agriculture hasanade but flow advances. Some patdies of 
turnips are indeed to be feen, and a few acres are fown with 
grafs feeds \ but the fields in general are rather in a ftat« of 
bad cultivation. This feems to be occafioned, in a great 
meafurc, by the cxpence and difficulty of conftrufiing fuf- 
ficient inclofures *, there being no (lone quarries in the pa- 
ri(h, nor any (lones in the fields fit for this purpofe ; and 
thorn hedges are fo long of coming to perfedlion, and fo dif- 
ficult to be fenced when they are young, that no tenant, on 
a leafe of ordinary endurance, can attempt them with any 


* It may llkewlfe be obferTcd, as a farther proof of the excellencj of thi« 
tliinatc, that in the end of the laft, and beginning of the prefcnt tentury, 
while there was fo great a deficiency in the crops to many parrs of Scot. 
land, at bordered on a famiae, owing to the cold and wet feajbns ; in Moraf, 
ft that period, the land was fo produ&ive, as not only to fopply its own in* 
habitants, bat alfo to fpare confiderable quantities of grain for the fubiift- 
cnee of their neighbours. And it is a fa<^ well afccrtained, that in thofc yiears 
of Scarcity and dearth, people came from the fiiire of Angus, to purchjfe 
cat meal in this country, for which they p9id at the rate of 30 s. /^r buU. 

^6 Statijiical Account 

proipeCl of fucccfs. The farms aWb are of too fmall extent 
for carrying on any fubftantial improvements fn agrictzlture. 
There are a few that may contain from 60 to 100 acres ; 
but the common run is from 20 to 30. 

Farm Rents and Ploughs^ (s^c. — ^The rent of Jand varies 
according to the nature of the foil ; there are fome fields let 
for 2os. ^^r acre, while others are below los. ; the average 
rent may be from 103. to 1 58. The ploughs, of which there 
are above ico, fome of Englifh, fome of Scotch conftrudion, 
are drawn chiefly by a parr of horfes. In this branch of 
farming, an improvement has been introduced about 20 years 
ago, which now begins to be pretty generally adopted ; that 
is, plowing with two oxen, harneilcd in the fame manner as 
horfes. This method is warmly recommended, and the ad* 
vantages of it fully exp^ined by the late Lord Kaimes, in hia 
book called The Gentkman Farmer. 

Produce^ Exports^ iifc* The produce of this pari(h> con^ 
fids principally of barley and oats ( be&des fupplying the in<« 
habitants^ it exports annually a confiderable quantity of grain ) 
which muft incrcafe yearly, partly by the increafing improve* 
ments of agricalture, but chiefly by the ufe of potatoes, which 
are now almoft univerfally cultivated, aild during a great part 
of the year, are, in a manner, the principal fubfiflence of a 
confiderable number of the inhabitants. This food, which 
at firft was not in general ufe, becomes more and mote fo e* 
very day, from the noious modes that have been difcovered 
of dreilmg it, by different feafonings, at little or no expence. 
They make an excellent difti with milk, but above all with 
onions, which ^re raifed in abundance in this county, and 
ibid at fuch a moderate price, as to come within the reach 
of the pooreft inhabitant. 


of Urqubart. 97 

State of Piropmy^ Plantat'tonsy (sfc. — ^Four fifths of this 
parifli arc the property of the Earl of Fife *, whofe planta- 
tions arc executed with uncommo:i tafte anri judgement^ 
and add much to the beauty and ornament of the country. 
In fome places^ he has planted moors and hills of great ex- 
tent, but what niakes the moil beautiful appearance, is a num- 
ber of little rifing grounds, all of which he has covered with 
fmgular good tafte, and fo as to make their appearance with 
relation to each other extremely beautiful. In all thefe plan- 
tations, the Scotch fir at prefent predominates ; but his Lord- 
ihip every year caufes a great many of thefe to be cut down^ 
and the voids to be filled up with beech, oak and other de-« 
ciduous trees $. Befides thefe plantations, Lord Fife has 
planted hedges, and hedge rows in particular places along 
the high ways, that (hew niuch fancy, and will afford con- 
fiderable utihty and. warmth; the hedge rows, before they 
were planted, were pollards of a confiderable fize, and arc 
thriving exceedingly well. A fmall plantation, at the place 
where the road to the houfe of Innes leaves the liigh road, 
two miles eaft^f Elgin, from the beauty of its lines, mult 
ftrikc every traveller, and the hedge rows are continued 3 
confiderable length along the high road. In mentioning the 
high road, it is but juftice ti^Lord Fife to let it be known^ 

Vol. XV. N that 

* About 26 years agd, his Ltft'dfliip purchafed the eQatc of lones; aod. 
being at that time proprietor of ccnfiderable cftates in the adjacent partflies ; 
the cfta^e of Innes, and the lands of Urquhart, lately acquired by dm exchange 
tirith the family of Oordod, he became poffcfTcd of fe large a O'ad of proper- 
iy all contiguous^ and compreheDdwg a great variety of grotind, Kbzc be hu 
been enabled to execute plaiitations of very large extent. 

$ Previous to the year 177^, at whicA pericfd alradt oae Half of fhtfe 
plantations were formed, there were always planted in each acre 3000 Scouk 
l^rs : Sinre that tbne the pro|>ottion baa only been i3oo t« ttcb ac/e, 

9 ft Statijlicat Account 

that fince he became proprietor of Inncs, all the highways 
within the parifli have been properly attended to, judidottfty 
direfted, and, by a regular application of the ftatute labour, 
kept in a (late of good repair f . The only other heritor is 
Mr Innes of Lcuchars J, who has about one fifth of the 
real rent of the parifli. He is at uncommon .pains to raifc 
and fence hedges j he has planted ftripes and belts about the 
ground round his houfe to a very confiderable extent, befides 
feveral clumps fimilar to tho<p executed by Lord Fife. Thcfe 
cTumps, like his Xxyrdlhip's, at ptefent confift chiefly of Scotch 
firs ; but the plantations around his farm, and about his houfe, 
afe all deciduous trees of the beft kinds -, oak, a(h, and witch 
elm, with a proper mixture of larix, which arc all uncom* 
monly well preferved, befides being kept under the hoe for 
feveral years after they are planted. The water of Lofly runs 
through the property of this gentleman ; that river fwells 
fomctimes to a great height, and frequently flooded the low 
ground on each fide ; but of late, with great induftry and 
merit, embankments have been conftni£kcd, that will contain 
the river, and in a great meafure prevent future inundations : 
By diis eircumftance the value of his lands is conliderabiy 

f The hoiifc of Innca, one of Lord Fife's numerous feats, had been many 
year* ago ]^artly defiroycd by aecideDtal fire. Since his Lordfliip became its 
poCcflbr, it has been repaired at a very confiderable expence, and fitted up 
in the Mk>ft fa&tonable iHle ; a larg;c addition haa beea made to the gardens, 
and the groiiDd» about the ho^iS^ hssTc been laid .out in the beft tafte ; the 
Whole nuJMt now one of the moil pkafanc and elegant pkxes of refideocc in 
the North. 

I Befotte Mr In wit fnceecded to this eftate, it had been in the pofliefGoa 
^»|ReDdeinan mho paid very Uttk attention to improvements of aay kind. 
Since the prie&ot gcotSemaA became pcoprictor, it hai vndevgone a very 
great akeratioB to the better. 


of Urquhart. 99 

Lakes, Ft/by Wattr Fcwlx, i^c. — There is one lake in this 
pariih called the Lech of Cctis, Pike is the only fifh it con- 
tains : In winter it is frequented hj a confiderable number 
of fwanS) and, in the fpring and autumn,* by flocks of geefe, 
ducks, and other water fowls. At the upper part of the 
parifh, there is another lake called Locbnabeau^ partly in tlits 
pariflii and partly in Lhanbryd. Lochn^beau is in the middle 
of what was formerly an extenfive bare moor ; about ao years 
ago Lord Fife planted the moor, and particularly carried his 
plantations round the verge of the lake. Thefc plantations 
are now far advanced, and by their vicinity to the water, 
which is uncommonly limpid and clear, form a moft beauti« 
ful and delightful fcene. 

Stags. — ^This improvement, however, has been attended 
with one inconvenience. In fome fevere winters, feveral 
years ago, a few ftags and hinds came down to the low coun- 
try from the Duke of Gordon's forefts of Glenfiddich and 
Glenavon ; of late years they have taken up their refidence in 
the neighbourhood of Lochnabeau, and the plantations a* 
round it, and are become fo fond of their new habitation, 
that they have never returned to their native forefts ; on tlic 
contrary, they increafe every year, by breeding, and by the 
addition of frcfli emigrants. Thcfe animals make a very 
fine appearance, and afford much pleafure and amufement 
to the fportfman 5 it is therefore to be regretted that they are 
fo hurtful to plantations and agriculture. Throughout the 
fummer, they pafture in the night time on the corns ; in the 
winter on turnips ; and in the fpring, as the winter crops of 
rye and wheat are then fartheft advanced, they are particular- 
ly deftruAive to them ; but the ftems of potatoes feem to be 
their favourite food, as they are known to pafs through ficldlB 
of corn in order to broufe on them. Upon the whole, it were 
N 2 much 

J CO Statijlical Account 

much to be wiflicd, tTiat they were cither driven back to their 
antient habitation, or utterly exterminated. The laft mtZr 
fare has been fuccefefuUy followed by ^ worthy nobleman in 
the wcftcrn part of this county, celebrated for his extenfivc 
and flourifhing plantations, who kept hounds for the fole 
purpofe of extirpating thofe dcftruftive animals. I need 
hardly fay that the nobleman I mean is the Earl of Moray. 
If thefe plantations have attrafted the deer to this corner, it 
has been remarked that they have not been favourable to 
the increafe of hares and patridges ; tliis may be owing to 
the protcftion which they afFord to beafls and birds of prey. 
Were gentleman to give fmall premiums for the deilru£tion 
of thefe vermin, it would prove more efiefiual jn prcferving 
the game and increafing its numbers, than all the game laws 
that ever Mfcre, or eyer will be enaclcd. 

Churchy Scfyooly and P<?:r.— The prcfent incumbei^t, who 14; 
a bachelor, had hi3 prefentation from the Duke of Gordon ; 
but the patronage of the church has fipce been conveyed 
to the Earl of Fife, at the time that the exchange of lands 
fook place between his Lordfliip and the family qf Gordon. 
The ftipend, by a decree obtained February 1793% is 8 chal- 
dcrs virtual and 40I. Sterling, including 5I. for communion 
element^. The glebe confifts of 5 Scotch acres. Som<* 
years ago, the minifter entered into a contraft with the heri- 
tors, for keeping the manfe ?nd ofpces in repair during his 
incumbency, for \yhich he receives ^n annuity of (5I. Ster- 
ling, befides 30I. paid per advance. The church >vas com- 
pletely repaired about 1 8 years ago. — A new fchool-houfe 
was then built ; the fchool-maftcr's falary is 1 2 boils of ont 
meal, and 6 bolls of barley. — The average number of poor in 
this parifli is about 20. The funds for their fupport arif^ 
JFrgoi the weekly colleftions at church, which amount to loU 


of UrquharU loi 

yearly, together with fome mortifications that produce al. 
I IS. 4d. of annual intereft. 

Population. — ^The number of inhabitants has decreafed 
within thcfe 40 years, as appears from the following ftate- 
ment : 

Statistical Table of the parish of Urqxjhart. 

No. of TouIb in I ;5i,u returned to DrWebiler, > liio 

Pitto, in 1793, males 506, females 544, •* « 1050 

Decreaie 60 

Annual avenge of baptifms. 


Conditions, PtQVKwiONs, ^c. 

Diflentersf from the EOabliflied 



Church, - - flo 



Live Stock, Rsnts, &c 



Horfes, - - 310 



Black Cattle, »• 900 



Sheep, § - 1570 



Valued rent in Scotch me* 



•ney, - L. S5^7 : 15 5 6 

Mafona, - ' - 


Real ditto in Sterling, 



about 1800 : : 



No. of acres, planted by the ^arl 



of Fife, - 2478 

Ale and fpirit'dealers, 


Manner of Living, — ^Though the progrcfs of agriculture 
has not been fo rapid as might be wilhed, the increafing com- 
fort of the people is ycry obfervable. Within thefe 20 years, 

a great 

f Thcfe confift chiefly of Seceders, of the Antiburgher perfuafion. 

f Since the moors were planted, the number of the (beep has confider- 
ably decreafed, there having been formerly in the parilh more than double 
fhe above number. The farmers are every daybecoming more reconciled to 
the want of thefe animals, which cannot be kept with any advantage in an 
improving country, without fufficient inclofores. 

201 Siatyiical Account 

t gf^ iiifferenee ^o tlie better maf be nemark£<} in their 
clothing, their cleanliners^ and every otbcr drcuinftance that 
tends to make life more agreeable. Their habitations have 
likewife been verf much improved \ witliin lefs than the pe- 
riod above mentionedt there have been upwards of 50 neat 
farm houfes built in thia parifli, either by the landlord or the 

Charafter. — ^Though the number of ale-houfes, mentioned 
in the table, may, at firfl: appearance, feem to bear hard upon 
the fobriety of the people, it is to be remarked, that only two 
of thefe houfes retail any conGderable quantity of ale or whii** 
ky. The people in general are very fober, and diligent in their 
fcveral occupations ; their efforts of induftry being as well 
diredied as theit fituation ai^d circumflances will permit* 

^ntiquittes. — The fite of th^ old priory f has lately been 
converted into an arable field ; and the name of Abbey-nveU^ 
which the country people ftill give to the fountain that fup- 
plied the Monks witli water, is the only memorial of it that 
now remains, 


^ In \ht ixch century, the whole of this parifli was King's property. As 
early as the year 1125, a priory, depen^eot on the Ahbey of Dunfermline, 
was credcd at Urqaliart. It w&s very liberally endowed ; all the lands now 
called ihc Lordftiip of UrquharC, the lands of Fochabers, as well a» feveral o- 
flicrs in tliis county, together with a part of the fifhing on Spey, appertained 
to it. h anpcars that about the year 1345, this cell, as well as that of Pluf- 
cardene fell into difordcr ; and the Roman Pontiff having commiifioned the 
bifliops of Scotland, to enquire into thofc irregularities, it was foon after fepa- 
»atcd from Dunfermline, and conjoined to Plufcardene, with which it coctinu. 
ed united till the Reformation. At and before that period, the priors began 
to feu out the lar.ds, refcnin;; only in their own pofTcifion the manor places 
and mills; the revenue which by that method they drew from thence, if wc 
take tnt* the acccunt the teinds, ruulturc«, and fcrriccs, would even at this 


^ UrqubarU i©i 

Pr$prfed Bridge, — ^This account ou^t not to be condud-' 
cd, without mentioning the fatisfaftion entertained in thiapa-, 
rifli, and the reft of the country, at the late ptofpeft there 
-^vas of a Brfdge acrofo the Spey. At prcfetit the ferry is 
extremely troublcfortie, attended with fomef danger^ and ncf. 
ceffarily very cxpenfive to travellers. If there were a bridge 
thrown acrofs that river, the commerce and intercourfe of the 
country would be very much increafed 5 travelling would be 
tendered much more eafy and comfortable ; and, above all, 
it would be fingularly ufeful for the jnarch of the King's 
troops 5 this, in the winter, being the only road by which 
they can pafs either South or North. For thefc reafons it is 
univerfally hoped, that meafures for a bridge acrofs the Spey* 
which have been begun, and generoufly promoted, by a moft 
lUuftrious family \ in the neighbourhood, will be taken up 
by government, and aided by the fuhfcription of every per- 


^ay be nearly adequate to a moderate rent. The priory was fituated a little 
Co the eaft of the prcfent church, in the midft of a morafs^and probably went 
to ruin foon aftei its union whh Plufcardene. In the year 1654, the greater 
part of the materials were carried off to build a granary near the (hore at 
Gannouth ; the remainder, foon after that period^ was employed in repairing 
the maofe, and inclofing the church-yard. 

In the year 1x60, the Morawenfet^ or inhabitants of Moray, (for wliat 
caufe is not now known) took up arms ; they were met in the moors 
of Urquhart by the King's aimy, which was fent to quell the infurredlioi% 
and, as we learn from fome of our hiftorians, were, after aa obilinate ro 
fiftance, defeated there with great daughter. As the inhabitants of Moray 
were at that period, according to Buchannan, of a refUefs and turbulent dif- 
poiition, aU the families engaged in thik rcbeUion were difperfed through 
the different provinces of Scotland. It is laid that thofe who were then re- 
moved into the Northern Counties, received the name of Sut me eland, which 
their defcendents dill retain, and that thofc who were fent to the South, 
allomed the firname of MueAat, which they likewife have tranfmitted t« 
their pofterity. 

\ The family of GoEOOW. 

104 Statijlkal Account 

fon who wlflies well to his country. A great part of 
the faid road, from that to Elgin, will, in a fhort time, be 
bounded with wood on each fide. The large plantations 
of his Grace the Duke of Qordon begin where Lord Fife's 
end, and are likely to be continued Eaft-ward to the river 


. ofOyne. 105 


(County and Synod of Aberdeen, Presbytery of Ga- 


By the R€v.Mk ALEXANDEft Cusuny, Minifter. 

Name^ Formy Extent, Rivers, and F'tjb. 


HE origin of the ngme of this parifti is unknown. It 
IS commonly pronounced Em. Its extent varies from 3 
to 4 miles in breadth and lengtli, and its form is vCry irregu- 
lar. The river Don divides it from Monymulk on the South. 
The rivers Ur^ and Stewck bound it on tlie North and 
N. £. And the fmall river GaJy runs into the Ury at the 
Eaftern extremity of the parifli. The Ury and the Gady 
produce eels and trouts, but there are no falmon found in 
thefe fxpall rivers^ except in (he fpawning feafon^ 

Soil, Cultivation and Roads.-'The foil pf the greater part of this 
parifli is, in general, extremely fertile. The lands near the 
church are very rich and early ; the harvefl: comrponly be- 
gins eight days fooner here than in any of the neighbouring 
parifhes. A imall part of the paii(h lies South of the high 
Vql. XV. P mountain 

io6 Statijlical Account 

niountain of Bcnochie, and the lands there are.ncitKer fq 
early nor fo fruitful as thofe on the North fide. The new 
plan of farming is gaining ground herci but very flowly, and 
is far from being general. This perhaps is owing in fomc 
meafure to the farmers being attached to the old hufbandry, 
but more to their being at a great diftance ffom the means 
of improvement, and to the roads being exceedingly bad. 

Propofei Canals. — A. canal from Aberdeen to Invernry d- 
long the fouth fide of the Don, and another from Inverury 
to Old Rayne, is at prefent projefted. If thefe public fpirited 
enterprifes fucceed, they will be of very great importance to 
the diftrift of Garioch, whatever profit* the firft fupporters 
of the fchemc may derive from the undertaking. Before 
lime and marie wefe ufed in agriculture,' the lands in this' 
pariih, and in the whole diftri£b, were confidered as the beft 
lands in the county, and the Garioch was commonly called 
the Granary of Aberdeen. But of late years the parifhes on 
|hc fca coaft, which were not naturally fo fertile, have been 
more improved j and this diftrift, for which nature had done 
To much, has received but little airjftancc from art. But if 
the canr.h take jlacc, it is probabje, that the diftrift of the 
Garioch will become one of the moft fertile and mcft valu- 
able diftrifts in Scotland. 

OhflruBlons io Improviment. — The farmers are in general 
not opulent. The leafcs are too ftiort : And very high wf//- 
tures at the mills are a great bar to agriculture, in this and fe- 
yeral other neighbouring parilhes. In this parifli the eleventh 
peck of corns ground at the mill is fometimes paid.; and com- 
monly the thirteenth peck is paid for multures and fervices. 
One of the heritors in this parifii propofes to take off the 


ofbynei ibj 

miillurcs, arid it is hoped he will be* imitated by the other 
J)roprietors in the ncighbouthood. 

Climate and D'lfeafcs. — ^The air, in general, is pure and 
very healthy, and few epidemical difeafcs prevail. The 
rheuniatifm is the mod common diforder, which, in tlii$, 
diflrift, is felt more by people of better ftationj than by the 
poorer fort of people. 

Forejl and Fruit 5rr/^x.-«— There is a, great number dflarge 
afti, plane, beech, birch, elm, oak, pine, fir, walnut and 
-chefnut trees, all above 60 years old, near the houfe of Weft- 
hall. There is likewife a very great number of apple, pear^ 
cherry, geen and plumb trees> which, though much neglec*** 
ted for thefe 40 yearst commonly bear fruit. There arc 
fome very large old Scotch firs near the houfe, * and, half a 
mile diftance from it, there are two thriving plantations of 
young Scotch firs. # 

There^is likewife a large plantation of Scotch firs on that 
part of the eftate of Pittodry, ^ich lies in this parifli. At 
Tillyfour there is a confiderable number of fruit and other 
kinds of trees, befides two large plantations 5 the one of 
Scotch firs, and the other of hazel. It is a moft beautiful ro- 
mantic pldce> and a very pleafant fummer feat. 


^ Mr JotxN HoRM, AdVociite, about 90 years ago, betotiSed this pUc^ 
Very much with feveral planta^ons of firs, which throve fo well, that it \i 
f>id he himfclf was buxied in a doffin, made out of a fir tree of his ownplan-^ 
ting. He likewife made out t fine avenue - from the entry of l\is houfe, 
which at lafl afcends a pretty little gfeen hil>, on the top bf which he built a 
imall lod^e, of two rooms, and called it Painaasds. He ornamented his 
feat with a great number ofpleafure walks, with fiaises in them> which 
ihow a great deal of tallc, conildering hotv long it is fince thefc walks wtre 
laid out. 

io8 Statijlical Account 

Population, — ^Thc^poptolatbn, at prefent, is nearly the fame 
that it was 40 years ago. The number of the males and fe- 
males is almofl: equal. 

Statistical table of the parish of Oyne J. 

No. of fouls in 1755, as returned to Dr Webftcr, - - 640 

Ditto in 1 79 J, • • - ^30, 

Decreafe 10 

C^MsiTiONs and Profcssiovb, &e; Stock, Rknts, &c. 

No. of Black cattle, - 600 

— Horfc«, - I JO 

— — Sheep, - xcoo 

Carta, - 50 

— — Ploughs, - a6 

— — Com mills^ - 5 

Valued rent, Scotch L. 2300' 10 4 
Real ditto, Sterling, about 1000 o- o 
Rent of I farm per annum, 80 o o 
Ditto of another, 4a o o 

Ditto of 5 or 6 others, ' 34 o o 
Ditto of the reft, from 4I. to 34 o o 
Average rent of in-ficld 
ground per acre, from 
tS*. to > zoo 

Ditto of out-field, 51. to 0100 

ManufdRures. — ^Moft of the women in this di drift are 
employed in knitting (lockings, and very few in fpinning at 


\ The principal enumerations and calculations in this tabic were made up 
at Whitfunday 1793. 

* None of thefe gentlemcD refidc in the parifli. About 80 years ifo^ 
ihtrc were 11 proprietors. 

No. of Proprietors *, 




— Scholars in furamer, about 


— Ditto in winter, 







— -* Weavers, 




m^^ Tailors, 


— — Smiths, 


•-^ Merchants, 



-1 Shoe-makers, 


of Oyne. lo^ 

the lint wheel. The (locking manirfaQure brings in from 
300I . to 400 1. a year, according to the price of ftockinge, 
which varies. 

FueL — ^The fuel is peats and turfs from Benochie. — ^Thcrc 
are 4 or 5 parifhcs vhich get their fuel from this high moun- 
tain. Men and horfes are employed at lead a months in 
fummcr in providing this fuel. It is wifhed the canal may take 
place, and then all thefc inconveniences will be obviated. 

Churchy Schofi, and P^r.— The ftipend was formerly 3 
chalders of meal, i of bear, and 32 1. 15s. in money. An aug- 
mentation was obtained two months ago, (March 1794:) 
The manfe was built in 1717 ; but there is no record of the 
time when the ciiurch was built. Both are nearly m a ruinous 
ftatc- Colonel Knight of Pittodry is patron.— There is only 
one fchool in the pariflu The fchool-mafter's falary is 11 L 
2S. 6 ; but he has neither houfe nor garden belonging to the 
office. — ^There are atprefent on the poor*$ roll 9 families, who 
get regular, but fcanty fupplies. There are no funds but 20 L 
Sterling *, the intered of this fum, and the coUedions in the 
church, throughout the year, will not exceed 7 1. io s. 

CharaHer and Antiquities. — ^The people, in general, are re-? 
gular and induilrious, and moflly employed in farming. 
There is not one ale-houfe in the parifli. — The only antiqui- 
ties in this diftrifl are two Druidical temples. 


1 lO Statijlical Account 



(County and Synod of Aberdeen, PRBSBYTERy oi^ 

By the Rev Mr Patrick Davidson^ Minisien 

Situation^ Form^ Extent and Surface* 

HE parifh of Raync is fituated in that diftrlft of the 
county of Aberdeen, called Gariocby anciently Garvioch. The 
church, built in 1789, for 360 1. Sterling, lies 23 Englifti 
miles north from Aberdeen, and 9 from Inverury \ and 
the road from Aberdeen to Huntly pafies through Old Rairi, 
a poft town on the Southern extremity of the parifh. The 
Hver Urie divides it on the S. W. from the parifli of Oyne* 
The figure of the pafifh is nearly a fquare, each fide of which 
is about two miles, and the church is very centrical. There 
is a hill upon the north fide of the parifli covered with heath 
and hard weeds ; and the reft of the parifli is pretty fiat, 
with a few gently rifing fpots. 

ofRayne. T07 

Soil and Cultivation. — ^The in-field foil is generally a rich 
}oam, with a clay bottom ; and, when well managed, produ- 
ces good crops. - The pxefent rainifter has often had a re* 
turn, after a crop of turnips, of 14 bolls of good bear, upon 
an acre fowed with ten. pecks. The out-^eld, which ^on-f 
ftitutes n>ore than two thirds of tlie arable ground, is gene- 
rally of a light loamy foil; and, when dunged and • limed, 
produces grain of a fharper and better quality, than the 
in-field. Thclarge farms, which are very few, are plowed 
by oxen, of 8 or 10 in a plough. But the grcateft part of 
the parifli confifts of crofts, or fmall holdings, plowed by 
two horfes, and fometimes two horfes and two cows, and that 
very impeife^lly. The tenants are at no pains to clean their 
grounds of a great deal of weeds, fucb as runches or wild 
muflard, knot^grafsi couch-grafs, and wild oats. Indeed 
there are too many fmall crofts } and the occupiers of them 
are fo poor, that their cattle have not ftrength enough to 
plow and drefe them properly. As there is plenty of peat 
mofs, which mod of the parifluoners have a right to, the pro- 
prietors have by this means broken down the pofleflions, and 
raifed their rents ; but this has been a bar to the improvement 
of the ground. A better mode of farming, however, has of 
late got in among fome of the tenants, who bring lime from 
Aberdeen, and lay down an acre with turnips yearly, and the 
year after fow it with bear, and red clover and rye-grafs 
feeds. They already fee the great advantage of thefe little 
improvements, and they will doubtlefs foon extend them far- 
ther ; and others will be led to follow their example. Their 
great diftance froip lime or manure of any kind is no fmall 
obftacle to improvement. 

Produccy Seaf9ns and Wages. — The principal grain raifed 
in the parifli is bear and oats j of the in-field, generally one 


itz Statijiical Accoupt 

thiTc! is bear and two thirds arc oats. Every tenant plants 
as many potatoes as fervcs his own family, and fometimes a 
few more, which are fold at 6d. the peck of i6 lib. weight; 
bat there is little demand for that article. We generally 
fow our oats about the middle of April, and our bear from 
the beginning to the middle of May. Our potatoes are 
planted about the beginning of May. In an ordinary year, 
our bear rs ripe by the 20th of Auguft, and our oats by the 
firft week of September. We have tery few labourers. A man 
fenrant's wages is from 6 I. to 8 1. a year \ and a maid fcr- 
rant's from 2 1; 10 s. to 3 1. Sterling. 

Fuel and Plantations. — On the N. E. fide of the pa- 
rilb there is an extenfive peat mofs, which affords excellent 
fuel, though it con fumes a great deal of the farmer's time in 
caftzngy drying, and bringing home his peats, and which 
might be applied with more profit to the other purpofes of 
agrioslture. This mofs feems Qncc to have been covered 
with oak, alder, and hazle trees ; as oak trees of a large 
fize afe ftill found at a. great depth, and fc frefli as to be of 
fomc »fe. There arc at. prcfent but a few acres planted 
wkh trees in the parifh, and thefe are the common Scotch 
firs. There are alfo a few a(h> elm, and plane trees, on 
different fpots of ground. 

Minerals f Roads and Wild ^tadrupeds^ — Such ftones as 
arc in the parifli are of the liard iron kind, but they are eafi- 
]y blown with gun powder, and drcffed for building. Our 
rO'uls are kept in tolerable repair. As there is a great deal 
of oroom in the out- fields, hares are very common, and there 
are alfo fomc polecats and foxes. 

Climate. — The air is dry and remarkably wholefome, 1^ 
the whole*, county of Garioch is, and many of the people live 


of Rayne. 113 

a great age. Rayhc lies in an open country, having one ridge 
of hills to the S. W. and another to the N.- E. The dry- 
nefs of the air is owing to this local (ituation of the parifti. 
The clouds are attrafted by thcfe ridges/ of hills on each 
fide, and fogs often reft upon the tops of them, while the in- 
habitants enjoy a clear and dry air in the open country. 
Sometimes again, when the clouds break into rain on the 
hills, or on the fides of the hills, the (kirts only of the ihow- 
er reach us in the open country. 

Difeaftfs.-^Vfe have no epidemical difeafcs. — ^In fpring and 
autumn fome fevers appear among the poor people, who live 
upon a low Hiet. Thcfe are generally of the nervous kind ; 
but when the patients apply timeoufly for medical affiftance, 
the fever of^en gives way to wine and bark, and good atten- 
tion to air and cleanlinefau We have many flight fore throats, 
that arc relieved by bliftering and gargling. Many of the 
parifliioners are fubjeft to fcurvy, and other cutaneous dif- 
orders; which appear upon their faces, hands and legs. This 
perhaps ajrifes from the poomefs of their food, conCfting of 
pottage, brofe and fowens, oat-meal cakes, kail, potatoes, 
turnips and milk. They ufe little ale, and that not of a good 
quality. But the moft fatal difeafe is pneumonia^ or cpnfump- 
tion, which ^cuts pfF 7 or 8 young people every year. And 
what is very melancholy, there are at prefent more than ao 
perfons affli£led with real fcrophula, and the number of 
fuch has increafed of late 9 while the parifliioners intermar- 
ry wtth one another, they never pay attention to this matter. 
Religious prejudices agamft inoculation for the imall-pox 
arc wearing away, and the praflice of inoculating children 
is getting in. But till It univerfally prevail in a countryJike 
this, it will not be a real blcffing. The infeftion is com- 
municated from the inoculated to the children of thofe who 
Vol. XV. P ftiU 


Statyiical Account 

ftill retain their old prejudices \ and thiw we have the fmall- 
pox raging every year in a place where, (as tb^ writer her^* 
of remembjrs,) about 30 years ago, the diftemper ^fed to' 
come about only once in 4 or 5 years. Among th(e female 
fex, who are moftiy employed in the fedentary work of knit- 
ting ftpckings for the Dutch m^ket, chronic or low hyfteria 
complaints are very common* 

Populaihn.-^The population of this parifh has been almoft 
stationary thefe many years, though there is a fmall increafc 
on the whole, fince the return made to Dr Webfter, as ap- 
pears from the following tabje, 


JIo. of fouls in 1 75J, 

' in 1760^ 

^- in 1794. 

Sexe^, Births, ficc* . 
No. of males, . 

L . ' Feoiales, • 

Mpjority of the latter 

Iperfons under 10 yean of age 
"-T*— Between 10 and ao 

? 20 and 30 

r 3oand4Q 
' ' 40 and JO 
- " 50 and 6q 
! ■■ 60 and fo 
■ ■ 70 and 80 
1. ■ ■ 80 and 90 
«^Agcd ^^^4 


I143 Increafc in 5 years, t^ 

1 1 73 Ditto in 34 years, 30 

Total increafe within thefe 40 years 

Annual aveiage of Blrchb, 
521 ' ' ■ Marriages, 

651 ■ Death* 

— — No. ofEpifcopilians, 
999 Members of the Eaablifhcd 
Church, • 










In all ix;3 

ifRayne. iij 

ManufaSun .^-^The only maimfaf^ure is the knitting of 
ftockings, in which all the wpmen are employed, and fome 
of the boys and even Id men. It is fuppofcd, that this ar- 
ticle may yield to the parifli about 4ool. Sterling. The hofe 
arc of that coarfe kind) which bring for working the pair il 
or 14 pence Sterling ; and fome of the women will -knit twti 
pairs, or two piirs and a half in the week. If it were not 
for thin lad article, the rents ti the fmall crofts could not be 
paid, as the crofters have no other way of earning money, but 
by anniially rearing a young ox or cow. 

Exports and Cattle. — ^There is annually about 20O bbUs of 
meal cartied ottt of this paiiih to the Aberdeen market ; and^ 
"as nearly as can be found, 180 cattle, young and old, bought 
up and driven to the fouth country, by dealers in that arti- 
tide, Wotth at ah average 3I. a head. There' aVe-^ery few 
herfcs teafed, and not abdte 200 fheep liept intfar {Ririfh. ^ 

• -• * • .»^ 

Pnprtftars, RertfSy 5s'^.-^Tli«gr6fs#elitof dl*t*4i^tej)infli 
in money, aiid ifieal at 10s. pet boll, is abdut 1 3t5dr«Ste^iii^j 
«ild the valued rent 15441. SdNthi The ptdpi*el»§ iit Aknl- 
ander Leith of Free^ld, James Ht)m Elphinfttfli^ 0{htig\ti 
John F<$tbes of Blackford, Aleir^nder Lefli^ «f Wsfrtk^ atid 
Alexander Stewart of Loanhcad, Efquires. The n^diuDd 
rent of the in-field is 20s. Sterling per acre. There is meal 
paid for thfe 'bttt-fields, at th^ rdte of ferorti ts.*^ 8s: iir ps. 
the acre* S6me of the fmall crofts 'Art tent^ as higbhds 2^i 
peractk* • - • ' . . •^" ' 

Cittf-ctf', ^*flf Sr*w>/,.-— The ptefent ^iperid k 4>2i; Stet- 

lin^, J2 bolls of meal, ^n^ 'i6 bolb tf bear ; f^Qf ii*prb(5«fs 

of augtkienHitioh is in de^ficfeilice. Tlie mirfle 'wis btiiH in 

1 7$ I for ic<^I. Seoteh. The fchool-heufe Wall late^J^ttHt 

P % M 

1x6 Statyiical Account 

for i6I. Stcriing, and the fchool-mafteir's falary is but eight 
bolls of meal. The heritors in general are avcrfe to the giv- 
ing of a legal falarjr. 

Poor. — The average number of poor that receive alms is 
from 1 5 to 10, The annual f um expended for their relief is 
about 20I. Sterling, which is all produced by the colledions in 
the church on Sundays, excepting the interedofpol. Stirling 
appropriated to them. Thefe 1 5 or 20 perfons live in houfes 
of their own, and there is not one in the parifli that be^ 
from door to door. Notwithftanding this, we arc much 
troubled with beggars, efpecially from the Highhuids in 
fummer, when we muQ fometimes ferve half a dozen of them 

• Oi^a^lesto /«»^i?t^fm^ft/.— There are.herc, as in the. neigh- 
bouring p9TtnieSf great bs^rs ^o improvement. The lime is <U^ 
tant 23 miles. Many of the tenants have no leafes. Since 
)782rfen|ieluv^f alien a little in arrears with their rents, and 
. feetn )^ .^.;|nt that fenfe of fejcwity which (limolates induf- 
|fy.. ':Whfft<4. pofleiBon is v^ant, there is not always the 
pr(^^r*:^ftif|}Slif>il macl^ betweeh a good and fubftantiaL ten* 
ant, a^l>ne:whp ptoinif6»>9 gte^t rent, but often.'fsuld to 

f^y'^n • .:.:. . 

.. i ..r .:. • —./.'*' . 

' M^^lfr. A£«A«r3f/, Services f isfc. — There are five mili$ in 
.the patiH), At (irft therCpnAr^^lion of a mill >va$ a work 
of ingenuity, and the proprietor obliged his tenants to grind 
all their corn at his mill. But it requires no great genius 
no^-M-djiy^ tP conftriiA a mill. . The tetiarits pay. thirlage, 
andt»r({ re8«^P*to a particulaar. mill. This fomctimes 4- 
mount»to the 17th peek. They pay alfo muUures,,or the price 
•fgfMAtig^ which is pften*thic.32d peck. They pay alfo to 


ofRayne. tVf 

the miller a lick of goodvilli^ or a ianmcky which tenants Have 
fometimes allowed to be meafured ; and there are inftanocs. 
where another unmeafured lick has crept in. Even the fads 
fifted from the bannock are fometimes paid* When all fhefe 
kgfns are added together, they amount at fome <iuUs to a: 
twelfth or eleventh part of the wholecorn carried to the miii. 
This is a fevere tax upon the indUftry of an io^roTiog 
tenants Sometimes too the corn that- grows on farms thiri' 
kd to a mill^ is obitgcd to pay muburti whether the joom to 
ground at that mill ur not. Except the experice ^f grinding* 
all thirlage (hould be commuted.-to thetenant^ in order that 
he may leap the benefit of his.ow:^ indyftry. 9iit we hnre 
one inAancc here where even this is prevented* the teft- 
ants of one eftate being thirled to the mill of another. Ano- 
ther abfurdity is» ^Titjbillen^ u e» {healing, or hulter corn, is 
meafured by^ the tackfman of the mill, and is paid, not in 
fliealing, bat in meaL There arc accordingly great com- 
plaints that the- corn is not well (healed. Another evil is, 
that thereis a millpefi^ whiqh generally holds as much (healing 
as will grind to three and fometimes four pecks of meaL 
For the (healing of the ftock, the tenant pays meal meafur- 
ed with a a>gf or wooden difii, that pays for a certain quan- 
tity of (healing. There is aifo another cog for fmall quan- 
tities of (healing. And if all thefe meafures were accurate- 
ly fixed and proportioned, there would be lefs injuftice ; but 
that is not the cafe. The multurer is allowed to mend them 
or make them anew, or alter them as he pleafes. There 
ought to be a book kept by the prpprietor of the mill, and 
figned by him and the multurer, and the principal tenants^ 
in order to afpertain the exad contents of thefe feveral mea- 
fures. We have alfd fome Goibic fervices done by the tenants, 
that ought to be abolilhed, fuch as reaping, earing, plow- 

11% Statical Account 

xag» fianrowing^ drfTing cmt dittig/ahH bringing home lime and 
Qtber afticles to the hndloifd^ra/u;. 

Antiquities and Cbaraffer*^-^Wc hare no antiquities, ex* 
Geptidg two Dniidical temples, Which dte coihmbn in everf 
parifli of this county ; and fome cairns, under one of which 
there is a tfadkion that Irvine^ the laird of Drum, lies buried. 
It is repdvtedthat he vteas jBaIn in purfuing Donald Lord of 
the Ifles, afioef the batdeof Harlaw, in die year 1411,. The 
bifhdp of Aberdeen had f<^rmerly a houfe at Old-Rain in this 
pxAfh. ' The people in gtneral are fober, regular and induf- 
tfioo^, and4tie as contented widi their condition as moft peo- 


\..ii\': \'\i 

ofKirkbfian. zig 


(CouNTT OF Kirkcudbright^ Presbttert and Stnob 
OF Dumfries.) 

Bf the Rev. Mr Edward -I^EUfSON, Minijler. 

Origin of the Name, 

X HB antieat name of the parifh is faid to have been 
Caerben. It is evidently derived from the Celtic or Gaelic, 
and figniBes the high fort or town* Caer in that language 
fignifies a fortified town or place, and ten, high. Doftor 
Clapperton of Lochmafaen, a gentleman well known for 
his knowledge of antiquities, is of opinion tliat Camden, the 
Engliih antiquary, with his followers, are miflaken, when 
they make Catrfeveroch the Caerbentcrigum of Ptolomy, while 
others, from mere conjefture, make it the Uxel/um, That 
Horfely, another Englifh antiquary, has mifled the late Rev. 
Doftor Henry of Edinburgh, to Bardenna in the parilh of 
Keir, which he makes the Cacrbcntorigum of Ptolomy, or 
the Carbantium of the Geographer Revennas. Nothihg, 
he aflerts, can be more abfurd, as Caerben is obvioufly poin* 
ted out^ both in the Caerbentorigum of Fto omy, and in the 


120 Statiftical Account 

Carbantium of the Geographer Revennas. The Cae rben- 
torigum of Ptoloiny was (ituated at the inputh of the Noviua 
Pluvius or Nith. Agreeably to this, there is, clofe upon the 
fhore, where the river now empties itfelf into the fea, about 
a mile and a half to the S. & of the church, a high riling 
ground, called the Borron HiU^ upon which has ftood a Caf- 
tle or Fort, ftill known by the nzme of the Ca/lU-Hili, or 
M^Ctdheh^s Co/lie ; and, about a mile and a half to the Weft, 
there is a place called Torrorie^ in both of which the word 
Caerhentorigum is ftill retained* 

Situation^ Hllls^ JsV* — ^It i« (ituated on a promontory in tlic * 
S. £• comer of Galloway, in lat. 54. 55 m. It is bounded 
on the N. E. by the parifli of Caerleveroch in Nitlifdale, from 
which it is feparated by the Frith of Nith about 3 milci. 
On the S. E. the firft land to be fecn is the county of Cum- 
berland, in the North pf England, from which it is feparated 
by the Solway Firth, about 10 miles. On the Weft, iris 
bounded by the united paiifhes of Colvend andSouthwich ; 
and>oa the North>by the parifh oi New- Abbey or Sweet-beart. 
It was anciently within the diocefe or bifhopric of Galloway, 
and now, with 9 other parifhes, lying betwixt the water q 
Urr and the river Nith, is within the Prefbytery and Synod 
of Dumfries, from which it is diftant about ti miles. From 
the North| where it joins New-Abbey, it flretches about 3^ 
miles to the Weft, and ppon the ftiore, which is nearly paral- 
lel, it runs about 6 miles. Its breadth may be about 3 miles, 
but it varies. From Weft to North there is a ridge of hills, 
which terminates in Crofell, or Crowfell, which is the high- 
eft hiil in thd S. of Scotland, and a confiderable part of which 
i within the parifh. The height of i\ has been accurately 


qfKirkbean. iii^ 

afcntained *. From this ridge of hilk^ the parllh inclines 
towards the (here, and prefents to the eye a rich, beautiful^ 
and extenfive profpe£i, fields well inclofcd, and in a high ftat^ 
of ciiltiTation \ with fevcral clumps and belts of planting. 

Climate and Diseases. The climate is healthy. The inha- 
bitants are not fubje£t to any local difeafe. Formerly the 
ague is faid to have been frequent ; now it has almod entire- 
ly dlfappeared. This, by fome, has been attributed to the 
neceffary operations of agriculture, the wet and morafs 
grounds being now moilly drained. By others, however, of 
.more knowledge and experience, it has been attributed to a- 
nother caufc. Formerly, many of the inhabitants went into 
Lincolnfliire for employment during th^ harveft, and re- 
turned infe£led with this difeafe ; now they have work fuf- 
ficient to employ them in the parifli, and the difeafe is fel-i 
dom a complaint. Innoculadon is frequent aiid fuccefsfuL 

Soil and Produce, The foil is various. Upon the N. W; 

and W. a conQderable tra£k lies upon lime-ftone. Upon the 

VoL. XV. q1 S. £; 

^ In 17S4. RoBKRT RiDOtLL, Efi}; <»f Gleiilriddel],«tnployed Mr WHKini 
M^anocy iaDd-fuTYCTor, to take for him the height of this hitt. The foUowiag 
is a copy of Mr M*Carto^'8 letter to hmi. *' Sir,^-Beiog the other day at 
<* CrofeU, and recoiled ing the converfation we had abont iu height, I rcfol- 
".Ted to afcertain it* I made my obfcrvation* frodi a bafe on the (bore, of 
^ a mile in length, and the rcfalt was as foltowt : vii. Douglas Cairn, ori 
<< the fummit of the mountain, 18^5, fay i^feet iA rooad BumWl*^ and 
■« Knockendoqh, or the north wmg of the mountain, z^oo feet iSt^t JugH wa» 
<' ter mark. I adjufted the lilcl before bblervation, for, by ad ezf eriaeht, t 
*< foand that it pointed two feet too low, in every hnndred yards/* 

1h 1440, William Eafl of Douglas, the lafl warden of the wed ttiatchei| 
affembied the haii iarnh, freeholders, and eldeft bcrderen of his wardeftr/ 
at lancluden. There he correded and improfcd the b«rdet lawf ; a «ef;^ 
of which is CO be found in the Lord Maxwell's masufcript of the laWs of the 
marches. In chefe laws, this hill is mentioned as one of the beatons for a- 
larming the country, during the frequent iscurfiocs nade by the BngUfli 
into Scotland.- 

122 Statijlttal Account 

S. £• there is a rich and deep clay and loam ; and upon theS. 
W. there are looo acres of fait and whinny pafture, in feme 
places light and Tandy, but moftly arable^ and cbnfidered as 
capable of being improved by tillage, to advantage. The foil 
in general is fertile, and produces wheat, barley, oats, pota- 
toes, beans, peas, turnips, rye and clover feeds. There may 
be annually in the parifh 

Under wheat, - - 133 acres 

Barley, - - 140 

Oat*i, - - 600 

■■ Beans, peas, turnips, and pota- 

toes, - • I JO 


Exporfs.-^Thc crops are more than fufficient to fupply the 
inhabitants. Wheat is generally carried to Dumfries. A 
confiderable quantity of barley, oats^ and potatoes, is export* 
cd to the Whitehaven, Lancafter, and Liverpool markets, and 
frequently to the porfs of Clyde. Potatoes were firft export- 
ed from this, in any confiderable quantity, in December 1774, 
by the late Peter Greggan, tenant in the farm of Kirkhoufe. 
For feveral years fince, a quantity has been raifed, equal in 
v^ue to the whole rentalof the parilh about 40 years ago. 

Black Cattle and Horses. — ^The cattle are generally of the 
Galloway breed, and when fattened for the butcher, or for the 
South of England, they weigh well for their fize. It is cer- 
tain, however, that the parifti, is capable of feeding in pro- 
portion, cattle of a larger kind. This has been proved by 
William Craik, Efqj of Arbigland, who made the experi- 
ment ; whilft a confiderable part of his eftate was kept in 
pafture, he introduced* the Bakewell breed j and found that 


ofKirkbean. 123 

the (ame number of thefe cattle^ upon the fame field, fattened 
equally with thofe of the Galloway kind. Their number are 
, a« fdlows : 

Horses Black Cattle. 

Empldyed in agriculture, 141 Milk cows, iig 

Ditto bred, - 37 Cattle grazed, 117T 

Total, befides carriage 1400 

and faddle horfes, 1 78 

Sheep and JFffol.'-r'Thc number of fliecp of the black- faced 
Scotch breed, kept upon the fait and whinny pafture, and 
inoi^ly fattened for the butcher, is about, 17 fcores, or 340 

Of the fame kind upon the high land, 
^ and moftly kept as a breeding ftock, 

about - 40 fcorc or 800 

Total of this kind, 57 i r40 

The management of this kind of fheep is fuch as is gene- 
rally followed in other parts of the South of Scotland- Their 
lambs are fold at 4I. per fcore, and their wool at 7s. 6d. per 
ftone, being 241b Englifli to the (lone. Of the Spanj/b kind, 
there are a few in the parifli, but of them little at prcfent 
can be faid, as they were but lately brought into thi£ part of 
the county. The kind of Sheep that produces the b^ft wool, 
and appears to be of moft advantage to the farmer, is of the 
Bahwell breed. They were firft brought into this parifh by 
the late Peter Gaeggan formerly ntentioned *, and with 
regard to wool, have fince been much improved. Their 
wool was lately compared with that of a Spanifli ram, fent 
to William Craik, Efq; by Sir JohnSikclair, and found 
to be equal to that of the Spanifh, if not finer in quality. 
^The wool of thefe (heep, upon tlie farm of Kirkhoufe, was 

q^ 2 fold, 

|34 Statifiical Jccaunt 

fekl, laft feafon, at il. per ftonc Their lambs fell at iss* 
each 5 and, when above two yea« old, weigh 171b or 2clb per 
quarter. Thejr are ied upon gopd land. 

Agricultun.-r^Yiv^ parifli is generally allowed to have 

been the firft in the South of Scotland, in an improved (late 

pf agriculture. This mud as generally be afcribed to the 

fuperior knowledge, and unwearied attention of the prcfent 

William Craik, Efq;.of Arbiglsnd, formerly mentioned* 

whofe example has had a moft ufeful influence. 

Implements of Hosbandry. 

Number of Scotch and Englifli ploughs - 47 

; — ■ ditto Drill for fowing different grains, 
befides turnip drills. 

Total, 50 

The common plough, with the round fock, is generally ufed 
in the high land of the pwiSi. The £ngli(h plough, with 
the broad ock, and broad and pot-metal moulds, upon tlie 
\ow and level land. The drill, where the land is level, an4 
free of large ftones. This plough, in its prefen^ (late, was 
conftruded by William Ceaik, £fq; and has been ufed u- 
pon his eftate for many years paft. It is drawn by one horfe 
pnly, and fows four rows at once. Three Winchedcr bufhels 
ef oats to the acre, fown by this plough, are found to be fuffi- 
cient, whereas 8 and fometimes 9 Winchefter bufliels to the 
acre, are generally fown by broad ca(L Barley and oats 
fown by thi$ plough are allowed t» be better headed, and 
of fuperior quality, to any fown by broad caft. This has al* 
ready been experienced by fame of the farmers in the panfli, 
who have followed Mr Craik*8 example ; and it is expe£led, 
that, where the land is fuitabie, felf intereft will make it more 


ofKirkbeatt. 125 

generally prcv»iL Ploughs of this cdnftru^on are made in 
the pariih, at 61. 6s: each. Iiilr Craik has u&d the fame 
plough, in fowing all kinds of graiUf excepting pulfei for 
thefe 30 years pad, and it is ftiU in good repair. Four oxen, 
with two horfes, and two men, were fornierly ufed in plow* 
ing. Now, two horfesy with one maoi who holds the plough, 
and drives the horfes himfelf, are found fufficient even for 
the hcavieft lan(f. 

Rotation rf Cro^/.— Common rotation, two crops of oats« 
a green crop, potatoes, beans, peafe, or turnips, with a drefsi- 
ing of dung : ITicn a crop of wheat, or barley, fown out 
with rye and clover feeds, to lie 3 or 4 years. The following 
rotation has been tried, but its eifedt has not yet been fully 
afcertained -, ift, oats upon ftubble -, ad, horfe beans, in rows, 
about 20 inches diftant, with a full drefEng of dung, horfe 
^nd hand hoed ; 3d, wheat upon one furrow ; 4th, turnips, 
potatoes, cabbage, &c, horfe hoed, on four feet ridges, giving 
the crop half a dunging ; 5th, barley with red and white clo« 
ver feeds, to ly one or two years, and then return to oats. 
This rotation is propofed, to make a fummer fallow unne;- 
ccflary. It is fuited for a good loamy foil, and where there 
is accefs to lime, marl, or any natural manure. Where to 
thefe there is no accefs, there mjght be difficulty in finding 
a fufiicient quantity of dung. There is now no diftinfiion 
inade between, the cmfi and the out-field. 

Proprietors, — The proprietors are "William Ci;aik| Efq; of 
Arbigland, Richard Alexander Ofwald, Efq*, of Auchen-^ 
cruive, Alexander Dickfon, Efq; of Ladyland, with James 
Duff, William M'Kie, and John Liddle, portioners. Mr 
Craik is the only refiding heritor. Of this gentleman, it is 
not eafy to fay too much, in the opinion of his acquaintance, 
gr too little, in his own. For general knowledge, for libe- 

126 ^ StcUiJiical Account 

ralrty of fentitnent, and for 'his exertions in pron:ioting the 
improvement of his country, he has had few equa:ls. Through 
a life prolonged to the extraordinary length of above 90 
years, he has cultivated thefe virtues ; and, even at this ad- 
vanced age, he has the rare felicity of being ftill capable of 
communicating, and of enjoying the pleafures which arifc 
from converfation, and from the fociety of his friends. 

Divifion and Value of the Parijb* — The parifti, as at prefcnt 
poilefled, is divided into 36 farms, and of thefe, one is gene- 
rally kept in pafture. The whole land of the pari(h is twice 
doubled in rent within thefe 40 years. The eftate of Arbig- 
land is at prefent five times the reiit that it was 37 years 
ago. This great advance evidently proves the attention and 
iridoftry of the proprietor and tenants. 

ViRageSy — Kirhbean. — There are 3 villages in flie parifli, 
Kirkbcan, Prefton, and Saltemefs. The village of Kirkbean 
formerly confided of farm houfes chiefly, with a joiner's and 
a Uackfmith's houfe. At prefent, there are two joiners 
houfes, one blackfmith's houfe, two grocery ihops, two ale- 
houfes, with fcveral others, inhabited by the labourers and 
cottagers belonging to the neighbouring farms. This vil- 
lage is pleafantly fituated. It (lands upon a place almod 
furroumied with little bilk, ai\d fifing ground, covered with 
wood. From the W. defcen^s a fmall rivulet, which, among 
the wood, forms a beautiful cataraft, and then, running gent- 
ly through the village, in the centre of which there is a 
bridge, it empties itfclf into the fea. The proprietor Mr Os- 
wakl, in the late fet of a neighbouring farm, has reibrved a 
part of this village, to accomodate the poor on his eftate, 
with free liQufes ; a mark of that benevolence and humanity 
which alone can add dignity to affluence, and of which, 


f^f Kirkbean. 127 

during the late refidence of the family in tliis paridiy the m- 
dtgenc have fo liberally received. 

Frejl^n. — ^This village takes its name from the eftate of 
Prcfton, upon which it (lands. It formerly belonged to the 
regent Morton, and is now the property of Mr Osvjtald. 
It is faid to have been a burgh of regality, and had the privi- 
lege of 4 fairs in the year. A crofs, of about 7 feet in heightf 
raifed on a bafe of (lone wall, about 4 feet fquare, is dill 
Handing. Nothing now remains of its ancient privileges) 
but at this crofs poinds have lately been comprifed. Some 
years ago, this village was inhabited by 24 farmers \ at pre* 
fcnt there are only 3, witli their cottagers* 

Sahernefs. — This village ftands clofe upon the fliore, due 
fouth of the church. It was built by the late Richard Os- 
wald, £fq; of Auchencruive, with the view, it is faid, of a 
coal trade. A trial for coal was made in its neighbourhoodg 
but without fuccefs. It is now chiefly inhabited by perfons 
who keep furnifhed rooms, to accomodate fuch as> during 
the feafon, come to it for the baiefit of fea bathing. 

Sea C^afli Tower ^ Llme-Jtone^ Sec. — ^The points of land, 
are Salternefs and Borron. Salterncfs, from whence the a- 
bove mentioned village takes its name, has been confidered 
by fome feamen, notwithilanding the charts now publiflied 
of the South-Eaft, to be the fouthmoft point of land in Scot- 
land. The name now appears to be corrupted. It is faid 
to have bceh originally, Southwicknffs^ u e. the fouthernwft 
point, probably from a parifh in its neighbourhood, called 
Souitwici. "ijpon this nefsf Or point of land, a tower is erec- 
ted for a land-mark for vefTels on their way along this coail. 
A part of it was built many years ago, by fome merchaats 

228 StatiJHcat Account 

m Dumfries, then carrying on a confidcriiblc trade with Vir* 
ginia. It was afterwards raifcd to its prefent height, by the 
late Mrs Oswald of Auchcncruivc. This tower, at prefent, 
is of great advantage to the navigation of this coaft, and would 
ftill be of greater advantage, were lights placed in it. As 
limeftonc abounds in its neighbourhood, the fca, every tide, 
wafhing that kind of rock, it is believed, that if here a fmall 
harbour was built, a confiderable trade in that line might be 
carried on. Veflcis often come to anchor at Salternefs, in 
3 or 4 fathoms, at low water, in the language of feamen, 
« to Jlop the tide.'* 

Bay, — Carsethorn bay on the eaft (bore, and at the mouth 
of the river Nith, is confidered as a fafe anchoring place. 
Several palls of wood for veflels to make faft to, have been 
put in the beach by the town of Dumfries, who levy a |fum 
for tonage, from all veflek difcharging their cargoes upon 
this {hore. All veflels from Dumfries, when meeting with 
contrary winds, anchor in this bay. Veflels bound for Dum- 
fries frequently lye in the bay, until the fpring tides furhifli 
them with water fufiicient to carry them up. Ships from the 
Baltic, laden with timber for Dumfries, generally unload here, 
as veficlsi drawing ii or 1 2 feet water, cannot always with fafe- 
ty go above this. There are 3 fathoms water in tlie bay, and 
out in the channel the water rifes 5 fathoms perpendicular. 

Hides. — ^The courfes of the tides arc as follows. Out of 
the Nith, the tides run nigh fouth to the Borron point, for- 
merly mentioned ; they then take their courfe weftward. 
Upon this (hore the tides flow 5 hours, and ebb 7. It is 
high water on the full and change days of the moon, at half 
paft eleven o'clock. Many fand banks ly off this coaft, and 
fuch is the rapidity of the tides, that velTcls getting aground 


o/Kirkbean. 129 

tipon them, have been up-fet and wrecked. The flood, in- 
deed| is more dangerous than the ebo, as it has been known 
to tumble a (hip's anchor over and over. I,t is the general 
opinion of the inhabitants, natives of the parifli, that this 
frith is gradually (hutting up. This opinion is not founded 
on tlie tradition of their fathers only ; it is founded pn their 
own obfervations. ^Jhc navigation of the frith they find is 
beconaing daily more difficult ; new fand-banks frequently 
appear ; and, upon the S. W. of the p^rift, many acres are 
^ow ejccellent fait pafture, which not long ago the tides 
covered, when they confifted of (leach and fand. 

, Fijb. — SeveraJ kinds of fi(h abound on this coaft, fuch as 
founders, (katc, cod, foles, (hrimps, &c. Turbot are rare. 
It is an obfciyation of the inhabitants, founded on expe- 
rience, that herrings frequent this coaft periodically. About 
6 years ago, they were found in vaft (hoals ; from that peri- 
od till lately, few could b^ fecn 5 at prefent (1793) they every 
where abound. 

Eccleftafticai State — ^Thc sidanfe vas built abo^t >739, 
and enlarged about 1769. Like many public buildings.of 
this kind in the country, it was not fuOlciently executed 3 .and 
now the heritors propofe to give it fome repairs. The church 
was built in 1776, and, in its ftrufture, it is elegant, conve- 
nient, and fufficient. The glebe, wHch at prefent lies fe- 
parated, but a part of which is now propofed to be exchan- 
ged, confifts of about 13 acres. The ftipend, by decreet of 
J ft February 1650, is 4 chalderg of grain, -J- meal and y bear, 
Linlithgow meafure ; 500I. Scotch in ngioney, with 50 merks 
for communion elements. The lj)uke of Qneensberry is pa- 
tron and titular. 

Yc^. XV. R S(k69ls 

I3Q Statijlical Account 

^ Schools and Poor* — ^Thc parochial fchool funds amount to 
1008I. 4s. The intcreft of this fum fupports two feparatc 
free fchools ; the one under the direftion of the heritors and 
minifter, 60 81. 4s. The other, 400L % The fchool fupport- 
cd by this fum, 19 left to the management of ** 5 honeft, up- 
" right men, of good report in the parifli, appointed to lay 
•* out the capitsj upon good and fufficient fecurity \ and to 
** take care of the fubjeft \ and that the fchool-mafter do his 
" duty to the children under his care, by inftrufting them 
5* in the principles of theProteftant Reformed Religion, and 
5^ to read and write well ; and alfo good manners and good 
*' morals." — ^The parochial poor'^ funds amount to 265I. he- 
fides the weekly collcftions, which, with the intcreft of this 
fum, fupport annually about 12 perfons on the roll, and fup- 
ply occafionally the wants of others. There has not been a, 
a beggar in the parifli in the memory of man. 

Population, r^h^ there has been no regular rcgiftcr kept in 
the parifli, of baptifms, marriages, or deaths, either before or 
fince the late Afl of Parliament, impofing certain duties up- 
on each, therefore, no account of thefe can now be given. 
I'he following is the prefent ftate of the population, and the 
number of diffenters and mechanics in the parifli. 

Population table oe the parish of Kirkbean. 
No of fouls in 1 793 - - - 660 

Do in 1755, as returned to Dr Webftey - 529 

Increafe, 131 

\ This Uft fttoci was a donation of the Ute Mr Andrew Marshall, 
merchant in Glsi%ow. He firft gave 300]. and afterwards, at his death, left 
xocL being, as it is expreiTed by himfelf, in the deed of his firft donation, 
V Freely and cheerfully given, I think, for the heft purpofes, namely, the 
^ farther promoting of genuine Chriftian knowledge, trtic piety and Tirtue 
<( towirdt God, and uprightnefi towards all men.*' 

o/ kirkbcati. 


AcKSj Sczts, &c. 


Ko. of fouli under 8 years 

Mcmbertofthe ^flabliflied 

of age 



Chorch » 



— ^ above that age 


Roman Catholics 


• 3 















^«— Houfes inhabited by 


perfon only 










No. of joiners 



^ 3 

— Mafons 



. - 


— Slaters 











— Shpe-makers 





— Bhck-fmiths 








- . I 








^-^Revenue do. 





In alii 43 

BiJUngu't/bed Men. — ^Thc late Admiral John Campbell 
uras the fon of the Rev. Mr John Campbell, for fome time 
iflinifter of this parifti. He was born in the manfe of Kirk- 
bean, 6th Februhiy 1719. Theaecount of his life, lately 
})ubli(hed in a London Magazine, \& in many circumftance^ 
erroneous. — ^John PauLj who fome years ago, took the 
name of John Paul Johns* (for what reaibn let the world 

• Sonic famUics attend a RtLiir meetIng>hoQfe in the neighbouring pi* 
riih ; but as this fociety was lately eftablifted in this part of the coutitry, anct 
as none of thofe who attend it fay they have renounced the eftabUttel 
cknrch, therefore their sumber cannot be tt prefent aii:er»^n<d; 

132 ► Statijlical Account 

judge,) was the fon of John Paul, a gardener by trade. He - 
was born in Kirkbean, about the year 1745. Of this pcr- 
foh's charafter, this j^txOti caniiot boaft. His pilla^. of thip 
hdufc of the Earl of Seikifk j his attempts to burn the toswii 
of Whitehaven, out of whofe hatbour he had ferved his ap- 
prenticc-(hip, and his conduct to his native country, during 
the American war, are in fiances of higratitude and want of 
patriotifm,.g2nerally known, and over which, for the honour 
of humanity, we would with to draw a veil. 

• Antiquities, — The caflles of Cavens, and. IVeathiy a part 

orily of each now ftanding, were once the property of the 

Regent Morton *f2Xi6, by him frequently inhabited^._ The 

wfiolc of that barony, Excepting two farms, is no3fr the pjro- 

peirty of Rich'ard Alexander Ofwald, Efq; of Auch<;)icruive, ' 

wtd, while O'ccafionally in thi^ part of the country, tefides 

at the caftle of Cavefls. Upon the >J. W. on th^foffm of 

Ardrie, at the foot of that ridge of hills formerly meptioa^^ 

wRtch" terminates in Crofell, there is « Druidical circle ftill 

entire f • 

J Advantages 

' . •* 

'' Upon his fbrfeJtdre, thefe csrftlen, Witl^ the bai6ny 6f PreiloD,.upon 
<«trhfch they ft«nd, were granted to the fsmniljr of N^rusDA^E, o&e of whom 
gtvc to a fecond ion tfto chief pare of thu Barony, and fewed out the reft. 

• f 4^1 a iictVe didance to the eaft of this, there ivas lately diicovc^ed » 
K'ji wuMf or ftone coffin, in which was* found an urn. Th; fides and ends 
of It were built wiri\ ^all flones, and covered with thin broad ones. The 
il^nes ate fiiH in ufeful prefcnration ; they make ar part of a divifion dyke, 
upon the farm. To the foath of this, another was found, but of its conftruc- 
tioD the writer has not yet been informed. In the centre of the parilh, nigh 
the public road, flood a Druidical temple, which was lately deflroycd, for the 
pvrpofe of clearing the ground, and building farm houfes. Several urns hai^e 
been turned up by the plough. One was found in the foundation of the pr^- 
lent manfe. 

ofKirkhean.' ^35 

jidvaniages and Difadvatitages^ — From the natural fitua- 
tion of the parifti — -the extent of fca coaft, upon which there 
is plenty of fleach and fbmc fea Weed, with the bays and har- 
bours formerly mentioned, it muft poflcfs many advantages- 
No farmer in the paiifh is above two miles diftant from the 
haibcur, where he can ftiip the produce of his farm, and re- 
ceive the higheft prices given in the country.- The want of 
fuel^is the only difadvantage under which this pari fh labours. 
Coal brouglit from Cumberland, in the north of England, is ' 
the common fuel, which, to the farmer, and more particularly 
to the labourer and the indigent, is a very grievous expcnce. 
This, liowevcr,' in Ibme meafure has been Icflened, by the 
the late repcarof the duty u^on coal carried coaft- ways, for 
which this parifh, in particular, is much indebted to the 
the right honourable Henry Dundas. 

CharaFfer of the InhdhitanU, — A confiderable number of 
the inhabitants of different ranks and conditions of life, ard 
induftrious, fober, aflive, and charitable. In their religious 
fentiments, they are rational and liberal, and, in their political 
opinions, they are manly and loyal. As a proof of their 
loyalty to his Majefty, and their attachment to the prcfent 
form of government, they have already fubfcribed lol. txi 
be applied in furnifhing with (hoes, made in the parifh, dieir 
brave and gallant coruntrymen now on the continent, *• fup- 
** porting order, regular government, true liberty and reli- 
** gion.*' It is expelled that a very liberal fubfcription will 
foon appear. 


134 Statiflical Account 


(County of Banff, Synod of Aberdeen, and Presbyteky 
OF Deer.) 

By the Rev. Mr John Craigib, Minister. 

Name^ Skuatioriy and Extent. 

HIS parifli was anciently named InverugU^ and often 

Longley^ the church being fituated not far from the old placfj 

of Invcrugie; on thofe pleafant and cxtenfive downs called 

the Link of St- Fergus, The church was removed from this 

fite anno 1616, when the church and pari{h aifumed the 

name of its patron faint, to whom the 17th of November, 

according to the Scotch callendar, was facred. This parifta, 

though it belongs to the county of Banff ^ is fituated in that 

di(tri£t of Aberdeen^ called Buchan, * The coaft is wa.flied 


* The male line of the oU Bails of Buchan, to whom this country orI'<^ 
ginaUy belonged, failing in the perfon of Fc&oos, the laft Earl of the ancient 
nce» hii only daughter married Wiluak Cumins of the family of Bade- 


vf St. Fergus. 135 

on the Eaft by the German Ocean, and on the South, by 
the fmall river of Ugie^ which feparates it from the parifli of 
Peterhead : The extent is as under : 


iioch» ^'ho in ber right became Earl of Bachan^ about the lieginning of the 
13th Century. The pariih of St Fergus, and fome other fmall cftate?, fccm to 
have been given off by the ancient Earls, but there ftill remained an im- 
menfe eftate, fitaated in BanlPand Aberdeen Ibircs^ to whidi WiUumC«n- 
ine fugce«ded by his marriage* 

The Cuminea continued to enjoy their yaft fortune until the year ijoS. 
This name, then one of the moft poweiful in Scotland, -violently oppofed the 
focccfiion of King Rot tar Baucc to the Crown, but were completely over, 
thrown by him at Inveniry. The king, according to Foeduv, pnrfued the 
Cumines as far as Fyvie, where, baring difperfed them, he encamped for 
for fome time, entil the parties which he fent out had burnt the Earl of Bu- 
chan*s eftate. In the Parliament holden at Perth, anno 1320, the King di- 
vided the Earl's lands ^mong his own friends. Tn the family of Bouglas 
he gave the greateft part of the parifhes of Crimond and Longmay, and a 
part of theparilhesofYyrie and Abcrdour. This appears from a charter, 
which AacHTBALn the 20th Lord DoycLAs obtained from King Robert, 
** Dileffo rt JlJeli ti&/ir9, AacBlBALOO db Dov gi» a 5, ftro iomagh fi fervith 
<* ftto" of the lands of Rothfay, drimond and Cairnglafi, &c/ in Buchan. 
Upon the family of CaAwroan he beftowcd the barony of Kelly, com- 
prehending part of the pariflies of Tarvei, New-Dccr, Old-Doer and Long. 
fide, Thefe lands reverted to the Crown by the forfeiture of Alwxandek 
Earl of CaAwroan, and a confiderable part of them was bcftowed by King 
James H. on jAurs GaanoN of Methlic, Ancefior of the Earl of Aberdeen, 
{Ciarimh ^^mrtiiv.) King Robbat gave to the family of EaaoL the 
HEui flies of Cruden, Slaxns, and part of the paiiihes of Logie, EUon, and 
Udney. To the Mabiscbal family h^ gave the pariih of Peterhead, part of 
^ongfide and Old-Deer, the lands of Anchines in the pariih of Rathcn, Pit- 
tendrum in Pitiligo pariih, and Troup, in the pariih of Gamrie. Joav 
Cum 1 KB, the fourth Earl of Buchan of that name, had, before his forfeiture 
and out-lawry by King Robert, given the barony of Philorth in portion 
with his daughter MABGAmBT, who was married to Sir Jobn Ross, fccond 
(on of the Eail of Ross, who difponed theic lands to Hugh Earl of Rof^, hfs 
brother, by a charter, dated at Invernefs 13 i6u This barony was then of great 
Cftenf, comptelmding tl^e pariih cf Frafersburgh, moil pare of Tyrie^ Aber- 


j^& Statyiical Account 



AraWe ground - r - 


■ 3' 

Links, arable, but not allowed to be plowed, 






Soil and Surface. — The foil In general is a rich clay, and 
when properly ci^ltivated is abundantly fertile. The appear- 
ance of the pari^i is ao alternate fucccQiQiii of little rifing 
grounds and valleys, but no moor or barren ground, llie 
piece of groun4 called /^/ Xfr/zib of Su Fergus y is perhaps 
one of the mod pleafant plains in Scotland, extending along 


donr, Pitiligo, and Rathen, (which laft comprehends the greateft part 
of Strichen paiilh,) together with fcvcral lands in the pari(hes of Turriff 
and King.Edward. This, together with the whole cftate of Rofs, was en- 
tailed by William Earl of Ross, on his cideft daughter Eupham, who was 
married to Sir Walter Leslie, and the heirs of her body; whom failing, 
to- Janet hisfecoad daughter, who was married to Sir Alexander FrasIlR 
of Cowie, ancedor of Lord Salton. By this marriage Sir Alexander 
Fr AS ER got this barony, a confiderable part of which continues to be the 
property of Lord SLilton, 

A part of the ancieat Earldom of Buchast was fitoatediD die Thaocdom 
«f Formartine, which is that diftrid of Aberdecnfliire, that is bonndcd by the 
river Don on the South, and the Ythan on the North. Tliis part of the 
Earl of Buchan's property remained with the Ctown, aotil David K. 
gare it to his brother in law Willyam, the 5th Earl of Sutherland^ as 
•ppears by a charter of that King, dated at Dtmdee, 30th July, 1366. 
7otam illan — ^— thaaagii futfiri de FwmartitUy cvm fertintntibutf jaum, 
M viee-comitMtu de Aberdeen^ l^e. Thereafter the Earl dilpofcd of thefc lands 
to William, eldcft fon of Williain, the 4th Eari of Orkney, as appears by 
an mfeftment prodsced in Parliament, given by James 11. DUeS* amfcM* 
guheofuffy GuVirlmo de San^o»Chro,fiU ISf b4tredt appartnt't eiimiiu Oreada $5* Ca* 
t/janU, of the land and barony of Newburgh, and fevera! others in Aberdecn- 
fliire, together with the r;tImon fifliing on Ythan, i6th March 1459, {^^ccrJs 
if Parliament ) This William wa« progenitor 01 Lord 'Sinclair, whefe 
family enjoyed thefc lands for 200 years, and then difpofed of them to Udajf 
of tiiat ilk, Turin of Fovcran, and others. 

DfSt. fergui. 13^ 

the coaft Several miled^ but of unequal bre^dtti. It produces 
abundance of (hon fwcct grafs, white clover, wild thyme^ 
and other herbs, which are thought to contttbute much to 
that delicacy and fine flavour, for which the mutton fed u« 
pon them is remavlcable. Between the links and the fei 
there is a raAgc of Jittk hills, ihoftly clay, all covered with 
bent, which, as it is carefully preferved, is ftill encreafingi 
and proves an excellent defence againft the blOMring of the 
fand, which, on a low (bore, wid\oUt fuch a banier, would 
do very material damage fo the pafture ground of Ae links^ 
and alfo to the adjacent fields. 

Sea Coafty Minerals^ fafr. — ^The fljore in the parifli of Sh 
Fergus forms two fegments of a circle ; the one, beginning 
dt the mouth of the Ugie, terminates at the Scotftown Craig^ 
and the other reaches from this Craig to Rattray«-head> the 
property of Mr Harvey of Broadland* The rocks both at 
Rattray and Scotftown afford plenty of lime-ftonci which at 
low water is eafily quarried. At Scotftown as well as at Craig^fc 
£wan, hard by the mouth of the Ugie, there is abundance 
of excelletit granite ; and, all along the coaft, an iiiexhaiifti'^ 
ble quantity 6f fiielb, which are noW ufed as manure 
with great advantage. From thefe two rocks of Ctaig- 
Ewan and Scotftown^ a very trifling quantity of kelp is mwii 
every fecond year. 

Fybery^ Pnfriet^r, % ?5*£*i— All kinds of fifli, foiiiid on thd 1L 

coaft of Scotland, are caught here iii great abundance, fuch 

Vol. XV. S ' as 

{ The proprietor, upwards of 4o years ago, attempted to cilallifh a ^* 
xng town in this parifli ; and if there were a proper landing place for th^ 
boats, it would be an excellent Aatlon for fifliers, being fo near to Rattray* 
bead, which has long been eftcemed the very beft fiihing ground fftr cod mi 

ijS StatiJiicalJccdunt 

2& ling, fkate, fiounderS) cod» haddocks, crabs, lobfters, £rc» 
Mr Ferguson of Pitfour, the fole proprietor of this pariih^ 
has the falmon fiChing in the^Ugie, for which he receives 
icol- Sterling yearly rch^ from Mcffrs Arbuthnot in Peterhead** 
The quantity of falmon taken here in a feafon, has fome- 
times exceeded 12 oo barrels \ but in one feafon, they only a- 
mounted |o 14 barrels and a half. It very often happens, that' 
the mouth of the river is almoft Ihut up, by large quantides 
of fca weeds, fo that the falmon cannot eiiter tt ; and this ob* 
(lade generally remains until the fea weeds are carried off by 
a land flood. 

Ligkt'Hoii/e lind Canal propofed, — Tt is the opinion of (hip- 
mafters, who fail along this coaft, that a light-houfe on Rat-^ 
tray-hcid is highly ncceflary. \Vithin the (aft twenty years, 
feveral veflels with their cargoes have been daflicd to pieces 
on tlie rocks of Rattray and Scot-flown, wtich would have 
been faved, had there been a light-houfe at llattray-h6ad- A 
canal might alfo be made at ^ fmall expence, from the mouth 
of the Ugie, along the fouth fide of this parifli, and might 
be extended to the diftance of feveral miles through the 
country weftward. 

Agficuhuft. I' — No fown grafs or grecri crops were pro-. 
duced hercj iintil the proprietor, and fome other gentlemen, 


\ About 25 ye^s agb, a moft eteerkble mbde of farmiog Vai pradifed 
in this parifli. Four, and often fa, horfcs dragged after them the old Scotch 
ploughs. As there were at that time but few black cattle or (hecp, the only 
manure was the dung of the horfbs, exceptiog that a few farmers in the S. £. 
part of the parifli, laid fet->wecd on their grounds ; the firft crop after the 
doDg, or fea-wecd, was bear, which ^as fucceeded by two crops of oats, and 
'ft trop of beans or peaTc, and this Was followed by a crop of bear, fometimcs 
withoat fea»wccd or dubg. This was the manner of treating the in-field. 
Tlie wt'fdi^ that is the gronad which had never any manure laid upon it^ 


of St. Fergus- 139 

formed a fociety for encouraging agriculture, and gave pre- 
miums for fallow, fown grafs,' and turnips. By this encourage- 
ment, and by obferving the great advantage that accrued from 
early grafs, hay, and green crops, the farmers were induced to 
fallow, fow turnips, and lay down their fields in grafs 5 and at 
prefent, fome of them have generally one third of their farm 
in grafs, and a very confiderable number of cattle are every year 
fed on turnips. Although improvements in agriculture have 
made but little progrcfs, as yet, in this pariffi, it is a curious 
faS, ^hat until the greatcft part of the leafes were expired, 
there was nothing done in that way. This is chiefly owing 
to a well-placed confidence in the proprietor, who has never 
yet ejefted a tenant, although many of thenfi have had no 
leafes for upwards of 20 years. Many offers of an increafe 
of rent have been made for every farm, as foon as the leafc 
expired j but tlie poflcfibrs, or their heira, if they inclined to 
remain, have been allowed to continue in their farms, and 
no rife of rent has been exafted. The proprietor, wifely judg- 
ing that improvement fliould precede a rife of rent, has been 
at great pains to lead them to better management ; and al- 
though the encouragement given has not had all the ttkfk 


carried oats for three or four fears. . The fourth year, the retom feldom 
doubled (he quantity of feed that had beeo fowo. The fifth year, they fallow- 
cd the out- field, but g^ve no xnanare of any kind ; and the fixtb year they had 
a tolerable crop of oats. The ground was then allowed to reft for fome 
years, and it was feldom before the 4th year, that it got a green fuiface. It 
no fooner had this appearance, than it got on« plowing in winter, and was 
fuffered to remain in that ftate for a year, and then bad a fecond plowine* 
and was fown with oats. If there was any part of the field, that had not 
undergone the firft plowing, the farface was dug up with the fpade, and 
therewith dykes were made of A or 3 feet in height,' which having been ez» 
pofcd to the winter froft and rain, were in fpring polled down and fpread 
(npon the ground, from which the furface had been taken. This ground wa^ 
then plowed, and feldom failed to prndi^ce one good crop of oats. 

i4^ Statyiical Account 

that might have been expefled, the mode of fanning is much 
changed. Inftead pf 6 horfcs in a plough, they never ufc 
more than 4, and piany ufe only 2| without a driver. Some 
plow with 6 oxen, fbme with 4, and fome with 2 ; but the 
Jiorfes and oxen are of a much larger Gze than forraerlyi and 
th^ Berwickrfhire ploifgh i$ now generally ufed. 

Produce^ Sgafonsy &c.-^The crops now raifed arc oats, 
weighing from 1 4 to 16 (lone, Amllerdam weight *, bear from 
17 to 19 (Iqne \ beans, peafe, turnips^ pots^toes, and a little 
flax. The feafon of fowirig is from the latter end of March 
%o the beginning of June ; and the haryeft commonly begins 
^fter the middle of September, and is AniQied about the end 
pf Odober- The rotation of crops, followed by thp heft far- 
mers, is turnips or fallow, bear laid down with grafs feed$, 
and after 3 or 4 years in grafs, two crops of oats are 
taken. If, after this, the ground is clean, beans are fown, but 
if otherwife, turnips or potatoes, and then bear and grafs feeds. 
Wheat has beei^ negleded, although it is well adapted to the 
foil ; but as the heritor has kept fome good farms in his own 
hand, (when the tenants have died, or removed of their own 
ftccord,) to accommodate farmers from thofe countries where 
wheat is cultivated, it Is to be hoped, that this grain will in 
a few years make a principal part oi the crop of tliis parifh. 
The grcateft part of the foil here being a ftrong clay, and 
^U of it on a rich clay bottom, it is clear, that the carfe 
mode of plowing and cropping would fucceed well here. 
When this mode is introduced, the true valine of this foi| 
will be known. 

Farm Rents apd hnprovemmts, — ^The tenants being nu- 

^nerous, the rents are various. Some pay 90 1. in money and 

^rain \ and fome 2I. or perhaps even Icfs* Every man who has 

of St Fergus. 141 

m liorfe has alfo a cart. Some ufe no horfesj but do all kinds of 
fann woik with oxen. One farmer^ James Clarke in Ne- 
cher-hill, ufes o^^en for his threfliing machine/ which is the 
only thing of the kind, that has as yet been introdi^ccd in this 
part of the country. It is to this induftrious honeft man» that 
we are indebted ior introducing the (hell fand as a manurej 
which now turns out to fo great account, that many acres^ 
which would not formerly have^ produced double the quanti- 
ty of the feed, now produce weighty crops both pf grain and 
hay. , I 

Exports^ — ^This parifh always produces more grain than 
is fufEcient for the fupport of its inhabitants \ and even in 
the year 1782, had the produce been kept witliin the parifh, 
there would have been no need of any foreign fopply. About 
1600 bolls of grain are exported annually} butter and 
cheefc to the value of 600 1. Sterling ; fat cattle, hoxfes, 

i ' and flieep, to a confiderable amount \ and a fmall quantity of 

! hay and potatoes. 

* Pcpu/atioft. i^^Thc population of this parifh is fomewhat 

j ' lefs than it was 40 years ago. The following table fhows 

the decreafci as well as the ages, pirofeffions, &c. of the in- 

Statistical Table of the parish of St Fergus. 

No. of Cbult in i;ii, as recwoed to Dr 

Wcbftcr, 1 17 1 

pitto in 1775, • - 1*54 Dccreafc, 17 

Ditto in 1793, • • 1240 Ditto 14 

Total decreafe within 46 yean, 3 1 

Agi8, Sizxf, BiETHt, &c* No. ofpcrfoQsbetween 50 and 70,272 

Ko of perfons under 10 years of A ged 70'aad upwards, an 

age, - - 108 No. of males, - 559 

w Between xo and ao 230 -Females, - 6S1 

■ ' ■ . ' ' . ' ' . '»» jjo and 50 409 — ^ 

Majority of females, i%% 



Statijlical Account 

Annual average of birthi f , for 7 

years preceding Odober 179a, »8 

Ditto of marriagef, 8 

Ditto of deaths, - aa 

Conditions, FaorESsioNs, &c. 

No. of proprietors, - l 

-p— Minifters, - | 

» School-matters, I 

— — FarmeMi • |Sl 

^ ' Shop-kef pcrs, - » 

— — Wcavcrt, - 43 

' ■ Smiths, - 7 

■ Wrights and Coopers, la 

y Shoe-makers, 5 

^ Tailon, - 5 

MafoQs, - 3 

— ^— Inn-keepers, - % 

MiUers, - 6 

Stock, I^ents, &c. 
Ko of Horfcs, - 165 
Black Cattle,. 785 

— Sheep, - 908 
MiUs, - 3 

— Ploughs^ - 70 

Valned rent in Scotch mo- 
ney, . - . L. 300a o o 
Waqes §. 
A man fervant, per annum, when 

maii)tained|, from L. 6 to L. 8 o o 
A woman ditto from L 3, to 4 o 
A reaper in harveft, with main- 

tainaace - 150 

Ditto when hired per day, xod or i o 
A female ditto, per feafon, 100 
Ditto per day, from 6d to 008 

A Wright per day, maintained, 

from 8d to 010 

A tailor, ditto 006 

A mafon, without mointaioance, 

from is. 8d. to o 1 10 

A day labourer with meat 006 
Ditto without it, 9d or 00 to 

Rt LI oioirs Persuasions. 
Members of the Eftabliihed 

Church, - 1145 

Antiburgher Seceders, aj[ 

Scotch Epifcopalians, • 70 

HianufaElurers. — ^Thc bleach-field at Tnvcrngie, belonging 

to Meffirs Forbes, Scott, and Co. employs a good many 

hands. There is every apparatus for bleaching thread ; and 

' * the 

f Alezanber ANnERSON, miUer at Inverugie, aged to, has 40 grand- 
children, all under 20 years of age. 

5 The prices of provifions aie the fame here as at Peterhead. 

I "When the man fcrvant lives out of the family, he has, befides the above 
wages, 6 boUs and a half of meal, at 8 ftone per boll Amfterdam weight, and 
I boll ten pecks of malt, ALerdcen-fliire meafurc with veptablcs. • 

tf St. Fergus. i43 

Ae value of the thread >j^hitened here annually, is about 
^ooo 1. Sterling. — A confidcrable quantity of linen yarn is 
fpun in this parifti, by which a woman can earn aT)out 4d. 
per day. — The weavers here are kept in employment by 
ti'orking for Meffrs Kilgoiirs, woollen.manufa£iarcrsiitKin«^ 
mundy, in the parifh of Longfide, and Alexander Dalgatno 
and Co Peterhead. The beer and porter brewery at Inveru- 
gie is carried on by Mr Seller with fuccefs;,and a diftiliery . 
of whiiky, by William Lillic, and Co. at the feme places 
turns to good acount. 

Dtftijfcs. — The fmall-pox carried off great numbers for- 
merly ; but as inoculation is now become general, this dIfeaCd 
is lefs fStal. The fcufvy, with which many people hex'e 
were affedled, is general, owing j>crhap8 to the more 
iiberal ufc of vegetables. Fevers, and often confumptionsj 
prove fatal in this and the neighbouring pariihes ; btit the 
mod tefrible difeafe^ that has been known in this part of the 
country for a century, is the putrid fore throat, which was 
not known here before December 1790. The number of 
deaths were more than double that year, owing to ravages 
made by this difeafe. 

Language and Etymologies. — The dialedl called broad Bii- 
chans is fpoken here. It is thought to approach nearer to 
the ancient GMc^ than the language of any other diftrict iii 
Scotland. As the Pids were the antient inhabitants of the 
£aft coaft of Scotland, they Impofed names on the different 
places, expreflive, (in their language,) of their fituation or 
fome particular property. It is not eafy to aiCgn any good 
reafon, for attempting to derive the names of places in this 
country from the Ceitici as there is no evidence, that it was 
inhabited by the Celta. The names of all the plaCes in this 


144 Statijlical Account 

pariQi, and the adjacent country, plainly appear to be Go-* 
thicy Saxon, or Danifb. For example, Sotah-effie^ Middle-effie^ 
and Horth-effie^ fignify the South, Middle, and North paflure, 
or feeding place, from the Teutonic Efjeny to feed. Pittin* 
beatby compounded of the Saxon P/V, and Heathy the name 
of a well known flirub. Piijhur, the hollow trench 5 Pitjligo^ 
anciently PUJligachy the ilaughter hollow. Crudffi, was cer- 
tainly a part of the ancient Cruihenicaj or Piftifli kingdom, 
fo called ftom Crutheti the jBrft king of the Pi£ls. Deerj the 
name of a neighbouring parifli, (ignifies a valley^ and is very 
expreffive of the fituation of that place. Broadland^ the land 
of bread* Crimond^ anciently Creichmonty the low or little 
mount. LoMmay, anciently Lottgmay, the long green, Src. 

Woods. — At prefent there is no wood in the parifti, ex- 
cept a few old planes at Inverugie. J The proprietor has 
paid much attention to the raiCng of wood on his other eftates^ 
particularly in the pariflies of Deer and Longfide, where he 
has planted 940 Englifh acres. They were all planted with 
Scotch firs, which fuccceded in about one fourth of the whole, 
and that part has been filled up wnth barren timber of dif* 
fcrent kinds. Where the Scotch firs have failed, the larch 
and frtruce have come forward ; and it feems probable, that 


\ There is clear evidence, that, at fome former period, a g^eat part cf 
this pariOt hps bceii covered with wood, chiefly oak, aller, birch, haeel, anil 
willow, the remains of aU which are found in the mofiefl. No roots or trees 
however, of the Scotch fir have been found, which fhows that this kind of 
Wood is not proper for this part of the country. It would appear that the 
woods in this country bad, at one time or other, been dcftroyedby fire, as the 
mark* of that clement are yifible on many of the roots and trees that are du^ 
up in the mofles. h may not be an improbable qonjedure, that this happen • 
ed anno 1308, when King Kobert Baucc defeated CuutNB Earl of Buchan, 
near Invcrnry. Fordun, ^ affer narrating this defeat, adds, *< cwitaium dt 
MuthoB igm eonfumjlt. 

of St. Fergus. I45 

\>y draining, and planting larch and fpruce firs for nurferies, 
other trees may be brought up. Many drains have already 
been made^ and feveral thoufands of larches and fpruces have 
been planted^ and the fame improvements are carrying on 
through the whole. 

Roads and Bridge.'-^liht principal roads, through this pa- 
rifli, are thofe leading from Peterhead to Fraferburgh and 
Banff, and from Peterhead to Old Deer. They are kept in 
tolerable repair by the ftatute labour, but will never be 
good roads until turnpikes are c(labli(hed. It is not to be 
imagined that any man will work a day on tHe roads, when 
he may redeem his labour for 3d. If ever a mail coach be 
eftabliihed, for the accommodation of the country north of 
Aberdeen, the courfe muft be by the coaft fide, at leaft in 
winter, as the other road by Fyvie is often impaflable, on ac- 
<:ount of the depth of the fnow ; and the certainty of paf- 
fengers, from the towns on the coaft, efpecially at Peterhead, 
where there is always a great refort of company for the 
benefit of the mineral well, will m^ke the road by the coaft 
fide eligible in fummer. The only bridge in this pari(b is 
;that over theUgic, on the road from Peterhead to Fraferburgh 
and Banff. It confifts of two arches. This bridge was built, 
in confequence of an a£t of Parliament for that effef^, in the 
reign of James the VII. of Scotland, and II. of England. * 

Eccleftajlical State. — This parilb is one of the 32 the tithes ^ 
and patronage whereof belonged to the Abbey of Arbroath. § 
Vol. XV. T The 

♦ Jlefriufed A&t of Pari. Jambb VH, Par. I. 

^ The minifter of St. Fergus formerly fupplied the charge at FettertDgut, 
hy preaching there every third fabhath, until J 6 18, YiYitn FettertBgu wu 
.annexed to Deer. Fctterangus^ as well as St. Fcr^s, it in Banff ihire*, and the 


1 46 Statijlical Account 

The family of Panrpurc acquired a right to thofc tithes and 
patronsgc ; but, by the attainder of the Earl of PikNMURE, who 
unfortunately engaged in the rebellion in 1715, the patron- 
age fell to the Crown. The ftipend is 90 1, including one 
chalder of bear, and three of meal, valued at 8 1. 6 s. 8d. per 
chaldcr. The glebe is about 8 acres of good land. The 
phurch was built in i']^'i% and the manfe in 1766 ; and both . 
jre in goqd repair. Thpre is no diffenting meeting-houfc in 
the parif^. 

Schools, — ^The fchool-houfe was built anno 178^5. The 
falary of the fchool-mafter confiftb of 10 bolls of meal paid 
jay the parifhioners, and 3 1. 9 s. paid by heritors. He draws 
2 1. froni the kirk-feffion as their clerk, befides what he re- 
ceives at baptifms and marriages. As there are generally 
fomc private fchools in the parifli, the number of fcholars 
attending the parochial fchool feldom exceeds 30. Such as 
are taught Latin pay 2S. 6d, arithmetic, 2 S, reading an4 writ? 
ing, 1 s. 6d, and reading Englifh, i s. per qaarter. 

Poor — ^The number on the poor's roll in the parifh is 30 \ 
and the funds, from which they are fupplicd, arife from 120 1. 
at intereft, the profits of a herfe for burials, which, at an ave- 
rage, produces 3 \.per annum ; feat-rents, 2I. 14s. 4d ; &c. the 
weekly colledions 24 1. per annum ; amounting in all to 3 5 L 
14s. 4d. Jamijs Ferguson, Efq; of Pitfour, the fole pro- 
prietor of the parifli, gives annually a liberal donation to the 
poor, by which, and the above funds, they are fo well fup- 

plied, that there are no beggars in the parifh. 


fcafoii is laid to be, that the CmrKKs of Invcrugle, the ancient proprieton, 
who were heritable Sherifis of QanfT, obtained an ad of the Legiilature, de- 
pUring their own lands to be within their own jurifdidion. St. Fergus, Fet- 
^erapgtts, and Strolacb, in New-Machar pariih, which alfo belonged to the 
pheynea, paj the land tax and window tax, as parts of Banff-flure, but in every 
gther refpcd are fubjed to the jorifdiftion of the Sheriff of Aberdeen. 

. of St Fergus. 147 

Eminent Men, — ^It might be proper, under this article, to 

give a fliort account of the mofl: eminent family in Scotland, 

the CuMiNESi who were Earls of Buchan, * and cither pro- 

T 2 prietors 

\ The chief of this family wasCvMiNfc Lord BaAknoch, of whom were 
dcfcended the EarU of Buchan and Monceith, and 31 knights $. This fac- 
tion, with the Earls of Maer and Atholl, with whom they were conned^ed 
by marriages, -ruled the kingdom as they pleaTed, during feme years in the 
latter part of the reign of Alexander the II. and durihg the fird part of 
the reign of Alex AND BR III. "> 

The male hne of the ancient Earls of Buchan failing in the perfon of 
Ferous^) the lad Earl of the ancient race, his daughter Marjory married 
William Cumin e^ of the hoafe of Badenoch, who in his right became Earl 
of Buchan about the bcginoing of the 13th century. His pofterity continued 
to enjoy this great eftace for too years, and were the mod powerful fubjeds 
in the kingdom. This Earl founded the abbey of Deer, and endowed it with 
a confiderable revenue in lands iituated in the county of Aberdeen, Ahhq 
laiS. He was /conftituted great judiciary of Scotland by Alexander II. in 
t%%o ; and his brother WALTBa was by the fame King created Earl of Mon- 
te it h, he having married the heirefs of that family, by whom he got a large 
cdate. The Cdmines being now fo xich and powerful, they became form!- 
, dable, not only to the nobles, but even to the King. They were called to 
anfwer before the King and Eftates, anno 1135, for their various aifls of 
tyranny^ •pprtffm^ murder^ arndfacnUgt^ and not appearing, a fentence of out- 
lawry and forfeiture was pronounced againft them ; but Government tvas tod 
weak to put this fentence in execution. The faction , gxtatly irritated by this 
fentence, refolved to take the fird opportunity of getting the king's perfon 
into their power \, Walter, Earl of Monteith, was the principal adtor in 
this plot ; and having along with him William, the ftd Earl of Buchan ot 


§ FoRDuiftf»</ Major. 

\ A charter granted by FtRGui ^ar/p^BofcHAN fo JOH*! fbefiao/VCH' 
rutD^is to Se/een in tb* Advocate t lihrary, Frtm the tborter it afipeart that 
Fergus lad exchanged the Idndtyjituafed hettoixt Gicbi andfBe'Beati o/B§6ikh^ itUB 
John for the lands of Stains ; and John ivas obliged tegivt atttkdknei at tht iWHf 
held by the tart hisfuperior at EIIm. 

I Fordo N. 

148 Statijlical Account 

prietors or fuperiors of all that Earldom, befidcs many con- 

fiderable eftates 10 other parts of the kingdom. But as it 

r would 

the name of Ciunine, the Earl of Athol, Lord Badenocd, the Eai4 of 
MARii»and otliers of their adherents, they entered the royal apartments 
at Kinrofs, early in the morning of the aSth of 0<5fcober lxjp5,'and made the 
king a prifoner bcfqre he was awalce, and carried him to Stirling. They 
then diiinified his Majefty*s iervantR, and filled all placet of trull %rith their 
own adherents. So great was their power, that the king, after he had recov- 
ered hi4 liberty, thought it prudent to give them a full pardon. 

Alexandfr, .the 3d Earl of- Buchan, of the name of Cnmhie, wa« 
Juibiciary an4l'Ord high Conflable of Scotland, and was appointed one of the 
fix governors of the kingdom, a^ter the death of King AtsxAVntii III. Her 
founded ap hofpitafat Turriff, anno 1272, for twelve poor huftandmen, and 
another at Newburgh, both in Aberdcenfliire. John, the 4th Earl of Bochao^ 
conftable of Scptknd, was one of the arbiters chofcn on the part of Jpuiv 
Baliol, in the competition for the drown between him and Robert Bruci. 
At this time, John CuMiNE^Lord Badenoch, commonly called the 3Uck 
Cuitiitt, claimed the Crown of Scotland, as being defcendcd of Hcxasilda, 
daughter and hcirefs of Gotbkric, fon and heir of Donald king of Scotland. 
It IS well known how this affair was determined by Edward I. of Enghnd. 
To the Black Cumine fucceeded his fon John Guminb, Lord of Badenoch, 
commonfy called the Red Cumne. Scotland had now for a confiderable time 
groaned under tht yoke of EngtlAi fetvitude : Baliol had meanly gitren up 
his pretended right to the Crown to Edward ; and Bruce had fecretiy inti- 
mated to his friends his intention of afferting his title to the royal dignity. 
C (J mine, ever mindful of his own intereft, made a folemn engagement with 
Hobsrt, to aid him with all hi» power in mounting the throne^ provided he 
fhould be reftored to the large pofteflions which his family had formerly enjoy- 
cd ; but, after deliberating upon the affair, he began to doubt the event : If 
the attempt failed he was undone ; and he did not know how to retrad : Hit 
own black heart fuggefted the deteftabie remedy : His hopes of great rewards 
from England induced him to divulge the whole fcheme of the ScottiQi 
fuitriots to Edward ; aDd3RUCB, finding that he was betrayed, with difficulty 
efcaped to Scotlfod, where, difcovering clear proof of the villany of Cum in e, 
be purfued him to the church of Dumfries, whither, from confcious guilt, he 
had fled for refuge, and punilhed him as his crime defeived, on the tenth 
of February 1306. Having no iffue, he was the laft Lord Badenoch, of 
the name of Cumine. The ilaughter of the J7«i/ CirimM by Bmi7cs infpir- 


of St Fergus. 149 

would greatly exceed the limits of a ftatlftical account to 
notice, even brkfly, the many iUaftrious charadters in this 


ed the whole cUo with a defire to rerenge kit deit^. They continved vio^ 
leatly to oppofe Bsucc { but, by defeatisg the £wl of Buchan tt Inverttrie^ 
Mtft9 1308, he put an end to the greatneft of thif too powerful family. BaucK 
purfued rhe Cumioes to Fyvic, where they were entirely difperfed. He cr« 
c^ynped there, until the return of the parties which he had fent out to bum 
the Earl of Bvcban's cftate : The £ari was chco focfeited and out-lawed^Y« 
At what particular period the CacYNsk became proprietors of thisparifh* 
is not certainly knowof but it iRould appear, that they were in pofisilion of 
this eftate before the C amines fncceeded to the £aildom of Bucban. Sir 
Rkginolo CscTSfa of Invcrugie was the founder of the Carmelitei houfe in 
Aberdeen; and, beikles other revcnncs, beftmred upon it 40s. f yearly out of 
his hmds of Blackwarer, in this parifh. He had, by his wife, a daughter of 
Cumine, Lord Badcnoch, two fons ; Sir Reginald, who, in 1267, was prc<* 
tnoted to the office of Lord Chamberlain of Scotland} ; HaNar CHtYNC, the 
Chamberlain's brother, was eleded Biihop of Aberdeen, ammo l)8i. He was 
one of thofe who iwore fealty to Edward, ammo 1296. As he was neatly jf 
laced to the CvstiMts, he adhered to that party, and was obliged to leave 
this country, and take rcfoge in England , where he remained in exile until 
King RoacaT was pleafed to recal him. He was fo happy in being allowed 
to^refume his (unions, that he applied all the revenues of the fee, which, 
during his abfence, had increafed to a very confideraUe fum, in building the 
bridge over the Don at Aberdeen. This bridge confiib of one Gothic arch, 
71 feet wide at the water, and the height, from the water to the top of the 
arch, is 60 ficet* He died anm 1319, having been hiihop of Aberdeen 4S 


5 AJUvtrJeal^ mftd hj this Eoii In his father $ li/efme, taaj iatefyfimnd at 
the wnnaflery ^ TuHgUmd in Galloway, Jt heart • fiield emhatiled at ttp, and 
aomtaimimg three garht sr 'wheat Jbeaves : *The LfgemJ, S, Jouis Con IN, Fel. Coat, de 
Bueham. Am hipreffiam ofthiifeal voatfent to that meofi ingemioms amtiquary Captaim 
HcNar HOTTOM rftbe Xoyal Xeghmemt of Artillery^ who it h hoped will Jkn 
favamlr the PMit with his valuahle colU&iom 0/ Antiqmitiet. 

- t f^ritet ofKimgi College, 

\ Fordmm^ vl. 2 /. Ift6. md Lives 0/ Officers of State. 

150 Statijlical Account 

great family ; and, as, indeed, Aich difquiCtions belong moxt 
properly to the department of the hiftorian or b'wgrapher^ than 


Xfars. The dfred male liiie of theCBBTNEB 5 of InTeragie failed in the 
feign of Davii», IL and thef arifliof St Fergus, with the other cfiatesbelong- 
iiig to tftc family, fell to two heirefles, \ the eldcft of whom. Ma riot H4^ 
CffETif^, iparried John Keith of Ravcnfcraig* fecond fon of Sir £owarx> 
KaiTH, great Marifchal of Scotland, who in her right became proprietor gf 
this pariih about the year 1560. Thedired male line of John h fail- 
cd in the perfon of -Sir Wii^li am Keith of Inyenigie, who fell in the battle 
of Flowden. He left two daughters, the elded of whom Ivas married to 
William the 4th Earl Marifchal, foooetime before 1 5 38. By this marriage 
Earl Mariscwal became proprietor of St Fergus. He was poffeiTed of one 
of the greatcft land ei^ates-at diat time in Scotland. In the years 1530, and 


^ Tbt pafife tf St Fergus made but cJmaU fart cftbi property vf tbh antietit • 
famUy, NiJbetfaySi ( Heraldry^ ^, J. p. i$nj thai be fnu a ebarter granted by 
Reynold Cbeynej fin of Reynold tobo was tbe fin of Reynold , of^ landt rf'Dury. 
King RoBiRT Brvcr gives the landt of Dalminy^ Mohieb formerly belonged to 
Roger Mouxrat, to REaiNALD Chetne, at tbat iing*e charter bears in tbe 
Marl of Haddin^on*s coUeBions. Reginald Cbjltne f^ves tbe lands of Ardlogie^ 
in the parifi of Fyvie^ forfupporting a chaplain in tbe priory of Fyvify vubicb vuu 
fubordinate to tbe abbey o/'Arbroaib. ( Cbart. of Arbroath ,) 

From Chetne of Inverugieytoere defcendd the Cbeynes of Effelmua^ Amagty 
Pitficbie, and Stralocbj all which are now extinff. 

Chrisitan Cu ETNE, a dangbter of Straloch, was married to Sir ALEXANDER. 
Set ON of that Hi, who bravely defended the town of Berwick agaiitjl King Ed- 
ward and the whole Englijb army, anno 1 33 3. Edward having fummoned tbe 
town tofttrrender^ threatened^ in cafe of refnfal, to put to death Sir Alexander's 
tTvo fonsy then in bis hands ^ tbe one as an hiflagey and the eiher eu aptifoner', but nd- 
thing could prevail with tbe brave Sir Alexander to give up the town as long as it 
toas poJfiUe to defend it. The perfidious Edward, thereupon^ mtf batharwtfy exe^ 
eutedthe two young men^ William and Thomas Seton s, in view of their father 
and mother; which fiociing fpeSlacle they bore with a mofi uncommon degree cfforti" 

\ Tbeyouttge/l of the co-heirejfes of Cheyne of Tnverugie was married to NiCOL 
Sutherland o/* Foriat, and brought with her tbe iaads of Dvtrvs in Moray ^ 
irtis NiOOL was anceflor of the Lords DuFEBS. 

of St. Ferjrus. 151 

to that of the Jlatifiica/ phiLfip/jery we (haU content ourfelvcs 
with giving in this place only a brief flcctch of the charafter of 
the great Field Marfhal Keith, brother to George, laft Earl 
of Marifchal j and Whh thro\ying a few anecdotes of his moft 


Z540, he g-ot chtrtcrs ] on many landi lying in the countiet, Cajthoefs, layer- , 
sefi, Mt^ray, Banff, Aberdeen, Kincardine, Angus, Fife, Linlithgow, Ace:' 
It U faid, that after Queen Mart's captivity, he took no concern in public 
affairs, and by living a retired life in his caftle of Dunottar, he got the name 
of William in the Tower. He fo nroch improved his eftate, that at his 
death it was reckoned worth 170,000 merks Scots, or 14,108!. 6i, 8d. Sterling. 
This eftate was fo fitaated, that in travelling from the north point of Caiih. 
ncf», to the borders of England, he could ileep every night on his own 
ground, f 

This noble l^rd died in an advanced age in 1581, and was fucceedcd by 
his prandfoo George, the jth Earl Marifchal, one of the moft eminent men 
•f his time. After having ftudied at GeneVa, under the famous Tueodokc- 
BtZA, he travelled through Italy and Germaiiy, where he viiited the Land- 
grave of Hesse, Prince of the Ca 1 ti, who, underftanding who he was, re- 
ceived him kindly, and treated him with magniiicence, as a Scotch 
defcendant of the ancient Catti. In 1581; lie wa? fcnt ambalfador extraor- 
dinary to the cooxt of Denmark, to efpoufe the Princefii Anne in name of 
James VI. of' Scotland, and 1. of England. Being poifcfled of a great eftate, 
))e appeared with all the luftre and magnificence with which the wealth of 
Scotland co^ld adorn him, and that chiefly on his own expences. In 1593, 
he made a noble foundation cf a college at Aberdeen, and obtained from the 
Crown, for the fuppott of it, the lands and houLs belonging to fome of the 
religious at Aberdeen, which had not been fued off before the Reformation. 

I Put, Records, and Haddutgtont CoHeB'wnt, ^gt 92, 93, iT'r. 

f this Ear^ was a zealomt promoter oftbc Rsfwmaiion, hut opfffid 0U violent 
proceedings in that affair. IVben the Confeffion of Faith jvas ^reflated to FarliameMi, 
SM Xj6o, tie Earl 0/ Mariftbal Jiood mf^ and faid, ** // is long f nee 1 car tied fome 
'* favour to the truth, and -was fomewhat xeaUus for the Rotnan religion ; but ibis 
** day batb fully refohed me of the truth of the one, and the falfebood of the ether ; 
** /^'^* feeing (wty Lords) the Infiops, who, by their learning, can, and for the seal 
** they fiould have for the truth, would, as I fuppofe,gainfay any thing repugnant to 
** it, fay nothing agginj tbt Confeffon xve have heard, J cannot think But it is ibe^ 
^ TtVTB or GoPj and the contrary of it is falfi detefiabU do^rine'\ 

152 Statijlical Account 

illuftrious anceftors into the notes. This great man was born 
at ImverugiEj in this parifii, and was baptized i6th June 1696, 
by the names of James Francis Epward. • He early en- 
tered into the military fervice abroad,^ rofe to the higheft 
rank in the army, and was inferior to no general of his time 
in military capacity. He accompanied his brother Earl 
Marifchal to the battle of Dunblane ^ and afterwards went 
abroad to feek preferment at the Spanifh Court \ but not 
finding a quick promotion there, he entered into the Ruf^an 
fervice, and was by Peter the Great promoted to the rank of 
a general officer. He afterwards entered into the fervice of 
Frederic III. King of Pruffia, who raifed him to the rank of 
Field Marifhal. He commanded that king's armies fometimes 
alone, and at other times along with his Majefty, until the 
fatal battle of Hochkirchen, on the 14th Oftobcr 1758. The 
Field Marflial, returning from a feparate command, found 
that the King had encanf^ped in a very imprc^r place, and 
inftantly told his Majefty that Daun would furprize them that 
night. His prediftion proved too true ; and the Field Mar* 
fha}> making a glorious defence, wa.s unfortunately killed. He 
was buried in the church-yard of Hochkirchen, but the 
King of Pruffia had his corpfe taken up, and fent to Ber- 
lin, where he was again intened with the greatcft military 
honours. I 


• Sapilfmal Regijler of farifi of St. Fergus, 

\ The Field Marilhal, with all his great qnalities was a very bad econo- 
mill ; and fometlines abfented himfeif trom Court wken he could not pay hi« 
debtAk On one of thefe occafions, the Great Frederic called for him, and 
found him in his garden, employed in pointing paper cannon at 1300 pins of 
wood in dtfTerent diredions, fo as to difcover how he might poor the 
greatcft quantity of 5 re upon them, as their pofition changed^ The King 
paid hiu General's debts, was delighted with the difcovcry of his amufement^ 
and augmented the number of pins to I2,ooo; after which, he aii4 his 
general had many a keen engagtment in the garden, wiach proved of great 
ftrvicc afserwards in the Scld.^ 

of St. Fergus. iS3 

AniiquHUs, — ^As this parifli hstti for upwards of 500 years, 
been only a part of a larger cftate, and never divided into 
Anall properties, we cannot expeft to find (lately manfions 
here. Some peices of (tone and lime are to be met with, 
hard by the mouth ©f the Ugie, where it fails into the fea, 
, and here, it is faid, was the ancient refidence of the family 
of Chcyne. They afterwards built another caftle, to which 
they aUb gave the name of Inverugie, * at tl^e diilance of 
more than a mile weftward, on the fame fide of the .riv«r. 
The fite of this caftle does honour to the judgement and 
go6d tafte of its founder. Here the Ugie forms a femi« 
circle before the 'ca(Ue, and tl^e area of this femicircle is ter« 
minated, by M$unUPltafantf a fteep rifing ground on theop- 
pofite fide of the river. The caftle is now in ruins, but the 
two courts are almoft entire ; part of them (erves as a gra- 
nery, and part is ufed as a brewery for porter and been 
Within a few paces of the wall of the North court, are the 
remains of an ice-houfe^ whicli perhaps was the firft of the 
kind in this country. — On an eminence N. W. from the 
caftle, there is ^n artificial moat, wherci it is probable, the 
ancient proprietors held their courts fqr the diftribution of 

CharaHer atid Manner of Living* — ^The people in general 
are very hofpitable, kind to ftrangers, intelligent and conten- 
ted* They have fuch an attachment to their native foil, that 
few of them chufe' to leave it. From Buchan there never 
were any emigrations, and indeed there can be no reafon for 

VoD. XV. U ^ any, 

* Thii continited to be the refidence of the fucceediag proprieton, umtt 
|he attainder ot Lord Marifcha], who unfortonately engaged in the rebel- 
lion 1 7 15. The precife time tvhen this caflje wai built is not known ; but as 
4>ne part of it, now in ruins, wat'otUedibe Cbtyae'fTrwtry it is probable tl^t 
it was bitilt by that iamiiy. 

154 Statijiical Acctiunt 

any, as every man, who is tlifpofed to work, can always liave 
good employment and good wages, either as a mechanic or 
a labourer. Although few of the farmers have leafes, from 
many years experience, they confider tliemfelves as perfeftly 
fecure, and in ;io danger of being removed, while they live 
peaceably and arc punftual in the payment of their rents, 
which are very moderate, when compared with thofe of the 
neighbouring eflatcs. They are fcnfible the heritor could 
have more rent than he draws from them. He has abdiifh- 
ed all cuftoms and fervices ; and, if any of them build good 
houfes, a proper allowance is made. The kind and indul- 
gent manner in which they are treated by the proprietor, 
has ilrongly attached them to him. They are fenfible that 
he is happy in beholding their profperity, and will not from 
thence take any advantage to raife their rents above what 
they can bear. The manner of living here is greately chang- 
ed within the laft thirty years. The farmers now appear at 
church and market drefied in Englifh fuperfine cloth, and 
many of their wives and daughters in cloaks and bonnets. 
The man-fervant is as expenfively arrayed as his mafter, and 
the drefs of the maid-fcrvant is little inferior to that of her 
miftrefs. The food of the inhabitants formerly confiftcd 
chiefly of oa^ meal, and fometimes of fifh, but thtfe gener- 
ally falted and dryed ; owing to this caufe, the fcurvy was a 
<:ommon difeafe. They raifed few vegetables, and turnips 
were often brought by fea from Aberdeen. Every cottager 
now has his turnips, cabbages, potatoes ; and many of the 
farmers have their mutton, fed by themfelves for fummcr 
food, and the greateft part of them kill a fed ox or cow, for 
winter piovifion- 1 


f From the middle of November 1792, to the firft of January X793[, 
40 fat cattle, weighing from 14 to 24 ftone, were killed in this parifh fo{ 
fqod dnrtog the winter, beiidct a confldcrable number of iheep. 

•^ '- ef Dollar. ^ 135 


(Cjunty of Clackmannan, Presbytery of StirlinGi 
Synod of Perth and Stirling.) 

By the Rev. Mr John W atsou, Minijler. 

Origin of the Name. 

jL he word Dollar is faid to be Gaelic* According tafom^ 
it was formerly fpelt DoUardy from doU^ a plaiiii or vale> and 
drd^ a hill, oi: high land. This is pcrfeftly applicable to iti 
real fituation, the principal part of the parifli being a beauti-^ 
ful plain or valley, of about an iEnglifti mile in breadth, lying 
along the foot of a high range of hills, known by the name of 
the OchiU Hi/is, According to others, it may be expreffcd DoiU 
lar^ fignifying a hidden or concealed place. This alfo is 
expreffivc of its real fituation 5 \(rhich is low and not fcen at 
any great diftancc, when one approaches it in any direAion^ 

Situation^ Extent^ Fornix and Appearance, — It 16 lUppofed td 
be equally diftant from Stirling, Kinrofs, ahdDumfermlinc^ 
and is reckoned about 1 2 EngUfli miles from cach# Thcr 

• ^ F3i middle 

156 Statiftical Account 

middle and priocipal part of the parlfh, in which both the 
church and the town (land, is an extenfive and gently flop- 
ing plain, beautifully interfperfed with fmall villages, farm 
houfes, and inclofures ; and, taking in with it a fmall part 
of Muckart on the Eaft, and Tillicoultry on the Weft, it 
forms a kind of amphitheatre, of an oval figure, of about 3 
miles in length, and one in breadth ; bounded by the Oqhil- 
hills on the North, and a rifing ground on the South. Tbis 
beautiful plain would feem to have been laid down, and 
fmoothed by the great hand of nature, to be the fccnc oif fport* 
and exercifes, fuch as thofe of the ancient Olympic games- 
It is of a fouthem expofure ; and, when viewed from the 
rifrng grounds, particularly on the South, the pleafed and 
admiring beholder would be ready to pronounce it the moft 
delightful fpot in the world. 

Riv^r and Fi/b. — ^The water of Dovan^ which runs from 
E. to W. nearly divides the parifli. The Dovan is not na» 
vigablc, being a imall but beautiful ftream of pure limpid 
water. Its channel, at a medium, may be about 100 feet in 
breadth. Here it gently glides over a bed of pebbles, where, 
finding itfelf at eafe (as it. were,) after having been dafhed 
and broken in its narrow and rugged channel, through the pa^ 
riflies of Glendovan and Muckart, it feems to fport itfelf in 
many beaudful meanders *, winding from fide to fide of the 
valley, as if loth to leave the delightful haughs of DoUar- 
But at times, w*hen fwelled by heavy rains, which come 
down in torrents from the hills, it fuddenly overflows its 
banks to a confiderable extent, to the no fmall damage of 
the farmer, whofe lands arc fituated by the fide of it. The 
river, being fmall, does not admit of many kinds of fi(h ; yet 
there are very fine freih-water trouts, of a confideraUe fize, 
taken in itj as well as fparrs, in great numbers. In harveft, 


of Dollar, 157 

fea trouts arc likewife killed in it, fiom 2 lib. to 4 lib. weight. 
And, in the feafon, falmon are caught from 5 lib. to 20 lib« 
About 20 or 30 years ago, {almon were found in Dovan in 
great plenty ; but, from the illegal and murderous manner of 
killing them with fpears, at an improper feafon, their num- 
bers of late have greately decrcafed. As there are but few 
or none killed now, but by gentlemen in the way of fport, 
•r by fome of the poorer fort of the people, for the ufe of 
their families, the prices cannot well be afcertained« 

Bridges. — There was a very good done bridge over th^ 
Dovan nearly oppofite to the church \ but fome years ago it 
was carried down by a flood. At prefent, a wooden bridge is 
about to be put over it, neat the fame place, by the volun- 
tary fubfcriptions of a few public-ffHrited perfons in the 
neighbourhood \ which will be of very great convenience 
<o the people in this place, particularly upon the fabbath ^ 
as many of the parifhioners have to crofs the Dovan in their 
way to church. The want of a bridge would not have been 
felt fo much here 20 or 30 years ago, as the people in this 
place were very expert at croffing the river on Jilts, f And 
there ate ftill fome who crofs it in this way. But fince the 
time that the bridge was built, this pradice has been gene« 
tally laid aCde. 

Climate and Di/eafes.^^Thc air in this plate is remarkably 
pure and healthy ; the country being free and open, neither 


\ Thefe ftiltft were two branches ol a treci of a proper ftrengdi, with a 
c\th or fmall branch preferred in each, of a fufficient widenefs to receive a 
perfon'i foot, about i8 or lo inches from the root end. Upon which the 
pcrfoo being mounted, with a foot on each cleft or proje^ingbraBch^and the 
top or fmall end of the ftilt in each hand, they ilalked through the river at 
the fords. This they called Jfilting. 

1 58 Statijlical Account 

cumbered' with woods, nor infefted with marlhes The 
purity and fweetnefs alfo of the water, (which, perhaps, id 
exceeded by none,) coming through rock or fand, and free of 
metallic fubftances, - muft alfo contribute greatly to the 
health of the inhabitants ; and this bleffing they ufually en- 
joy in an uncommon degree. As a remarkable inftancc of 
this, the minifter, in the whole courfe of his parochial vifita- 
tion from houfe to houfe, did not find one fingle fick perfon 
in the pariih ; and fcarccly any complaining of aiimentts, fuch 
as coughs, (hortnefs of breath, &c. ; though it was in the 
month of December, when complaints of this nature arc 
more frequent ; efpecially among fuch as are advanced in 
life. Some few were indeed labouring under the natural in- 
firmities incident to old age ; there being fcveral who were 
arrived at the advanced age of 80 and upwards. The falu- 
brity of the air is alfo much owing to the drynefs of the foil, 
which readily imbibes the rains that fall upon it; while 
the many fmall rivulets, which come down from the higher 
grounds, carry off the fupcrfluous waters, without allowing 
them to ftagnate on the furface, and to breed noxious vapours 
to be exhaled^ into the air. Epidemical difeafes are therefore 
unknown here ; except thofe which are of a common and 
general nature. Such as the fmall-pox, chin-cough, &c. 
The fmall-pox, at times, carries off many of the children ; 
inoculation not having yet got much into practice. 

Soil and Surface^ Sheep^ JVooIy and Cultivation. — ^Tlie foil irl 
this pariih is of various kinds. That of the Ochil-Iiills, 
which lie towards the North, is partly rocky, partly moffy, 
and partly gravel. .^ The hills are covered with a beauti- 
ful green ; but part of the foil being now wafhed off by the 
ftorms, in the courfe of time, the rocks in fome places begiil 
to appear. They afford excellent paftufe for flieep ; of 


of Dollar. 159 

which about 1640 are fed upon that part of them belonging 
to this parifh. The mutton, and cfpecially the wool, produ- 
ced upon the Ochils, (as they are fometiraes called,) is confi- 
dered as of a fuperior quality ; particularly that upon the farm 
called Craiginnatty which is the property of the Duke of Ar- 
gyll. Towards the foot of the hills, the foil, in general, is 
light and gravelly, cauHng a quick vegetation. In dry fea- 
fon§, it is indeed apt to be parched j but in wet fcafons, the 
crops are moderately good. The greater part of the flat-ly. 
ing ground in the bottom is likewife of a light gravely na- 
nature, and ufually yields rather an early harveft. Along 
the banks of the Dovan, the foil is moftly of the haugh 
Jiind •, and fome of it a deep clay. Upon the fouth fide of 
the Dovan, the ground is rather wettifh and clayey, but, with 
proper attention and culture, it is capable of very , confidera- 
ble improvement. And fome of the farms, which arc under 
proper management, make very good returns. 

Produce^ Seafons^ fe'i:.'*-The ordinary crops raifed in this 
parifh, arc barley, oats, peafc, beans, and potatoes. There 
is alfo fome wheat and hay ; but not much. The ufual time 
of fowing oats, peafe, and beans, in this parifli, in ordinary 
feafons, is the months of March and April, and the barley 
^ in May. It is ufually over by the 20th of the month. — The 
harveft commonly begins towards the end of Auguft, or be- 
ginning of September ; and, excepting fome late fpots, is 
over by the tenth of Oftober. As foon as the barley, oats, 
and peafe are got in, the potatoes are taken up and houfed, 
which concludes the harveft work. 

Improvements, — Agriculture^ in this parilli, until within 
thefe few years, has continued much in the fame ftate that 
|t was about iSo: years ago \ the feuers, who poffefs the 


l6<f Statijlical Account 

greateft part of the parifh, following the fame (yftem of 
farming, that had been handed down to them by their fa- 
thers. What indeed proved an infurmountable bar to im- 
provement^ was, the lands of different proprietors lying 
interfperfed with one another, commonly called run-rig^ 
which wss a cafe that very much prevailed through many 
parts of Scotland ; but it is now hardly known in this part of 
the country. About i6 years ago, a very confiderable part of 
the beft lands in the pariih, which lay in tliat ftate, were di- 
vided \ when the different proprietors got their refpc6Mvc 
proportions of ground laid together, each by itfelf. This has 
been produftive of feveral very defirabl^ confequences } 
fuch as, cutting off endlefs quarrels and difputes, that were 
continually taking place between the different proprietors, or 
their tenants, about their encroaching or trcfpafling upon 
one another ; and fo eftablifhing peace and harmony amongfl: 
neighbours, inilead of ftrife arid variance, {t has alfo open- 
ed up a door to improvements of every kind. For, immedia- 
tely upon the ground being divided, the different proprie- 
tors inclofed and fub-divided, with ditch and hedge, their re- 
fpeflive proportion^ of land. And the feveral inclofures are 
now alternately under oats, barley, hay, pafture, &c. to the 
no fmall benefit of the proprietors, and the pleafure of the 
traveller- Some late purchafcrs are carrying on very confi- 
derable improvements in the modem ftyle ; the agreeable and 
beneficial effects of which are daily appearing/ 

Minerals, — This part of the country abounds in coal, of 
different quafities. Three coal-works are going on at pre- 
feiit in this parifli ; two upon the South fide of the Dovan ; 
the one at Mellack, the property of the Duke of A&gtll 5 the 
other clofcly. adjoining to it, but belonging to Lord Alva. 
Upon the North fide of the Dovan, and near to the tow.n 


' of Dollar. i6i 

of Dollar, thcce is another coa]-%vork>. belonging alfo to th» 
f Duke of Argyll. Thefe works employ in uhole about i S 

I working people; befides a horfe gin for drawing the coals, 

From thefi coal-works, and thofe of Blarngone, (in the pa- 
rifti of FoiToway, but immediately upon the border of this 
pariQi on the S. E.),very great quantities of coals are annu- 
ally carried many miles into Stratliern, on the North fide 
I of the Ochil hills. — Iron-ftone is alfo found in different parts 

i of the parifli, and faid to Ue of very excellent quality. It u 

: working at prefent by the Dovan Company, who arc now e- 

refting a public work at Sauchie, fome miles to the weft- 
ward, in the parilh of Clackmannan. * The Ochil hills pon- 
fift chiefly of whin (lone 5 but free-ftonc alfo is found in dif- 
fercut places of the parifh. 

Hills^ RivnIetSy ijfc. — The only hills in this parifh, are 
the Ochils. They begin in the parifh of Dumblane, imme- 
diately Eaft from the SherriiF-muir, and fbetch in an eaflcra 
dircftion many miles into Fife. In this parifh they arc of 
coufiderable height 5 perhaps fome tlioufand feet. They are, 
as already obferved, of a beautiful green ; afford excellent 
pafture for fheep, and produce mutton of the finefl flavour. 

Vol. XV. X From 

9 Some time ago, a vein of Lead was difcovered in the Ochil hilU, a little 
^boTC the town of Dollar ; and wrought by a Coaipany for fever al years. 
From this work, a confiderable quaptily, both of Lead and of- Copper Or«| 
is faid to have been (hipped off for Holland. But it is faid that the Company, 
fomehow difagreeing among themfelves, gave it op. Neverthelefs, it is be- 
lieved, chat if a Co^p^oy of fptrit were to make a thorough trial, it might 
turn to good account. Silver Ore, in confiderable quantities, is likewife 
faid to have been found in the Glen of Carej or rather of C^n, on the Wefl 
of Caflle- Campbell ; but that it did not anfwer the eipence Qf working, it. 
PffVBLEs, of coniidcrable value, have alfo been found upon ths t^p of a bill 
*bovc Caftk-CampbcU, called the IVbitf W"\ff>> 

i62 Statijiical Account 

From their verdant fides, many beautiful rivulets of the fin^ 
jcft vtrater arc daily gliding down, for the health and refrcfli- 
jnent of the inhabitants who dwell below. 

i?o^rfj.T-There are two high- ways pafiing through this 
pariihi leading from Stirling to Kinrofs. The one is upon 
the fouth fide of the Dovan j and the other upon the north 
fide. That upon the fouth fide of the Dovan is only in part 
formed, but not gravelled ; and ^s it pafles through clay 
grounds, it is fcarcely paflable in winter. But that upon the 
north fide of the Dovai), as it pafles alopg the foot of the O- 
chil hills, where the bottom is a hard channel, is equally firm 
and pafTable at all feafons ; and therefore is mod frequented. 
^ The proper ftage upon that road, between Stirling and Kin-? 
rofs, i^ Dollar, The greeted fault of it is, that it is too iiar- 
Tow ; for, in fonie places, two carriages meeting can do no 
more than pafs. Wer^ it only widened a little, nature has fuf- 
ficiently gravelled it. They who have marked it out at firft, 
humouririg the xiature of the ground along the *foot of the 
hills, have formed it n^uch after the manner of a ferpen- 
tinc walk. It is very much frequented, not only by thofe 
who travel from Stirling to Kinrofs, hut alfo by thofe who 
go to Perth, Dundee, &c. 

Population. — ^The population of tlii^ parifli has decreafed 
very little within thefe 40 years. 

Population table of the parish of Dollar. 

Ko. of fouls in X 755, M recarned to Dr Wcbfter, - 517 

p^oini792, • • 5 TO 

Pecrcafe 7 

o/Dollan 163 

FAioLZiSt &C. No. of Mcchvlic^ 214 

Ko. of familks in the town, 51 (viz.) —^ Smiths, - 3 

— Ditto in the country, 71 — Mafons, • » 
— — . Secedert of all denomina- »— Wrights^ or joiners, 2 

tioos, - 17 —-Weaken, . S 

Ages, and Sizes. Mai, Fern. Tvt. — — . Tailors, .' 4 

Children under 5 a? 25 5a — — Shoe-makers, "- a 

— Between 5 and 10 30 38 68 ^— Dyers, - » 

Between lo and ao 31 37 68 Coopers, . t 

Perfons aged ao and ■ ■ Bakers, i I 

upwards, * ' 3a» * ■ Batchen^ . * 

— a4 

Total 510 —.— Carters, 4 I 

Conditions, PaotissiONS, &c. — Excife officets, . t 

No. of proprietors, i 29 Keepers of public h<Jnfti, * 

Minifters, - I -— • Male ferrants, . SO 

— - School-maftors, - I — Female ditto, . a9 

- Servants, chiefly men, em- 
ployed at the bleach-field, 
in the heat of the feafoo, 50 

— Poor on the roU, yearly, ^ 
Extract from the Register of Births, Marriages^ 

and DEATHS,>r thf lajl ten years, vi%.from the Jirft of Ja^ 
fiuary 1 783, to the Jirft of January 1 7^3, 







Corn millers. 





































1 79 1 














Annual average i^-^t 





1 64 Statijlical Accotmt 

Provifions attd Labonr. — ^Thc price of barley, oafa, meal, 
&c. arc regulated by the fiars of Clackmannan, the head 
town in the county. The price of butcher meat is ufually 
from 3cl. to 4 f d. per lib. Dutch weight ; a good hen felis at is 5 
chickens from 4d. to 6d each, according to their age and 
fize ; eggs from 3d. co 4d. per dozen, f The ordinary price 
of butter at prefcnt is (x\. per lib ; cheefe 3^. The wages 
of men labourers are from lod. to is. per day} in har- 
veft, they receive 13d. or i/\A^ per day; and for cutting 
hay, IS. 6d. The wages of women who work without 
doors, at hay-making, weeding potatoes, &c. are 6d. per 
day ; except in harveft, wlieu they receive 1 od. per day : out of 
which wages, both men and ^omen furnifh their own pro- 
ViFions. The average annual wages of farm fervants, of 
men that are able to hold the plough, thre(h the barn, &c. 
when they eat in the houfe, are 6 1 ; and 2 1. 10 s. for wo- 
iVien, A mofon'd wages are from i s. 8d. to 2 s. per day ; 
a Wright's, or joiner's wages, from i s. 6d. to 1 s. 8d ; a tail- 
or's wages, 8d ; and a flater's, 2 s. per day* 

Bitachfields and Mills. — ^Thcre is a very fine bleachfield in 
this pariih beautifully fituated on the banks of the Dovan. It 
was eredled by Mr William Haig, the prefent proprietor, in . 
the year 1787. The machinery, which is excellent, is driven 
by water from the Dovan, while the canals, boilers, &c. are 
plentifully fupplied, at all feafons, with the fined filtrated " 
water from the hills. The trade of this field has much in- 
creafed fince its firll commencement. For the firft and 
fecond years, there were fcarcely 6 acres of ground under 
cloth. Whereas, in the prefent year, 1793, there are 20 acres 
covered with it. The greateft part of the cloth, bleached at 
this field, is the diaper, or table linen of Dunfermline, the 


t Tin within thcfc two or three years, a hen might have been bought for 
9d; chickens for 4d. per pair \ and eg^s for 3d. per dozen. 



9/ Dollar. ifi5 

fifft town in Sntaiffj (we may even fay in the World^ for 
this manufaflure ; the table linen made there being, both in 
point of quality and vatiety of patterns, incomp?iTaWy fupc- 
rior to what is to be found any where clfe. Nor can any 
place fupply the demands to London, and other places for 
that article, upon the fame terms. Befides, the author is 
well informed, that improvements are daily making in feve- 
ral branches of that bufinefs, which promife to be of great 
fervice with regard to the elegance of the patterns *. The 
new chemical method of bleaching, by the oxygenated muriatic 
acidf has been tried at this .field with much fucceis. In the 
year 1 790, Mr Haig gained a premium from the Honourable 
Board of Truftees for that method of bleaching. Since that 
time, he hath made feveral valuable difcoveries, both as to 
the preparation and application of this acid, and finds it very 
nfeful ; particularly at the end of the (eafon, when the fuu 
fo greatly lofes its influence. He then finilhes off goods by 
this method of bleaching, which otherwife could not be 
done until the next year. By this method, he bleaclies cotton 
goods through the whole feafon ; and finds it much better 
adapted for cotton than for linen. In this parifh there are 
two mills for grain, one of them has machinery for making 
biirley, and rollers for grinding malt. There are alfo two 
waulk mills for fcouring cloth, &c. 

Churchy School^ and Poor — ^Thc Duke of Argyll is fuperior 
and patron ■ as well as titular of the tithes. The value of 


* Some light cotton goods have, £or fonie yeirs pad, been fent here from 
Glafgow ; aad, by reafoR of the exceeding finenefs of the water, have been 
retained with a mod ezceUent colour ; very much to the fatisfaiflion of the 

* The greatefi part of the patifh was formerly the property of that family* 
But in the year 1605, it was feued out by AftCHiBAtD Earl of Argtll, 


i66 , Statifiical Account 

the living, cxcltifivc of the manfe and glebe, has, for fome 
years paft been confidered, at an average, to be about 80 1. 
The church was rebuilt in the year 1775, and is confidered 
as very neat for a country church, llie manfe, at prefent, 
is out of repair. — Mr John M*Arbrea, the parifli fchool-maf- 
tcr, teaches Englifh, Latin, writing, arithmetic, &c. and is 
much refpcfted. His fixed falary is only lool. Scotch, but 
he draws the intereft of 560 merks Scotch, of funk money, 
befides perquifitcs, as precentor and fcflion clerk, % &c. — The 
poor upon the roll, arc fupported by the public collcftions 
on fabbath, and the interdl of feveral fums of money, 
funk by different perfonsf for that purpofe. They re- 
ceive their ftated allowance monthly, which amounts tp about 
17I. Sterling per annum \ befides occafional fupplies perfons 
or families in diftrefs, which amount to about 4 1. or 5 L 
Sterling more. There have been no beggars in this parifii 
in the memory of man. 


and Dsme Agnes Douglas, Countefs of Argyll, referruig only Cafllo* 
Can]pl>ell» and two farms in the neighbourhood. 

\ The fchoolmailers, eftablifhed in this parifb, hiye, from time immemo<^ 
rial, been men of a liberal education, and feveral men Or eminence have been 
taught at this fchool. Many of Mr M*Arbrka's fcholars fill refpedable 
places in the church, both in the eflablifhment and the feceflion. The fchool 
was ereded in the reign of King Guar lis 1. as appears from the decreet of 
locality, dated 1640, for too merks Scotch. In z;66, the heritors added 50 
merks. The above joo merks were funk by one Akcui bald Patersoiyi 
merchant in Edinburgh July 18, 1652; and the other 60 by one Kirk, in 

f Mr John Gray was ordained In the year 1709. He was the firft that wai 
fettled in this parilh after the Revolution. He was connnonly flilcd the Baron ; 
from his having, while minider here, purchafed two baronies of land : Firft, 
that of Teaffcs in Fyfc, for which he paid upwards of 3,333 1. Sterling. Af- 
fcrwarda he purchafed the barony of FolToway, in Pcrthihire, for which he 


of Dollar. 167 

Antiquities. — In the neighbourhood of the town of Dollar, 
there arc two little round mounds * , about a quarter of a 
mile diftant from each other. But the principal antiquity in 
this parifli, is the venerable remains of Castle Campbell f : 


paid upwards of 1,611 1. Sterling. At his death, jic left for the ufc of the 
pool in this parifli, 300 xnerks Scotch money. — MITsJean Gt.iY, his only 
child, of refpedable memory, fomc few years before her death, which happen- 
ed in the year 1791, fold both of thefc baronies of land ; that of Tcafles for 
i^ySQoX. Sterling, and that of Foffaway for 6,500 1. Sterling ; amounting iu 
whole to ao,ooo L Sterling. At her death ihc left many confiderablc lega- 
cies : among thcfe there was 50I. Sterling to the poor of this parifh, and a 
very elegant folio bible to the kirk-fcilion, for the ufe of the minillcr. 

• In the one of thcfe, fome years ago, were found two ump, filled with 
human bones ; but upon wha^occafion, or by whom they were depofitcd there, 
is not known. The other mound, remains in the fame (late it hath been time 
immemorial. — ^Towards the end of the lad century, a man was burnt for 
a wizard, at the foot of the Gloom Hill, not many yards from the town of 

f It would fiiem not to be now known, vahen or by vobem this venerabb 
pile of building was firft exeded. But the ruins plainly (hew, that it had 
been defigned for a place of ftrength ; and therefore wa& probably built in 
the turbulent d^ys of old, when family feuds fo unhappily prevailed among 
the Scotch barons. Nor can we difcover the precife period when it camt: 
into the pciTcfiion of the family of Argyll : But, from the inveutary of their 
titles, that family appears to have pofleiTed that barony, and the l^nds belong- 
to it, called the Loans uip or Campbell, fo far back as the year 1465. The 
lands were then held of the biihop of Dunkeld. Formerly, it went bjr the 
came of the Castle op Gloom.: but for what reafon, we are not certain 
Tradition, indeed, which wifhes to inform us of every thing, reports, that it 
was fo called from the following circumAance : A daughter ' of one of our 
Scotch Kings, who then refided at Dunfermline, happening to fall into dif-« 
grace for fome improper behaviour, was, by way of punilhment, fent and 
confined in this caille ; and flie, (not reliftiing her fituation, which probably 
might be in fome vault or other) faid, that it was a gloomy prifvtk to her. 
Kdice, fays traditioib, it came to be called the Caftle of Gloom. Very near to 


i68 Statijiical Jccount 

anciently the occafional refidencc of the Noble Family of Ar- 
gyll : a family which, for ages, has been eminently diftin- 


it on the Coaft, there is a green hill, which ftill goes hj the name of Glctm* 
ffiU, the property of Mr John Moir, writer to the fignet. 

And now that we have mentioned tradition, we (hall prefent the reader 
with an anecdote concerning this place, fiom the fame fource, which, perhaps, 
may be more curious than true. In going down from the caftle, towards the 
point of the rock which overhangs the glens, there is a paiTage cut down 
through the rock to the fide of the burn, in the bottom of the glen. Thii 
paflage is faid to be from top to bottom more than loo feet deep, and fix feet 
tvide. The defign of it was to get water conveyed, or brought up from the 
burn or rivulet below, in the time of a fiegc. This feems the more likely, as 
it appears to have been cut out with fteps, which are now moftly filled up 
with earth. This paflage, partly from the tr^es, 9ad partly from the fiight- 
ful rocks overhanging it, it now become fo dark and gloC>my, that a perfon 
can fee but a very little way down into it : and indeed, to look into it, would 
be fufficicnt to make a perlbn of weak nerves fliudder. It is called Kemt's 
ScoR£ or Cu TT, from its having been made by one of that naune; who is faid 
to have been a man of gigantic iUtore and llrcngth, and at the fame time of 
a very bold and refolate temper. It it reported, that he bad conmiittcd many 
depFedatioDB, and at lafl was £o daring as to enter the p;dace at Dunfermline^ 
and carry off the King's dinner; but that a yaung nobleman, who happened 
to be in difgrace for improper behaviour towards the King's daughter, hear- 
ing of it, purfued the faid Kemp, and having cut off his head, threw the body 
to to the water of Boyan, a little above the back mill, and, as his name wiu 
William, fo the place where this happened, is called Willie's Pool, to 
this day. But on his carrying the head with him to Court, he obained his 
pardon, and was received into favour again. 

But to return to the caftle, thac ancient ieat of the Argyll Family : The 
name was, by an a6l of the Scotch Parliament, in, or before the year I493| 
«:hanged to that of the CafiU of CampbeUy by which name it has ever fince been 
denominated. It is reported, that this was amongft the firft of thole places 
in Scotland, where the facrament of the Lord's Supper was difpenfcd, after 
the Reformation. And it is certain, from his own hiilory, that the famous 
Jo UN]^, the Scotch reformer, did preach here. For he tells us, that, up- 
on hia being called over by the English Congregation at Geneva, who had 
choTeo him for their paflor i he fent o?er hit family befiore him, but he him- 


of Dollar. 169 

guifbed for their attachmeat to Teligioh> liberty, and patrioMi 
tifm. Arid the prefent worthy head, and reprcfcntativc of 
that noble Family, treading in the ftcps of his illuftrious an- 
ceftors, dignifies and adorns the exalted (tation which he fills* 
By the lapfe of time, and the violence of ftorms, a very con- 
fiderable part of Caftle-Campbell is now fallen down ; an^ 
other parts of it are nodding over their foundations. The 
. tower is yet nearly entire. The afcent is by a fpiral ftair^ 
which is continued to the top. It \% viCted by mod (Irang* 
ers who come here ; and though it is a pretty fatiguing wall^ ' 
Up to it, yet when they reach the top of the tower, which is of 
confiderable height, they are much pleafed, not (>nly with the 
Vol. XV. Y ^ view, 

felf remained behind io Scotland, for fomie tiine ; during T»^hich, he pafled to 
Archibald, whom he ftilc* « the Old Earl of Aiotll," then rcfiding at 
the Cattle of Campbell, and there he taught, or preached, certain dayi. It k 
&ot improbable, therefore, that he difpenfed the Sacrament of the lord's Spp- 
per there, at the fame time. Oae idf the company, who was then ttayini^ 
with the Earl at Cattle Campbell, was the laird of Glenorchy, one of the an- 
cettors of the prefect family of BaKADALBANc ; who importuned the Earl td 
deiire Mr Knox to ftay fome time with them; but Mr Knox could not con« 
fent to it. This AacHiBititO was the 4th Earl of AaorLL ; and is iaid to have 
been the firtt man of qu^ty who embraced the Proteftact Religion in Scej^ 
iand, and contributed all in his power to bring about the Reformation. 

The Cattle of Campbell continued to be the occattoDal relldencc of the 
family of Argyll, ^s appears from the fervices ^hichthe TaflaU were obliged; 
by their charters, to perform to the family, when rcfiding there ; until that 
ItiagnificeUt building was burnt down by the Marquis of Montkos^, aboai 
the year 1644 ; and ever fioce it has been in ruiiis. And not only the Caf. 
tie of Campbell, but the whole of the pariihes, both of Dollar and Muckart; 
were burnt , the inhabitants being vaflals of the family of Argyll, excepting 
one houfe in Dollar, which they imagined to belong to the Abbey of Dun« 
fermline. There was likewife only one hotife faved from the flames, iit 
Muckart ; ^hich they imagined to be in the pariih of Foflbway ; being near- 
ly adj«>ining to it. Befides that, there waa a (heep-hofufe that efcaped thQ 
general conflagration. Every othci houfc in both pariflies was, by thtt 
brahams, burnt to the ground. 

170 Statiftical Account 

view, but more particularly with the furrounding fcene, 
which is truly enchanting. 

Romantic Scenery around the Cojlle, — ^Thc fituation of thefc 
venerable ruins is fomewhat retired backwards amongft the 
hills, with a beautiful opening before it, as it were a kind of 
vifla, through which to view the plains below : And being 
pretty high, it commands a confiderably cxtenfive profpeft 
towards the Forth, and the adjacent country. It is fituated 
upon the top of a round mound, which would feem to have , 
been partly formed by the hand of nature, and partly finifli- 
ed bf art. It (lands a little back from the point pf a high 
rock ; having a deep ravine or glen upon each hand ; with very 
fteep banks, whofe declivity commences from the very foot 
of the walls on both fides, and is almod wholly inacceffible. 
In the bottom of the glens, run murmuring rivulets of the 
pureft water, which come down from the mountains behind^ 
and unite their dreams immediately below the cafUe* Each 
of the rivulets furnifhes a beautiful cafcade, to entertain the 
eye of their vifitants, and fomewhat reward them for the fa- 
tigue they have had in climbing the hill. The mound on 
which the caftle ftands, was formerly disjoined from the 
mcuntiins behind, with a fofse, or ditch, {helving down to 
the bottom of the glen on both fides, which renders it almoft 
inacceflible on every fide \ the entry, then, being by a draw- 
bridge, which was let d^wn or taken up as occafion requir* 
ed. The banks of the glens, on both fides, are beautifully a- 
dorhed with natural woods, which nearly cover the faces of 
the rugged rocks with which this romantic fcene is inter- 
fperfed. It is almoft furroundcd with hills. Immediately 
behind it, is the hill called the White Wifp ; which fo much 
overtops all its fellows, that it furniflies a rich and extenfive 
profpe£l. From this elevated fituation^ looking towards the 


o/Doltar. ill 

Soutli, may be fefen the Fmh of Forth, with the adjacent 
• country, as far as the hill of Tiutoc in Clydcfdalc. Then 

r turning to the North, one fees the moft part of the fhires of 

Perth and Fife, as. far Eaft as Dundee, and the German O* 
cean ; with the Lothians on the oppofite fide of the Forth. 
A little to the South-Weft of the White Wifp, is the place 
called the King's Seat ; where, according to tradition, the 

I kings of Scotland, then rcfiding at Dunfermline, fat, and 

viewed the hunting of the wild bears, which then haunted a- 
mongft thefe hills ; whence feveral places, particularly in the 
farm of Craiginnan, immediately above the Caftlc, arc named, 
fome of them, the Bears den^ and others, the Bear's Knowy 
to this day. Thus, the fcene around this ancient feat of 
Campbell, confifting of rocks, and woods, and glens, and 
mountains, contains a pleafing mixture of the beautiful, the 
pifturefque, and the awfully romantic. 

Literary Shepherd. — ^There is living at prefcnt in this pa- 
rifh, in a very advanced age, a man who was bred up, and 
lived merely as a fhepherd, and who received only a common 
education ; and yet pofTefTes a valuable library of books, con- 
taining upwards of 370 volumes ; confifting of folios, quar- 
tos, o£lavos, duodecimos, and decimo-quartos. They are u- 
pon many different fubje£bs, as divinity, hiftory, travels, voy« 
ages, &c. befides magazines of various kinds, fuch as the Scots, 
the Univerfal, and the Chriftian magazines ; a complete fet 
of the Spedator, Guardian, Tatlcr, Rambler, &c. They 
are all of them his own chufing and purchafmg. They 
are neatly boupd, and lettered on the back. His name is 
upon a printed ticket, and pafted on the in fide of the board 
of each volume \ witli a mark,. generally of blue paper, cut on 
purpofe, and placed in each volume, to prevent folding in the 
leaves. The books are all clean, and in excellent order. Be- 

Y 2 fides 

172 Statijlical Atcount 

'fidi*s thcfei \\^ has feveral volumes of pamphlets, &c. lying 
in numbers unbound. His name b John Christie : ht 
was born in this parifh, and baptized on the itth of O^obcr 
tyifti and has lived in it from his infancy. His brother Wil- 
•liam^ and his fifter Margaret, ^o are a &w years younger, 
live in the fame houfe with himi and ail the three remain 

General Ciaraffer, &c. — ^The people are foberj regular, and 
.|nduflrious in their different profeffions and employments ; 
and live in peace and harmony with one another. The com- 
mon employment of the women, except fuch as are engaged 
wijth farmers for husbandry work, is that of fpining wool for 
the manufacturers in Stirling, Bannockburn, &c. They all 
enjoy, in their refpe£kive ftations, a reafonable (hare of the con« 
veniences and comforts of life ; and fome feem well contented 
with the condition in which Providence has placed them. 
Tliey are much of the ordinary fize, and fpeak the Englifh 
language tolerably well, without any ^remarkable jHrovincial 




of Mordington. 173 



(County of Berwick, Presbytery of Chirnside, SiNop 
o? Merse and Teyiotdale.) 

By tbt Rev^ M Georgs Drummomo, MinhUn 

Situation^ Ferm^ Extent^ EreB'ton^ Etjm&l$gy^ (5*. 

HIS parilh is Gtuated in the S. E. corner of the coun- 
ty of Berwick. Its borders arc waflied on the South by the 
river Whitadder, and on the Eaft by the German Ocean, 
near which it joins the lands belonging to the town of Ber- 
wick upon Tweed, commonly called Berwick Bounds. It» 
form is irregular, much refembling the letter g. — Its length 
from S. to N. is between 3 and 4 miles ; its breadth towards 
Ae northern extremity is abore two miles, though at one 
place, towards the South, it is only the breadth of the mini- 
flei's glebe, which is all that feparates the pariih of Foulden 
from the Berwick bounds. Its original extent was very fmall, 
confiding only of the barony of Mordington, and the cftatc 
of Edrington, till the year 1650 ; when the lands of Lammer- 
ton, (of much greater extent than the whole of what before 


1 74 Statijiical Account 

that period conftitutcd the pari(h,) were disjoined from the 
parifti of Ayton, and annexed to Mordington. Lammcrton 
had originally been either a feparate paiifh, or a chapel of 
cafe to Ayton. • The building in which public worfliip 
was performed ftill remains, and is now the burying place 
of the family of Lamerton. The writer of this article has 
not been able to learn the etymology of Mordington. Lam-' 
tneri§n is probably derived from the French, ia mer^ cxpref- 
Cve of its fituation, being immediately on the fea fide^ 

Surface and Soil, — ^On the South, towards the river Whit- 
adder, the ground is flat, and rifes by a gentle and gradual 
afcent to the North, for more than half the length of the 
parifh ; when it attains a very confiderable elevation above 
the level of the fea, to which the lands again gradually def- 
cend on the eaft of this ridge* For fome fpace from the 
Whitadder, the foil is a ftifF clay, well adapted for wheat 
and beans ; from thence to the fea fide, the land is a ligjht 
loam, on a rotten rocky bottom, which renders it excellent 
for raifing turnips and found for grazing flieep. The moft 
elevated part of the ridge is thin and poor, though the great- 

* The charch or chapel of Lammirtok, » noted to have been the place 
where King Jamrs IV. of Scotland was married to Margaret, daughter 
of Henrt Vlh of Kngknd, in the yCRt 1503 ; which paved the way for the 
happy Union, fir ft , of the two Crowns, and afterwarda of the two kingdoas. 
Some alledge, that it was built on purpofe for the celebration of that mar* 
riage. A tradition has long prevailed in this part of the country, that, on ac- 
count of the ceremony of his marriage having been performed in this chapel^ 
the King of Scotland granted to the clergyman of this pariih, and his fuc- 
ceflbrs, in all time coming, the liberty of marrying ^ee^ ivHbwt prodamaHom. 
• It does not appear, however, from any of the hiftories of thefe 
times, which the author has confulted, that there is any foundation for thji^ 

of Mt)rdington 175 

eft part of it has been plowed^ and It feems all capable of cul- 

Climate and Seafom.-^The drynefs of the foil, and its vi- 
cinity to the fea, render the air pure and healthy, and ocqa- 
fion a quick and early vegetation. There are no difeafes pe- 
culiar to this diftri£t. In the lower part of the pari(h, as in 
mod of the flat grounds in this part of the country, the ague 
•w^s formerly prevalent among the lower clafles of the peo- 
pla. The caufe of that diftemper, which arofe chiefly from 
the exhalation of the vapours from the ftagnated water, in 
wet and marfliy grounds, being now in a great meafure re- 
moved, by the mode that is fo generally adopted through this 
county of draining and incloHng the fields, the difeafe Is 
lefs frequent. And the fame reafon may perhaps be given 
for the decrcafe of comfumptive complaints, throughout the 
whole of the lower parts of Berwick-fliire. The prejudices 
of the country people in this quarter, againft inoculation for 
the fmall-pox, are gradually wearing away 5 and confequently 
that diftemper is becoming much more mild, and lefs def- 
tru£tive than formerly. Though the inhabitants in general 
are healthy and robuft, yet there have not been many re- 
markable inftances of longevity in this pariOi. Some faow€« 
ver have appeared. 

Agriculture. — ^The fituation of this diftrift, as well as the 
foil of a very confiderable of it, is peculiarly favourable to 
the purpofes of agriculture-, the lands, in general, being of 
a dry and manageable foil, which the (kilful farmer can turn 
to the greateft advantage ; and the climate being fo favourable, 
that grain of every kind, even in the lateft and moft back- 
ward feafons, is commonly brought to full maturity. Be- 
fides which, li has the command of two of the beft and 


176 Statiftical Account 

moft ufeful manures, lime and dung -, lioth of which arc to 
be got in the town and neighbourhood of Berwick, which is 
only 4 niiles diftant. Thijfe local advantages have not been 
unattended to,by thofe perfons who occupy the lands. Great 
quantities of lime are annually bought, and are employed 
both in improving the wade lands, and in manuring thofe 
that are already improved. And even dung is now begin- 
ning to be brought in confiderable quantities from Berwick, 
a prafticc which, if perfeyered in, muft in time greatly add 
to the fertility of the foil j and, notwithftanding the expence, 
with which the purchafing and driving of it is attended, will, 
without doubt, ultimately turn out to the advantage both of 
the proprietors and tenants. 

PrcdtiCi and Epfporis.—rHor is lefs attention paid to the 
ipariagament than to the manuring of the lands. Unfetter-^ 
64 by thofe prejudices, and that obdinale attachment to aa-. 
GJeflt ca(tom$> which are fo great a bar to cultivaticm, and 
have fo much retarded the progref$ of agriculture in other 
parts of Scotland, a fpirit of improvement as well as of induf- 
try is difcernible among the farmers ii> this and the xieigh^ 
bouring pariOies : In confequence of which, every fpecies 
both of white and green crops are raifed, and, in general, id 
the greateft perfeftion ; particularly barley, oats, peafc, tur- 
nips, and artificial grafles. Though the foil is, in many pU* 
ce9, fuitabk for wheat and beans» yet they are raifed in fmal* 
Ux quantities than the other kinds of grain ; probably be^ 
caufe the former does not fo readily fall in with a rotation^ 
in which green crops are <:hiefly {ludied, and becaufe there 
is not; in this part of the coi^ntry, a ready matket for the lat- 
ter. Potatoes are raifed not only for home confumption, but 
great quantities from this neighbourhood are «alfo annually 


tf Mnrdington. 177 

fliippcd at Berwick, and fcnt to London, Ncwcaftle, and dif- 
ferent parts of Yoik-filire. This paridi alfo produces a nrjuch 
greater quantity of grain, than is fuflScicnt for the fubfiftence 
of its inhabitants, which is cither difpofed of in Berwick^ 
i^irhcre It generally meets with a ready market, or fold to 
the millers in the neighbourhood, many of whom carry on a 
great trade in itieal, barley, &c. 

Turnip Hushandty, — ^Thc time of fowirtg and reaping the 
dlfFcrcnt kinds of gtain, is the fame with that of mod of 
the other parifhes in the lower part of Bcrwick-fhire, witli 
the advantage of being as early as any of them. Turnips 
are generally fown from the* end of May to the beginning of 
July. Though they are fomctimcs fown in what is tailed 
hroad-cajl^ that is on ridges made up in the fame manner as 
thofe on which barley, oats, or any other grain arc common- 
ly fown ; yet they aire more frequently raifed on drills, froni 
24 to 30 inches wide. This latter method is preferred, oii 
account of its giving an opportunity for hbrfe hoeing, and 
thus occafioning lefs manual labour^ and coiifequently lefs 
expence in thinning and cleaning them. When they arc 
brought to maturity, which is generally about the month of 
Oftober, they arc made ufe of for feeding cattle and fhcep, 
either on the grounds on >^hich tliey are raifed, or on neigh- 
bouring grafs fields, iiito which they are carried ; or they are 
brought home for the piirpofe of feeding black cattle irf 
houfes or (hades. On the light and dry foi!^ the feeding of 
(hcep on the ground where the turnips grow, is recloncdL t 
mod valuable improvement, as the land, Ibofe and fnable,' 
botfi by nature and by the frequent plowing neceflary for raif- 
ing the turnip?, attains, from the conftant trampling of the 
fhcep, a fubftancc and Iblidity which makes it highly Et for 

Vol. XV. Z plowing f 

2 7^ Statijlical Account 

plowing ; and from the great quantity of dung left on ftc 
furface, infures a luxuriant crop of grain and hay in the fol- 
' lowing years. When the turnips are brought home for feeding 
cattle in the ftall, they likewife become a ufeful and a Yalua- 
ble crop, not only from the immediate profit which arifes 
from them, but alfo from the great return of manure which 
they afford for fuccecding crops. From the favourable na- 
ture of the foil, the turnip-husbandry is conducted on an 
extenfive fcale in this, and many of the neighbouring parifhes. 
And as great attention is paid to the cultivation, -fo great 
improvements have of late been made in the conftruftion of 
the utenfrls for fowing and fox facilitating the operations of 
the husbandman, in rearing this ufeful plant. The greateft 
enemy to the culture of turnips, is a fmall infedl, which in 
fize and Ihape very much refembles the flea* It comnnonly 
fl^ttacks the plants at a very early period, immediately after 
vthey begin to vegetate ; and in fome feafons makes fuch 
dreadful havock among them, as not only to injure, but free- 
quently totally to deftroy the crop. The bed remedy againft 
this evil is to fow them early and very thick ; 4 lib. at lead 
or 5 lib of feed to the EngliCh acre* This feems a method 
well' calculated to infure a crop of turnips. The fly feldom 
remains many days on the ground, and when fuch a quanti- 
ty of feed is fown, though the firft growth may be deftroyed, 
yet as every fucceeding (hower, or even dewy night, for a con- 
fiderable time, occafions a frelh vegetation of feed that has 
been buried deeper in the ground ; it is next to a certainty 
that fome one of theie growths will efcape the ravages of the 
fly, and produce a fufficicntly plentiful crop. Many have 
been tlie inftances of the propriety of this theory, in this pa- 
ri(b, within thefe few years. In their more advanced (late, 
turnips are in fome feafons attacked by a caterpillar. Though 
the injury which they receive from it is frequently confidera* 


of Mordington. 179 

blf, yet it is fcldom fo great as to occafion a total failure cf 
the crop. 

Swedijh Turnip. — It may not be improper in this place to 
mention that the Ruta Bnga, or the SwediJIj turnip^ has been 
cultivated with confiderable fuccefs by the two heritors of this 
parifli. In a country like this, where' ftock occupies fo 
much attention, and renders fuch benefit to the farmer, 
' fomc root or plant feems wanting to give to the cattle, 
between the time that the turnips begin to (hoot, and of 
courfe, to ceafe to afford nourifliment, and the coming in of 
the grafs* The ruta baga feems admirably calculated for 
that purpofe. For befides being later of fliooting than -the 
turnip, it lofes not its nutritive qualities after it has (hot, but 
retains all its juices and folidity : Whereas it is well known 
that a turnip, after it has put forth its flower, becomes dry^ 
light, and reedy, and in every refpcfi un(it for feeding either 
cattle or (heep. Horfes too feem very fond of it $ a^id one (^ 
the gentlemen above alluded to, has this winter given them to 
his out- lying young horfes, who eat them with great eager- 
tiefs. He was led to try this experiment, from obferVing 
that when thefe young horfes broke out of the field, they 
conflantly fed* on the ntta haga^ though in the fame (i^ld 
there was a large quantity of turnips, which they never of- 
fered to touch. Another extraordinary quality of the ruta 
baga is, that it feems impoflible to make it rot ; though bit or 
trod upon by cattle or horfes^ it never rots, but whatever part 
of the root is left, nay, if fcooped out to the (hell, it remains 
perfe£lly frefh, and iii fpring puts out a new i?em. It is 
needlefs to obferve that the oppofite of this obtains Witb [ 
the turnip. The culture too of this valuable root is perfeftly 
jSmpIe : When firft attempted in this pariih, the gentlemen 
Y2 fottowed 

If. So Stafifiic^l Account 

foUo^^red the fales laid down in the news-papers, tiz. Raifing 
the plants in a hot bed, and then tranfplanting them into, 
the field. This method never anfwerell ; they rofe to no fize ; 
put on their trying them by the feed fown in the field, and 
managed in every refpeO: the fame as turnips, (only fown a 
pnonth earlier) all their expedations were gratified, and 
good crops follQwed* Both roots and leaves are alfo eiccel- 
|ent for culinary purpofes j and for that caufei numbers of 
people in this neighbourhood now raife a few in their gar- 
dens for the pot. Before concluding this article, it is w orth 
pentioning, as an example of what feeding will do, when 
carried on according (o the above fyftem, by a cpnftant (uc- 
ceflion of green food : There is an ox at prefent in the parifli> 
bred by one of the heritors, which, though only^4 years old, 
is allowed by all judges to be above an hundred ftones 
weight ; i. e. tjio weight of the four quartets only* He ne- 
ver has been houfcd, and never got any thing but turnips, 
grafs, and a little hay. His dam, when in calf qf him, was 
pought for 6 1. Sterling. 

Rotatm ofCropi — ^The ufual rotation of crops is, firft oats, 
then turnips; after thefe, barley with grafs feeds, which 
makes the fucceeding crops hay \ and the ground, upon which 
It is raifed, is coinmonly allowed to remain in grafs for paf- 
ture fome years ; after which it is again taken up, and ma- 
paged according to the above rotation. Two crops of oats 
are fometimes allowed after the land has lain long in grafs : 
^ttt in no other caff^ are two white crops allowed to fucceed ^ 
each othv% and the tenants are feldom permitted to have 
inore than the half of their lands in tillage. Wheat is gene- 
rally fown on the ftrong clay lands after plain fallow ; and on 
the dry grounds it is fometimes fown after clover, ley, and fome 
times on the lands where the turnip crop has failed. There is 


qf Mordington. 181 

always, however, a great proportion of the lands in grafs ; and 
as the fields are generally laid down in good order, they not on^ 
ly afford greater profit to the farmer in this ftate, than he 
could derive from the fcanty produce of a conftant fucceflioa 
of com crops, but alio amply repay him for the reft he gives 
them, by the luxuriant crops which they yield when taken upi» 
after having been pafturcd for fome years. By this mode of 
management, to which the tenants arc bound down in their 
}eafes, the lands are not only kept clean, and freed from thofe 
noxious weeds, which are fo prejudicial to the grain fown, or 
the plants raifed on them, but are alfo prevented from being 
impoveriihed by over-cropping. 

River, Ftjb, and Mills, — ^The river Whitaddcr, which wa(b. 
es the fouthern boundary of this parifh abounds in trout$, 
eels, &c* . And at certain feafons of the year, large quanti- 
ties of falmon, and fi^mqn trouts, come up, which afford good 
fport to the anglers. In fpawning time, great numbers of 
falmon go up the river, even almoft to its fource, to depofit 
their fpawn. Till of late years, great havock ufed to be made 
among them at that feafon, by the country people ; but fince 
the paffmg an a£t of the Legiflature, forpreferving the fi(h iii 
the Tiver Tweed and the dreams running Jnto it, thefe prac* 
tices have been greatly checked, by the exertions of the magif- 
trates and proprietors, to the great benefit of the valuable 
fiihings on the Tweed. On the eftate of Edington, befides a 
mill for other kinds of grain, there are two mills for grind- 
ing wheat, in which about 300 bolls are every week made 
ifito flour. 

Coaft, and Sea Fijh. — On the coaft, which, towards the £a(t 
of the pari(h, is very bdd and rocky, there are abundance of 

' * • aU 

l82 Statiftical Account 

all die kinds of (i(h that are to be found in the mouth of 
' the Frith of Forth, which arc fold at very reafonable rates. 
Lobftcrs and crabs are in plenty, but there are no oyftcrs or 
mufcles. The lobftcrs arc almoft all carried to London by 
fmacks that come along the coaft for that purpofe, at ftatcd 

Minerals^ Gamgy bfc. — In the rocks on the coaft, great 
quantities of lime-ftone are to be found, though not of a 
good quality : Coal and iron ore alfo make their appearance^ 
aiKl immenfe blocks -of frec-ftone of the fincft foit. The 
ufual kinds of game, which are to be found in thp lower 
parts of Berwick-fhire, are here in great plenty. On the 
higher grounds in this parrfli, dotterels are fuppofed to ap- 
pear fooner than on any parts in the fouth of Scotland* 
"Woodcocks are often found in the early part of the feafon, 
pboTy weak, and exhaufted, probably frpm iheir long flight 
acTofs the German Ocean. 

Population. — If, as is generally fuppofed, the monopoly of 
farms, and the abridgement of labour, in confequence of the 
improved ftate of agriculture, uniformly operate to the 
dimintfliing the number of the inhabitants, certainly the dc- 
crcafc of the population of this parifti ought of late years to 
have been confiderable ; as the whole lands, except what arc 
in the poircflion of the proprietors are, at prcfent, farmed by 
three tenants, one of whom is not refident, but farms to a 
confiderable extent in a neighbouring parifh. From any en- 
quiries, however, which the incumbent has made, he dods 
not find that the decreafc has been fo great as might have 
been expefted. And he ftiould imagine, that, if a full inveftir 
gation were made of the matter, there would be lefs caufe 
than is generally fuppofed, for regretting that union of farms, 


of Mordington* - X83 

which ROW fo generally preraiU in this and many odiet 
parts of Scotland. It would indeed be unlucky, if a mode 
of farming, which muft be allowed greatly to increafe the 
mofl: ufeful and mod necefTary commodities of a country^ 
(houid have a tendency to diminifh the number of its tnha- 
hitants. For there cannot be a doubt, that by the prefent 
fyftem of hulbandry, which prevails in this part of the coun- 
try, the grounds produce a much greater quantity of every 
fpecies of grain, and afford fuftenance to double the mimber 
of cattle, Iheep, and (lock of every kind, than they did be- 
fore this mode was adopted. Its being carrial on by fewer 
hands, in confequence of the abridgement of labour, and a 
greater proportion of the lands being thrown into grafs, 
though it muft no doubt diminilh the number of the people 
employed in the purpofes of agriculture, and in many pa- 
ri(hes, where that forms the fole employment of the inhabit 
tants, render fuch pariflies lefs populous \ yet it does not 
follow, as a juft inference from thence, that the number of 
inhabitants in the country at large is thereby diminiOied. k 
has only the tStOt of making the fuperfluous hands betake 
themftlves to other occupations, and thus become the means 
of increafing the number of our manufa^tirers, and furnift- 
ing labourers for other ufeful and important purpofes ; fuch 
as making and repairing the public roads, inclofing and drain- 
ing the fields, &c. And there cannot be a doubt, that even 
in this county, where the monopoly of farms is perhaps car- 
ried to a greater length, than in any other county in Scotland^ 
it will be found, when the extent of its whole population is af- 
certained, that the number of its inhabitants is rather increaf* 
ed than diminifhed : And that the diminution in many of the 
parochial diftrifls, .from the caufes above mentioned, is more 
tlian counter-balanced by the additional increafe in the towns 
and villages. This reafoning will appear the more conclu- 


1S4 Statijlical Account 

five, when the /aft is dated, that the population, whatever 
decrcafc it may have fuffered within thcfc 20 years, is aftu- 
ally ntgh doubled, fince the late eminent Dr Wcbfter made 
tip his eftimate of the whole population of Scotland : 
For the number of fouls at prefent in the parifli is 335 

Whereas tlie whole population, in 1755, was only 18 r 

Hence there is a clear increafe, of no lefs than 154 

Of thefe there are males, - - 148* 

— females, - - 187 

The number of families is exactly - 62 

Employments. — Like moft of the other parifhcs In the coun- 
ty of Berwick, the chief employment of its inhabitants is 
huftandry. 'Till of late, there were indeed two manufac- 
tures carried oh within the bounds of the pari(h, though 
none of them on an extcnfive fcalc, the one a ftarch, and the 
other a foap manufafturc. They are koth, however, given 
up, at leaft for the prefent. Beiides thofc employed in the 
purpofcs of agriculture, there are, as in -all other country pa- 
riihes, a few who follow fuch mechanical occupations, as arc 
requiiite for the accommodation of the inhabitants ; fuch as 
joiners and fmiths, for manufafturing the utenfils of huf- 
bandry — tailors, weavers, &c. There is one fiftiing boat 
belonging to the parifh, which gives employment to 5 fifhcr- 
men, who are as a£ilve and induftrious as any in this part of 
the coaft. 

Prices rf Labour. — The wages of men fervants who gtt 
their board in the houfe, arc from 7 1, to 81. a year ; of wo- 
men fervants, froni 3I. to 4I. Servants who have families, 
and live in feparate houfes, are not paid in money, but re-* 
ceive a certain quantity of meal or grain, have a cow grazed^ 


iff Mordingtoh. , 18^ 

dkir cOisiU brought home, and feverd other perqulfitefi, the 
whole of which may amount to 1 61. a year. Day-labourers 
commonly receive 1$. 4d. per day in fummerj and 13. in win- 
ter« except in hay'tlme, and during harvefti when there id ii 
con(idcrable advance in their wages. Thoft who take work 
by the piece generally earn a cohfiderabladeal more. There 
has, for diefe fome years paft, been a giadual rife fin the price 
of labour for weeding turnips, ptobably owing to the gradu- 
al extenfion of the tumip-huftandryt which requires a great- 
er number> and confequently makes a greater demand for la- 
bourers. The Wages are now i od. per day ; whereas, a few 
years ago, they feldom exceeded 6d. This fpecies of labour 
16 generally performed by women and boys, who are verf 
expert at it. 

i!^^.— The great poft road from Edinburgh to London^ 
by Berwick and Newcaftle, runs through the Eaft fide of thid' . 
parilh. The road from Dunfe to Berwick pafles through 
the South part of it. This, as well as all the other great and 
leading roads through Berwick (hire, is made and repaired 
by, the money which is levied at toll-bars, which have lately 
been ere£ted. The inftitution of turnpike^ has been of the 
greateft utility to this country. Formerly, the roads were of- 
ten in fuch a fituatron, as to render impoflible, cither for car- 
riages or horfes to get through ; whereas, there is how an 
open and an eafy communication^ at all feafons of the year,' 
for horfes and carriages of every defcription. The ctpia 
roads are alfo in a rapid ftate of improvement ; they are 
made and up-held by the llatute labour, which is commuted. 

HentOi'Sy Retrty (jfr. — There »e onl^ two hcfitdi's id 

this diftria, both of whdrti refide. The real rent of iK* ftU 

riih is about ^060]. Sterling. The! valued rent i» 2(^04^1. 

J 8s. 6d. Sctfteh. The monthly cefs is 32I 14$. JM. St^^: 

tot. XV. kx ChrcHi 

1 86 Statijlical Account 

Churchy School, and Poor. — The church was built in ihc 
year 1757, and the manfc a confiderablc lime before. The 
latter has lately undergone a complete and thorough repaijr» 
and is now comfortable and commodious. The ftipend is 
paid partly in money, and partly in grain ; the amount of 
the whole, including; the glebe, is, commumbus annis^ from 
85I. to 90I. Alexander Rentok, Efq; of Lanimerton 19 
patron. The author of this account has been greatly in- 
debted to this gentleman, for his obliging information and 
affiftance in drawing it up. The fchool-mafter's falary is 
7I. per annum. The poor are maintained chiefly by afiefT- 
ments.on the heritors and tenants, the collefiions in the 
church being trifling. Until within thefe 10 years, there 
never was a pcrfon on the poor's roll. Since that time they 
have not been numerous. At prefcnt there arc only two 
that receive a weekly aliment. 

Antiquities^ — Monuments of antiquity are not very numerous 
in this parifli : We have, however, a camp of confiderablc ex- 
tent, which, from its form, is unqucftionably Danifh. It is 
fituated on the N. W. extremity of the parifh, and commands 
a beautiful profpeft over a vaft traft of country. It feems to 
have been a well chofcn ftation for the predatory excurfions 
of barbarous ages, and alfo for keeping up a communication 
with the fea, from which it is at no great diftance. It is fur- 
rounded by two deep trenches, which are ftill very entire ; 
the mounds of them fecm once to have been faced with 
ftones. Many of thefe ftones have been carried away for 
different purpofca : what is remarkable, a kind of done has 
been found th^re, which is not to be feen in any other part 
of the country, except In the bed of the river Whitaddcr, 
from wheuce they mud have been brought, - a diftance of 
near 4 milesi and alLpp-hiil) which in thofe days muft have 


of Mor)iington. . 187 

been a work of much toil and. labour. The hill on which 
the camp (lands is called Hab or Hohchejler. A little to the 
South*£a(l of this camp is a hill of no great height, but rifmg 
abruptly^ on which feveral unfortunate women were burnt 
for witch-crafty fo late as the beginning of this .century. If 
is ftill called the JVitch*s Know J. EdinGton Castle, the 
ruins of which uaw (how its former llrengthi alfo demands 
our notice. It is fituated on the banks of the Whittadder, 
near the fouthern extremity of th^ parifli^ on a deep rock, 
totally inacceffible from the Weft \ at th^.foot of which the 
river flows. In feudal times, it was an excellent prote£ltoa 
agaiuft the inroads and depredations of our neighbours, on 
the other fide of the Tweed. It lus been a folid and fub- 
ftantial bu]lding,.as.what remains of ^he walls ^re compofed 
of immenfe fton^s, (Irongly cemented tpgcther. 

Advantages and Di/advant.iges. — ^The advantages^ attending^ 
the fituation of this parifh, greatly overbalance any difadvan-< 
tages to which it may be liable. Situated within 4 miles 
of Berwick, (to which there is an excellent road,) the in- 
habitants can with great cafe procure whatever nwy be want- 
<?d, either for convenience or luxury. There alfo they (ind 
a ready rtarkct for whatever tliey have to difpofc of ; the 
farmer, in fome decree, for his fat (lock of every denomina* 
tion, and always for his corn y and the cottager for his eggs, 
butter, cheefe, or fowls. And, in like manne^*, they can be 
fupplicd with whatever they (land in need of, as well and as 
pheap in Berwick^ as in any place in the North of England. 
Whatever elfc the farmer has to difpofc of, . he there meet^ 

A a 2 . •, with 

§ The fpot on which the exertion took place wai plahilf to ht feeQ a* 
bout 4 years ago. but is now plovred up and cropped with the reft of the ficW ; 
a fort of fuperlUtlout veoeracion for the fpo\ Where banum blood had been 
(hed, fccmi to hate prefcrvcd it for maoy jcsu^s. 

}%% Siafij/Hcat Aecemt 

yrixh his btiytfrs, whither it be wool, cattk or fiieep ; Ber^ 
wick being on tlie ftraight road to Morpeth^ S0ndepland and 
Shields, the great marts of our (lock ; and Yorkffaire, in the 
fame way, for our wool ; the jobbers in tbefe different artictea 
repair thither at particular feafons, and cany off whatever we 
hkve to part with. 'Tis difficult then to fay, what wocdd melio- 
rate the fitttation of the inhabitants of thia parish. Fuel ptfe* 
fents jtfelf as the readied means of making tJieir ftate more 
comfertaWe. At prefent they are, 'tis true, 7 miles from coals ; 
btit as it is good road, and the tenants drive fo^many loads- to 
elich cottager, this inconvenience is the left feh^ n>orc e^- 
ciaWy as the prime coft is rery moderate, ^t there is a tea- 
fonable hope that eten tbi& drawback may thortly be lemor- 
e^l ; ^ there is no doubt, that, on thenerthom exttemiliy of 
the pariQi, there is a workable coal, which, i(» i^ underftood, 
the proprietor intends ere long to open up, and which will be 
of tJie gfcateft benefit td the parifll, as weir as to the neigh- 

CArtr/i/Ti-r.— Aftuate'd by a ftnfe of thefe advantages, the 
inhabitants of this 'parifli are rnduftrious, frugal and orderly, 
fubmiflive to the haws, and* attentive to the wifh of their fa- 
periors. No inhabitant has been conviSed of a crimtf be- 
fore a Court of Juftice, in the memory of man. And wh^t 
ifhews the regularity of their condndl in the moft confpicu- 
ous light, is, that in July 1 792, when the moft atrocious riots 
prevailed in this county, on account of the inftiiution of 
turnpikes, not one inhabitant of this pariflr was cariied be- 
fore a magiftrate, or even fufpeiied of being concerned in 
thofe (hameful enormities which difgraced the county : 
though perhaps the burden, (if there he any,) fails heavieft 
on them, being fituated at the eailev n ext]:emity of the coun«- 
ty, »nd though they^ who pay toll, do not tnveltes yard« or 
the road> on their way to Berwick. 
' ' * NUxMBER. 

of Titticonltty. i8^ 


f Count? 6v ClackmInnak, PnEaiTTEitT oipDoiMLAinij 
Stno]> of Perth and Stirlin<j.) 

By the F^. M&. WiLLZJiitt O^jUitH^ Mmifiar. 

Eijmohgy of ihe Name, 

X. H£ origin of the name is generally fappofed to be Gae« 
lie, and Tillicoultry compounded of the three words, Tuilich^ 
fut and tin Thefe vfords fignify literally, the rwufrt or hifi 
at the bach of the country^ and feem to refer to the Kirk-hrlf, 
and the Cuninghar ; a rifing ground, which begins near the 
houfe of Tillicoultry and the old kirk, and runs in a S. £. 
dircftion till it reaches the Dpvan. This rifing ground has 
a ftrikingly romantic appearance,^ as one 'approaches it, 
either from the Eaft or the Weft. And as it interfefts a 
beautiful plain, which begins at the Abbcy^Craig near Stirling, 
and extends to Vicar's Bridge, it has juftly been diftinguiflied 
as the termination of the plain, or ftrath. But the author of 
this account hopes he will not be accufed of aife£tation, if 
\it ventures to give a Latin derivation, and confiders Tillicoul- 
try as compounded cither of Telluj culta, or Te/lus cultorum 
^- Dei. 

^9<3 Statijlical Account 

Dei. If the firft be adopted, we may fuppofc the name took 
its rife, from the place having been once in a high ftate of 
cultivation, probably from the introdudion of the Italian agti* 
culture. But if the fecond, it may denote the rcfidencc of 
fome of the Culdees^ or a place appropriated to the worftiip 
of God, either by the Culdees or the Druids. For on the 
fouth end of the Cuninghar, the rude remains of a Druidical 
circle arq Kii\ -to be feen, and on thenorth-eaft extremity of 
the rifing ground, the old church was fituated. The writer 
hereof is no admirer of the Gaelic ; but as Gaelic deriva- 
tions are at prefent fafhionable, and as every place in this 
country is fuppofed, by our learned antiquarians, to ha^re ,an 
old Gaelic name, he is afraid little attention will be paid to 
thefeZtO^yi. etymologies. It muft, however, be allowed, that. 
Tillicoultry is no great corruption of Melius culta^ or of TeU 
bis cultorum Dei^ 

Skuatkn, — Tillicoultry is an inland country pariih, and 
ptefiBntsr little uncommon or fplendid for dcfcription. It 
comprehends a confiderablc part of the Ochils, where thcC? 
hills are higheft *, but the principal part of the parifli lies at 
the foot of the hills, verging towards the fouth. The river 
Dovan wafhes its bat^ksou the north* 

Jppearanccj Form^ ^c.—Thc, appearance pf the parifh, 
whether we view the hills or the plain, is beautiful and plea- 
fant* A great part o( the low ground is cnclofed, and , af- 
fords a variety o£ agreeable landfcapes, and the beauty of the 
fcene is much cncrcafed by the win4ings of the Dovan, 
>v'hich in miniature refemble thofc of the Forth. The fbapc 
of the M'holc parifli is a rlwmboid or an oblong, which has 
the two longed fides on the E. and W* each meafuring al- 
moft 6 Englifh miles. 1 he S> fide of the oblong meafures 


fxf Tillicoultry. 191 

near '24 miles, and tlie N. fide one niile. The low grounds 
taken alone form alfo an oblong, the length of the fides 
from E* to W. being rather more than 2^ miles, and the 
breadth from & to N. about i{ mile. 

Extent and £W^/f>/i.*-Tiilicoultry confifts of mbfe thafn 
1^000 Scotch "Ticres, of which quantity, 4000 are in the 
Ochils, and the remaining 2000 acres form the loMf arable 
ground at the foot of the hills, and to the fouth of the bank 
dykes. About iioo or 1200 acres of arable land, by far the 
beft and mod valuable in the parifii, lie between the bank 
dykes, at the foot of the hills, and the loweft part of the 
banks of Balharty and Coalfnaiighton, fouth of the Dovan, 
and about 800 or 900 acres lie fouth of the river, from the 
foot of the banks. The hills, according to an a£hial furvey» 
cxclufive of the Mill-Glen farm, contain 2902 acres* The 
elevation of the ground, on the north banks of the Dovan ; 
at the bridge, is not more than 20 feet, or at moft 30 fee( 
"above the level of the Forth, at fpring tides ; and the S* Vf» 
corner of Tillicoultry, which approaches neareft to that river, 
is diftant from it about 3 miles. The ground at Coalfnaugh- 
ton is near 300 feet above the JDoyan \ and at Balharty it is 
about 300 feet. 

Soil and Surface. — ^The foil is in general dryjield^ rich in 
quality. When properly taken care of, it bears excellent 
crops, both of corn and hay, and gratefully repays the labour 
of the husbandman. At the foot of die hills, the foil is a 
fine qoick loam, but not very deep. The crpfts are, in many 
places, covered with ftcmes almoft mnumerable, fmooth in* 
their furface, and in general twice as large as a man's fift. 
They appear to be natural to the foil, and not brought tlii- 
iSbejr by any inundation 5 but many entertain a different opi- 


i^^ Sttt^Hcal Account 

Seme farmers thiidc «hem an advaMbage lo the cropti, 
as in hot dry fumaiers thejr keep the ground unoift and cadif 
and in winter warm* Voft quantities have been gathered, 
which, in labouring, proves a great eafe both to the plough 
and the ploughman. The haughs, near the Dovan, prcfent 
a deep loam mixed with faud, and the foil is very diiFerent 
from that of the crofts. The farm -of Gutters is in part cby, 
and bears fine crops of wheat as well as other grains. The 
lands fouth of the Dovan are much inferior to thofe on the 
north fide. In fome places, the foil is a clay, of a cold na-» 
ture \ in others it is a light kam, Ruxed with faod and gr»- 
vel, on a till bottom, and in others it is a deep rich loam. A 
corifiderable part of the ground is covered with heath, and 
would not be eafily improved, either for tillage or pafture. 
Perhaps the beft improvement would be, to enclofe the 
. moors, siid to pbnt them w:ttk Scotch fins» laxdies, and o« 
tfaerlbreft trees. 

Agrtctthure, — In the county oF Qackimaiian, agriciikural 
improvements are much attended to, and have been brought 
to great perfeftion. Richer crops of wheat, barley, or hay, 
mre feldom to be met with ; and the ploughs ufcd, and the 
mode of ploughing, are no where furpaifed. A plough atid 
ploughman were fent this fummer from Qackmannanfhirc to 
Windfor, to give a proper fpccimen of plowing on his^a- 
jefty's farm. 

Crops and Mtdturts^ &fr.— The farmer^ m Tillicoultry 
do t^ot pretend to take any lead m agricultural improvement 
Tbe.y profit, hawever, by the obferrations and the pra£licc 
of '-others. Two horfe ploughs are getting into general ufc, 
wbch an; a great io^rovement in husbandry. The crops 


principally attended to, arc oats and barley. Wheat is too 
much neglefted, except by Mr Johnfton, and even peafc 
and beans. Crops of turnips are feldom to be met withi 
and cabbages are never raifed in our fields. It is difficult 
to afcettaiti the rent and produce of the land per acire. Thd 
farms are commonly let at a certain rent in cumuloy and the 
farmgrs, iiot knowing the meafure of thieir fields, feldtom pay 
attention to the produce of particular acres. The refult of 
many enquiries is, that an acre of the bed land, well manur- 
ed, will produce from 7 to 10 bolls of oats, each boll weigh** 
ing 14 or 15 (lone, yielding about a boll of meal. .The oats 
generally produce 14 pecks of meal, befides paying the muU 
ture, and all other mill-dues. The multure is no lefs than the 
13th peck. An acre of the fame land will yield from 7 to 
1 1 bolls of barley, each weighing about 1 8 or 20 done- At 
an average, however, an acre will not yield above 6 or 7 boUs^ 
whether of barley or oats. Our dry-field barley is remar- 
kably good, being very thin in the rind j and is rfeckoned, by 
maltmen and diftillers; equal to any farfed in the Carfe. A 
good deal of wheat has of late been fown in the farm of 
Gutters, and an acre commonly produces from 8 to loholls. 
Forty boils of potatoes have been raifed on an acre, and one 
farnier in particular had 18 bolls on the 4th of an acre. Thd 
writer of this account had accefs to fee a retharkable crop of 
potatoes^ raifed in Mr Barclay*s garden, the produce being 
no lefs than 1 05 pecksj or 6 bolls and 9 pecksj raifed from 
one peck planted. 

Farms J RentSy Pajiitrey Stock , i^c. — ^The farms are in general 

fmall, and there are only 5 tenants whofe rent exceeds 50 !• 

Sterling ^r ahnutH. A great part of the parifti is inclofed^ 

and lafid down in grafs, and is let annually for fummer graz- 

VoL. XV. - Bb »ing: 

194 Statijlical Account 

zing. The rent of farms fluduatcs, but grafs parks couv- 
monly let well. * The grofs rental of the parifti is above 
1700I. Sterlingi and tlie valuation is rated^ in the old cefs 
books of the county, at 3389 1. 5 s. xod. Scotch. There are 
in Tillicoultry employed in plowing, carting, and other 
Country work : 

Horfes^ • 116 Milk Cows» - 132 

Ploughs - 36 Cottagers ditto - 63 

Carts - 89 

* Htll ParmSf Sheep and Wool — ^The hills have a verdant 

* ind beautiful appearance. They afford excellent pafture for 
iheep, and are divided into 5 farms. They will maintain 
scbout 3500 (heep \ and, at an average, an acre will not only 

• maintain, but fodder one (heep. The pafture is grafs, inter- 
fperfed with heath, bent and ling. The heath is (hort and 
wearing oat. The Mill-Glen and Fore-hill farms are infe- 

• For 15 years pad, abuoft all the farms, wkich have' been let, have been t»- 
l:en by ftrangeis from other pariihcs in the neighbouthood, and who are Se- 
ceders. Jf the prcfcnt fyftem prevail for other 15 years, the greateft part, if 
liot the whole of the parifh, will be pofTcfled by perfons not belonging to 
the eflabliihed church. It is but doing juttice to a worthy man, (whofe 
fweetnefs of temper, benevolence of heart, and gentlenaany behaviour, will be 
remembered with pleafure, at leaft ^hile the prefent generation lafls,) 10 men- 
tion, that Mr Bakclat Mai tlano improved and beautified the parifh in a 
high degree, by his numerous indofurcs and plantations. His tafte and atten- 
lioh every where appear. Mr Tait alfo merits piaife for his improvements 
on the lands of Harviefton, which he has wholly endoTed. He has carried on 
his improvements, for many years, with much fpiric and judgment, and, it is 
prefnmedy with great advantage to himfelfr His uniform pradice has been t« 
fallow his fields, and, after manuring them well with dung and lime, to fow 
them with barley and grafs feeds. One of his inclofures, which contains 5 
and a half Scotch acres, has been let this fcafcn for grazing, at 4 guinf a» 
per acre, the rent being 23 1. 2 a. Sterling. 

i)f Tillicoultry. , 193 

rior to none in the Ochils, far produciog excellent mutton 
and fine wool. The wood of thefe farms is much fuperior 
to that of Bruich and the back hills, as the padure is natur- 
z&j much finer. Tlie farms are commonly fupplied from 
Tweeddale with young flicep of the black-faced kind : the 
farmers fometimes breed young flieep, which, on the whole, 
they find better, ftronger and more profitable, than thofe 
from Tweeddale. But as the hills are ftormy, they cannot 
keep the lambs in winter. All the Mill- Glen farm is good 
pafture, but in the reft of the hills, there are near 400; acr^^ 
of little or no value^ as they are covered with channel and 
raofs. The very beft white fleeces yield about 4 lib. of woqJ, 
valued at lod.^r pound ^ and the beft fmeared fleeces 6 lib. 
at 5d. or 6d, The average weight of a white fleece is aboifcj 
2^ lib. and of a fmeared one, 4 lib. The whole of wha^ 
was formerly a common:}: is now the property of Mr Bruce, 
except Bruich^ which belongs to Mr Taxt, and as much a^ 
will maintain 48 fheep. 

Hills and Minerals. — Bencxeuoh, the property of Mr 
Johnfton, is the higheft in the Ochils, and is 230© feet a- 
•bove the level of the Forth at Alloa. The Ochils prefent a 
confiderable variety of ftrafta* The fummits of the central 
parts, particularly Bencleugh, are compofed iof igranitcs, hotl> 
red and gray. Many varieties of Acfe are extremely beau- 
B b 2 tiful, 

4 When LoRp Coltil feued Che eftate, be gave bis vajTalt a right of pa& ' 
turing fheep and other cattle on the hiU». Some of them had a limited num- 
ber of iheep affigned them, and others an unlimited number. In the year 
1769, Mr Barclay Maitlano commenced a procefs againft thcfeuers, for 
^ dWiiicn of the common hill, which contained about 300 acres. The pro- 
cefs was withdrawn from the Couit of Selfion in 1774) ^ii^ referred to ar* 
biters, and all the fcucrs difpofcd of their property for low ground, or a di« 
AUDutira of their fen-duty. The AiilhOlen was no part of the common MH. 

19^ Stati/Hcal Accwnt 

tiful, and contain large diftina chryftals of black SchorU Thq 
next chain, of which the Kings Seat is the higheft, and be- 
longs to that clafs called fecondary mountains, cor.fifts of 
Q:rata of ArgiiJaceous SchifiM. Rclpw this, in various parts, 
are found craigs or rocks of. BafalteSy or whinftone. The 
Caflle Craig is of this fort, and is peculiarly intcrefting tp the 
naturalift, as it is in part compofedof nodules of whin- (lone, 
exhibiting concentric crufts of decompofed bafahes, like the 
coats of an onion, furrounding a harder nucleus. Garnets 
are not uncommon in the micaceous Schiftus, \vh!ch forms 
the (hade between the granitical and argillaceous Schiflus. 
There are many veins of copper in the hillf. * Iron-done, 
of an exceeding good quality, has been found in many dif- 
feient places. Some veins in JVatty-Glen are as rich as any 
,'difcovered in Scotland. The Dovan Company have a leafe 
of the iron-ftone belonging to Mr Bruce, and have employed, 
during the greateft part of this year, 64 miners and 10 wo- 
meii bearers. At an average, each miner gains i s. 6d. per 
day, and a bearer 8d. A great "many^r/wo^/, or veins of 
rich iron ore of the kidney kind, have been difcovered in 
the hills, equal in quality to any difcovered in this coun- 
try, and by no means inferior to what ib brought from Eng- 
land. Some fmnll trials have bet n made with one of the 
veins, and it is to be regretetd that they are difcontinucd. 
Befides copper, there is a great appearance, in the hilis, of dif- 

• Some of thcfe were wrought near 50 year* ago, to a very confider^Me 
extent hi the MiU-Glen. Four different kinds of copper 01 e were difco- 
vered, the thickeft vein of which was about^iS inched. The ore, 
when ^afhed and dreiTcd, was valued at 50 1 Sterling per torn. A Company 
of gentlemen at London were the tackfmen, and for fevctal years eniploycd 
about 50 men. After a very great fum of money was expended, the works 
were abandoccd, as unable to defray the exp ence. 

qf Tillicoultry. X97 

fcrent mIneralS|fuch as Giver, lead) cobalt, antimony, fulphur, 
;ind arfenic, but no proper trials have yet been made. A fmall 
edge ftratum of dark blue clay, 2|- feet thick, was lately 
found, which, it is thought, will prove exceeding good for 
building furnaces, and making fire bricks. There is plenty 
of free-flone of a good quality for building •, and (tones have 
been cut in the quarries from 8 to 10 feet in length. 

CoaL — ^The whole parlOi, fouth of the hills, abounds with 
poal, which is the property of Mr Bruce, except in Mr John - 
lion's eftatc. The coal hasmot been wrought to any great 
extent, unkfs where it is drained by the prefent level. There 
are 4 different feems of coal which the level drains. The 
firft is a mixed cherry coal, 3 feet thick, and 1 2 fathoms 
from the furfacc. The ad is a rough foft coal of an excel- 
lent quality, 6 feet thick, and 15 fathoms deep. The 3d 
is a remarkably good clean fplint, 2^ feet thick, and 20 fa- 
thoms deep. And the 4th, which is reckoned the princi- 
pal feam, is about 5 feet thick, and lies at the depth of 30 
fathoms. It is a hard durable fplint well adapted for expor- 
^tion and the foreign market, particularly Holland. Only 
the 2d and fourth feams have been wrought -, f the roofs are 
all good, except that on the ad feam, where it runs towards 
the crop. But it is very valuable, as it contains balls of iron- 
(lone, in the roof, of an exceeding good quality. Eighty acres 
of the 2d feam, and 20 of the fourth, may dill be wrought 
by the level ; but by ere£ling a (leam engine, an immenfe 
quantity may be gained. The Devon company have been 


t Twenty pickmen ufed to be emplojed in the coal-work ; and about 
3000 chalden of great coal were exported annuaUy from the harbour of Alloa ; 
but for 4 years paft, the working of the coal has beto dtfcontinued. There 
U no doubt, however, but that, in procefa of time, the coal will be a moft pro- 
fitable concern, as there are incxhauftible fields of it to be found. 

19$ Stattflical Account 

tackfmen of the coal for more than a year and a half, but 
have wrought none, except a very fmall quantity for land 
fale. The defign of taking a coal, without working it, is /«- 
comprehenjible* While coals remain under ground, they are 
of no value, either to the proprietor or the tackfmen. 

Gate Mail. — ^Thc great coal, when led to the (hore of 
Alloa for exportation, pays a tax of fourpencc Sterling per 
chalder to the family of Mar, called Gate Matt. It was origi- 
nally demanded, for the liberty of exporting the coal from 
Ac Pom of Alhay and becauie the road leaciing through the' 
cftate to the harbour was a private one, though ufed by the 
public. This road is repaired by Mr Erfkinc at a confider- 
able annual expenoe ; at the fame time it feems extraordi- 
nary, that there is not a public road leading fVom Tillicoul- 
try to a public harbour, and to a market town, in which a 
Cttftom-boufe is eftabliih^d by authority. 

Kivery Floods^ Ftjbj Pearh^ Swansj to*^.— The Devon is 
a beautiful river, but not navigable. After running in the 
Ochils about 8 miles in an eaflierly direction from its fource, 
k makes a wide circuit round Muckart. Then taking a 
wefterly courfe at the Crook, and forming the romaniic fall 
at the Caldron Lin> it divides the arable land of Tillicoultry, 
into two almoft equal parts. The valley, through which it 
|)a(les« is diftinguilhed by Newte in his Tour, as being one of 
tlie mod: pleafant places, or, as he expreffes k, the Tempe of 
Scotland. The Devon frequently fwells with rain, and o^ 
verflows its banks {. It abounds M'ith excellent trout 


t A Tcry remarkable and uncommon flbod happened in September 17S5, 
which carried away a prodigiooi quantity of com, broke down a flone bridge 
at the Ilack mill in D olUr, and occalioncd other very extraordinary damage. 


(tf Tillicoultry. 1^9 

and parr, which afford much amufement to the angler* In 
the deep pools, pikes and eels are found, Salmon come from 
the Forth in great numbers to fpawn ; and we have plenty 
of delicious fea trouts, both w^ite and grey, in the harveH 
and fpring. In fome places, the banks of the Devon prefent 
fmgular concretions of hardened clay, in a great variety of 
fantaftic (hapes. Pearls of a fmall fize haye been found in 
the bed of the river \ and, in very fevere winters, fwans haye 
been known to refort to its banks. 

Rivulets and Bitrn Trouts, tsfc. — ^The hill burns, or rivu- 
lets, abound with trouts of a very delicious quality and fla- 
vour, and are taken in great numbers after rain. None were 
ever difcovered in the Glooming-Jide Burn^ though it has plenty 
of water, and remarkably fine ftreams and pools. Trouts 
have even been put into it, but without the defired effeft. 
This is fuppofed to arife from fome bed of fulphur, or other 
mineral hurtful to £i(h, over which the burn pafles. 

Birds and ^tadrupeds, — ^The birds are the fame as in flie 
neighbourhood, and it is needlcfs to fpccifiy them, as the/ 
are enumerated in the ftatiflical account of Alloa §. Till 
of late, the bulfinch was a fti^ngcr here, but he is now fre- 
quently to be met with. The woodlark ought to be particu-< 
larly mentioned, as one of our fweeteft warblers. He be* 
gins to Gng early in the fpring, and continues till late in har-/ 
veft. Like the nightingale, he is frequently lieard finging in 


The riTcr roXie in 4 or 5 hourt more than 13 feet above its iiTual iidght, ac 
Tillicoultry bridge. A woman, who was affifcing a farmer in removing his 
^oms, on the fouth fide, was forced away by the rapidity and violence of 
the ilream, and brought in fafety to the oppofice bank. Her clothes had 
made her float on the furface of the wa(er, though flic was carried down «- 

bout' a quarter of a mile. 

' ■ • • . 

5 FoL VIII. Num. XU 

ioo Statijlical Account 

the moft melodious, enchanting manner, in the .clear, (lill 
fummer evenings. On thefe occafions, he commonly pro- 
longs his fong till midnight, and fometimes till the morning. 
For two or three years we were vifited with a magpicy which 
was not variegated with black and white plumage, but was 
itiiirtly whitey — " Rara avis in ierris'\ The other magpies 
aflbciated with him, and did not confider him in any degree 
as ftrange. In the hills there are muir- fowls, plovers and 
dotterels. The muir-fowls are not fo frequent as formerly, 
as the heath is wearing out, and in confequence of this the 
ihelter is not fo good. The birds of paflage are fwallows, 
cuckoos, fieldfares and woodcocks ; and we are alfo vifited at 
times with hecons, ducks, and fea gulls. Eagles are fometimes 
feen on the hills. The wild quadrupeds are, hares, rabbits, 
foxes, hedge-hogs, weafels, polecats, badgeis and otters. The 
ikin of the otter is valuable as a fur, and fetches a j^ood 

Orchards and Plantations. — There are two fmall orchards, 
planted chiefly with apple trees, which contain about fix 
acres, and, fomc years, bear confiderablc quantities of fruit* 
Above lOO acres are planted with foreft trees, and many of 
the inclofures are furrounded with finglc rows of planting.. 
All kinds of foreft trees thrive well, particularly oaks, clms> 
afhes, beeches, planes, and Scotch firs *• 

Climate, — The air is healthy, dry, and warm, fubjs£l neither 
to fogs nor damps- Snow does not lie long on the low ground; 
particularly between the Devon and the hills, which is pro- 
bably owing to the natural warmth of the air or foil. The 
healthincfs of the two villages, at the foot of the hills, is un- 

* About 60 years ago, the common broom grew fo tall and luxuriant 
bear the maxife, that the crowi and magpies built tbeir nsfts in the branchct. 

of Tillicoultry. 201 

doubtcdiy much encreafe, by their being well fupplicd with 
plenty of excellent water. ' 

Difeafes. — ^Therc are no difeafes any way peculiar to Til- 
licoultry, § or that can be faid to be prevalent. Epidemic 
difeafes, fuch as fevers, fluxes, the fmall-pox, the meafles, 
and the c^iincough attack us at times, but not more frequent- 
ly than they do others. Rhftumatifms are not uncommon, 
as tlie people arc much expofed to tain and cold, in follow- 
ing their employments in the fields, f Within thcfe 25 
yeais, a great many young perfons have died of confump- 
tions, but the author is not able, eitlier to afcertain the num- 
ber, or point out the caufcs. Slow fevers fome times arc 
prevalent. And people have been known to recover, after 
remaining in them 30, or even 40 days. The ague ufed to 
be frequent, but it is now almod unknown. This happy 
change is perhaps owing to the lands being better drained 
than formerly, or to the houfes being kept more cleanly. 

Vol. XV. C c warm, 

$ The laft tifne the plagse was in Scotland^ it did not reach Tillicoul- 
try, though a good many perfons died of it at Alva. One man however ha- 
ving died fuddenly in the Wefter town, the people were afraid to touch the 
corpfe, or even to enter the houfe. It was pnUed down, and the iinall emi* 
nence, which this occafioncd, was called Botchy Calm. 

5 It is worth mentioning that one William Hunter, a collier, was cured 
in the fear 1758, of an inveterate rheumatifm or gout, by drinking freely of 
new ale, full of barm or yeft. Tlie poor man had been confined to his bed 
for a year and a half, having almoft entirely loft the nfe of his limbs. On 
the evening of ffauJftl Mtaday, as it is called, (t. t. the firil Monday of the 
New Year, O. S.) fome of his neighbours came to make merry with him. 
Though he could not rife, yet he always took his fiure of the ale, as it paiTed 
round the company, and, aa ibt end, became much intoxicated. The confe- 
^uence was, that he had the ufe of his limbs the next morning, and was able 
to walk about. He laved more than 7/o yeats after this, and never had j(l« 
imalleft return of bit old comphunt. 

902 Statijiical Account. 

warm, and dry. The dyfenteicy was unknown here for ma- 
ny years. It has, however, appeared of late three different 
times, and carried off a good many peifons, chiefly won^en. 
As this alarming malady always broke out in the end of har- 
veft, fome have been apt to imagine, that, if it vyas not caught 
^ by infe£lion, it arofe from the colds and damps to which 
the people were expofed in reaping) or to a frequent ufe of 
potatoes not brought to a proper (late of matupty. The 
people have in general an averfion to inoculation for tbp 
imall-poXj yet this prejudice is beginning to wear away X. 

P^«/fl/wff.— Tillicoultry is a finall pariib, yet pretty popu- 
lous for its fizc. 

Population Table or the Parish of Tillicoultry. 

For thde xS jtas\ paft, tbe annuhl average nambcr of fonli has ^een S74 
T^ht higheft real number of aoy year during that period, was 919 

Andtheloweft, . - • • 829! 

Difference,, - • - 90 

In the year Z789, the number of fouls ifa« - 903 

Of thele there belonged to the Eftabliihed Church, 741 

And to the Seceflion, - - 1(^1 

The following UJis were taken tn January I79i> and (hew the Numhen^ 
Agts^ CoHdttMHs, and EmpUymemtt of th^ iphabitanti at that time. 

t Many children took the foiall pox, Uft year, in the natural way, on^ 
one of whom died, being a iickly ^hild* Were the imalKpoz always 
equally &Tourablc, inoculation would' fall into difufe. The author has foiqe 
times remarked, that when the &me difeafes, fuch as-dyfenteries, fevers, ami 
the £malI-pox, have prevailed in Alva and TilHcoultry, more in proportion 
iiave died in Alva than- here. This was probably occafioned by the honles 
being more crooded together in the one place than, thie other, and the air |^ 
ing more confioed, and the infedion more liable to fpread. 

of Tillicouhry. 


NoMBBEt, Sizu, »&d Acts, 

Total Dumber of fouls, 853 

— Families, - »xa 

Males, - 373 

Females, • 4S0 

Majority of females, X07 

No of pcrfons under 10 yean of 


• Between 10 and ao, 

■ ■ »o and 50, 

50 and 70, 

' 70 and 85, 


GTON, &C. 

No. of married perfons^ 27 S 

Widowers, - ^ 

Widows, - 54 

Bachelors who keep houfe, it 
— — — Pcrfon* repding bttt not 

bo^n in Tillicoultry, aoo 
■■ Born abroad, 5 

t Heritors, xo 

— Clergymen, x 
— — School-mafters, x 
* i > fa Cottimunicants of the 

Eftablilhment, - 359 

; Ditto of the SeceifioD, ,9 7 

' ■ Epifcopalians, % 

' Cameronlaos, X 

No. of Farmers, 
d >— Weavers, v 

— Wrights, 
— >— — Mafons, 
^— — Sniithsj 






No. of Shoe-makeit, 
— — Tailors, 
■ Miners, 
■ Labourers, 








— — Gardeners, 


■ Dancing mmflers, 
-1— »— Male boufc fervants, 
■ Female ditto, 
■ ■ "^ Male labouring fertants, a; 

■ ' Female ditto, - 1% 
Annual AyaaAOKs, for 21 yeariL. 

'^o. of Marriages 5, - 7 

^—^^ Baptifms for ditto, 30 

'■ i Burials for ditto f $ X8 

■' ■ Males bom for ditto, 15} 

-:— ..— ^ Females bom for ditto, 14 

• Peribns in each family, 4 

■ Ditto in each farmer's 
feihlly, - 5 

Ofmalet to females, nearly ^3/04 
Of manied mm and widow- 

.ers, to Bachelors who keep 

hoult^, about 13 

Of widowers to widows, x 
Of. males bom to females, ao§ 
Or about, X3 

Total nmnber of males bom 

during the lafl ai years. 
Ditto of females within that 

period, . .304 





Majority of males born, aj 

Annual average of more males 
than females, x /o 1 and a -fifth 


^ For II months preceding November X7S9, tliere were only two grown 
up perfons buried in the church yards of Tillicoultry ; and for la months pre- 
ceding June of the prefcpt y«ar 1793^ there IWTe been Dciihcc manriagei bw 

204 Statijlical Account 


No. of fouls in 1755, 



Ditto in 178a, (as above,) 







. , Total incrcafc in 38 years, 15 » 

Caufes of the Increafe, — By comparing Dr Wcbftcr's lift 
. with the number of inhabitants during the two laft- years, 
there is an evident increafe. It is perhaps owing to" the e- 
(labfidiment of the Devon company in the neighbourhood cf, 
and the working of iron-ftone in Tillicoultry, that the num- 
ber of the inhabitants has fo greatly encreafed fuKe the be- 
ginning of the year 1792. ' It is fomewhat rcmarkabk, that 
when the lifte were taken in January 1792, all the mafons, 
'miners, and labourers were employed, but there were fcarcc- 
ly any of the labourers, employed in the parifii. 

Prolific Afc/A^r/.-— There arc at prefent living in Tillicoul- 
try eleven married women, who have been delivered of twin 
children. One of them has had twins two different times, 
,and another, in the year 1765, about three y,ears before, the 
birth of her twins, brought forth three children at one 
birth, all boys and of a good fize. Two of the children died 
ifi the firft month, and the thitd, a healtliy child, died of the 
fmall pox when two years old. But what is ftill more uncom- 
xnon, in the year 1752, Katherine Hunter, the wife of George 
Sharp a labourer, brought forth four children -at* one 
birth, — two males and two females. They were all baptiz- 
ed, but being fmall and weakly, none of them lived above 
three weeks. 

Villages and Houfes, — ^Tillicoultry contains three villages, 
WefleriQwn^ EgrlJlo%vn and CoaJ/haughtofi, an4 all the inhabi- 

ofTilKcouUri^. 205 

tants live in thefe except 36 families. Of thefe families on- 
ly three refide in the Ochils. The'Houfes cohfift of nothing 
but the ground floOr, except 8, of which, 5 houfes have oii- 
ly one ftory raifed above the ground floor, two have 2 ftories, 
and one has three ftories, and there are only three houfes, 
the manfe included, which arc fubjed to the duty on win- 
dow lights. 

Manufacfures. — ^Tillicoultry has been long famous for 

weaving a coiiffc woolen cloth, called r////Vi«//ry iS^rgr. It 

IS a fpqcies of fhaloon, having ,«;£|)r/?frf warp and jar/i waft, 

and is reported to have been wrought here, as early as the 

feign of Mary Q^een.of Scots, The average price is is* 

Sterling per yard. Though the manufadure has now, in a 

great meafurc, 'left us, and gone to Alva, (like the arts and 

fcienceSf from Eajl to Weft^ yet all the cloth of this kind is 

fold in the markets, under the name of TUiicoutry Serge. It 

is much to bjs regretted, that more attention is not paid to 

this manufafture in the place where is was invented, or at 

lead brought to the greateft perfe£lion. About 50 years a- 

go, a fergc web frotfi Alva would not. fell in the iparket, 

while one from Tillicoultry remained unfold. But this is by 

no means the cafe at prefent. The author of this account 

can give no prccife ttatement of the quantity of fergc 

wrought here, as the ftanip mailer keeps no lift. He fup- 

pofes, however, that he ftamps annually 7000 ells of fcrge, 

and an equal quantity of plaidtng. Some of the weavers are 

now Employed in making muffins, but as this branch is ftill 

in its infancy, it is impofEble to fay viitli what advantage it 

may be attended. 

f ; 

Prices of Labour and Provlfions, — The prices of labour, 
and of many of tlie neceflT^ries of life, have rifen much, and 


it6 Statijlical Account 

aTe ftiU rifing. It may be faid to be nearly double of what 
it was 50 years ago. For example, the wages of a taylor 
per day, beGdes his diet, was 4d. Sterling, now they are 8d ; 
of a day labourer, 5d. or 6d. now lod. or is *, of a raafon, is. 
now IS* 6d. and is. 8d. or 2s ; of a labouring fervant per an- 
num, 3I. now from 61. to lol. The price of a fowl was 5d. 
now it is IS. and fometimes more \ of a pound of butter, 5d., 
BOW pd. or lod. and of a pound of cheefe^ ad. now 4d* 

^ads. — ^T*he roads along the hill foot have i gravel bot* 
torn, and are tolerably good, and likewiie the road which 
leads from the hill foot to Goalfnaughton by the bridge. But 
the fouth road, which comprehends a fpace of more than 
2 Englifh miles, is in a wretched ftate, having been mudi 
ncglefltcd of late years, and the greatefl part of it never ha- 
ving been properly made, at leaii to the eaftward Goalfnauglw 
ton. ' ^ 

CA«rrA.-^The patron and Aij^erior of Tillicoultry, is James 
BatJCE, Efq; at prefent a minor, and an enfign in the army* 
He is alfo titular of the teinds, and all the heritors and feuera 
hold of him. ♦ The prefent minifter f is a bachelor J. The 


* Hit immeiilate ance&oivjpEjere the late proprietors of Kinroft. He ii 
a defccodent of the celehrated ArchiteA, Sir William Btiuce. It isfup* 
pofed by Pinkerton, with a great degree of probability, in his cotledloil 
of ancient Scottifh poemt, that Sir John Bruck of Kinrofs was the author 
of the weU,known, and much efteemed . poem, Harotknutb, which has 
been commonly afcribed to Mr* Wardlaw. . It is probable, alTo, that' Sir 
John was the author of the Vision, and fome other excellent Scottiib poems. 

f The names of his predeceflbrs in office, as far as they arc knewn, and 
die dates of their ordinations, are fubjoincd. 


* } It may be accounted a Gngular fad, that nope of the minifters of Til- 
licoultry have been marri«d| ilnce the Revolution 1688, ex(^ept Mr Taylor* 

pf Tillicoultry. 


manfe was built in 1 766^ and is the fecond in the fame place^ 
fince the year 1730. The new church is fituated near the 
panfe, almoft e^ui-<li(lant from the 3 villages, and was built 
in 1773. It i$ a fmall neat building, well lighted, but not 
very commodioufly feated. There are two church-yards, 
one where the old church was fituated, || and the other at the 
new church. The old manfe has long been converted into 


Ml N UTf » S ^ TiUkouJtry fir ttt UJ 146 ytart . 

Date of admiffoH. Tiau •/ Incumhaief^ 

Mwtbs. Teaft, Ttara, M^iiibt, Dmyu 
Mr Andrew Rhynd, (the precife 

date of his admiiBon, uncer- 



' Z648 ab<mt 

21 c 

> « 

Mr John Foreft, ordaiped 

300a. X669 

6 4 


Mr Robert Keith, 

a; Feb. i6?6 

z6 ] 

f »4 

Mr Robert Gourlay. 

13 Apr. 1691 

12 i 

1 22 

Mr John Taylor, 

7 July 1714 

13 < 

f 15 

Mr Robert Duncan f. 

25 Jan. 1718. 

2 i 


%7 May 1731 

34 4 


Mr James Oonrky, 

25 Sep. 1765 

B i 


}At William Ofborn, • 

a4Fcb. 1774 

20 c 

> 8 


f Mr DoNCAN^c Leffures m ihe EpifiU U tit Hehrevu vfere puhUJM after 
^it deatbt and are mutb efiecmedfir tbeir piety , ortbodeeey^ and Uamim^, 

I The old chnrch and manfe were fitvated near the hoofe of TiHicoal- 
try. The chnrch belonged to the Abbey of Cambnikenneth, having becft 
granted to it by King Malcolm, together with the tythes and pettinenta. 
3ut after the Reformation, the family of MAaa became heriuble proprietors 
of the church, parfonage, vicarage, and 10 acres of gebe. And as the abbot 
and convent of Cambnikenneth had itx the teinds in tack to the Colvills of 
Cnlrois, the proprietors of Tillicoultry, Johm Earl of Make, May 3eth 1628, 
ratified the tacks, and alio the feu charters, and infeftment of the glebe ; and 
granted prooiratory for refigning the fame into the haluli of his Majefty, in 
favour of Ja^is Lord Coltil, and hit foD« 

ZO& Statijltcal Aficount 

a ftablc, and the old glebe is an orchard. The ftipend con-* 
fifls of 120I. Scotch, including communion-clement money, 
34 bolls of oats, 24 bolls of barley, and 6 bolls of meal. It 
<;oramenced in the year 1648, and fince that time there has 
been no augmentation. The minifter has the privilege of 
getting his coals for paying the collier the price of working, 
and he has alfo property in the hills, for maintaining 7 or 8 
ffieep. The glebe was exchanged in the year 1730, when 
the manfe was removed to its prefent fituation. It lies in 4 
different pieces, and ought to coniift of 13 acres. 

School. — ^Thcrc is a parochial fctoolraaftcr, whofe falary is 
lool. Scotch. He has alfo a dwelling houfe and garden. 
His annual income, including falary, and all emoluments, 
both as fchool mafter and feflion clerk, is extremely fmall, 
and fcldom exceeds 20I. Sterling. The fchool is kept in the 
Weftertown, wjjich is by no means centrical or convenient 
for the reft of the parifli. The fchool wages arc low, and 
Engliih, writing, and arithmetick are taught for as. per 
<piarter, Engliih alone being only is. 3d. 

Poor, — ^The poor arc maintained without any affeflment, 
and there are no beggars. The capital of ihe poor's money 
is 2f 2I. Sterling, and the annual average colle£lion at the 
church door, has been about 1 2 guineas, for 18 years paft. 
The intereft of the capital, together with the co]le£tions, 
and the profits arifing from the mortcloths, proclamations of 
maniages, and incidental fines, conftitutc the funds by which 
the poor are maintained. The number of perfons at prefent 
llatedly fupplied from the public charity is 7. But, befidcs 
thefe, the kirk feflion occafionally aflifts a great many more, % 


\ It is faid that about 40 or 50 years ago, people wtrc vciy fliy In rccclv- 
ing money from the poor'* funds, but thU delicacy fccms now to have cntirew 
\r Tanilhcd. 

ojTUhcoubry. 209 

by giving them money, buying cloths, paying their houfc rents 
and fchool fees for their children. Till within thefe 4 years, 
intereft at 5 per cent, has been received for the poor's money, 
but the rate at prcfent is only 4/^r cent,. The annual ave- 
rage of the mortcloth money is 2I. 4 s. Sterling 5 of the pro- 
clamations, 14s. lod ; of incidental fines, 13s. 6d 5 of perfons 
occafionally affifted, iis ; and of c?\ildren whofe fchool wages 
are paid, 5 s or 6s. The lowed ftated weekly allowance is 
^dj and the hi^heft 15 from is. to i5d. 

Proprietors. — Befides Mr Bruce, there are other 9 heritors, 
namely, Lord Cathcart, John Jdhnfton, Efq; of Alva, John 
Tait, Efq; of Harviefton, John Harrowcr, John Paton, Hugh 
Hamilton, Marion Dryfdale, James Ure, and Robert May. 
All the heritors have houfes in Tillicoultry, and refide in 
them, except Lord Cathcart and Mr Johnfton, who have 
fplendid feats in the neighbourhood. 

State ofProperty.'^Tiic cftatc of Tillicoultry hae been in the 
pofleffion of 7 different familtee fince the comznencement of 
the laft century, and has been 6 times fold $. The advance 
of the price, at thp two laft fales, deferves to be noticed ; the 

Vol. XV. D d pric^ 

$ It came into the pofieifion of the anceftors of Lord Colvil of Cujl- 
|L0se, in the reign of James III. amno 1483, and continued in that family till 
the year 1634, when it was fold to Wii.liam Alexander of Menftry, a 
l^oET of great genius, and afterwards created Eabl of Stutlino. SeYeral 
of his poems are printed in Drum mo nd of Hawthoniden'« CoUo^os, and 
hU J^ar/ene/iiy or exhortation on government, which is dedicated to Prince 
HzNRT, the fon of King James VI. docs great honour, both to the prince 
and the peer. The eftate was next purchafed by Sir Alexander Rollo of 
DuDcnib, in the year 1644; by Mr John Nicolsom of Carnock in Stir- 
ling-fliire, in 1659 ; by Lord Tillicooltrt, one of the fenators of the Col- 
lege of Juftice, and a Baronet, in 1701 ; by the Hon. Charles Barclay 
Maitland, of the family of Landerdale, ia 1756; and by Jamks Bruce; 
£f4; of Kinrofs, in S7S9. 

210 Statijlical Account 

price paid by Lord Tillicoultry being 3,494 1. Stcrlinj» \ 
by Mr Barclay Maitland 15,000!. and by Mr Bruce 
24,000. Before the laft fale, a part of the eft ate was fold 
to Mr Johnston of Alva \ but the feus, f which Mr Barclay' 
purchafed at different times, were fully equivalent to this 
part. This eftate, which, for a century apd a half, h^s been 
always floating in the market, and has fo frequently changed 
its proprietors, is now ftriflly entailed, and will remain in 
Mr Bruce's family, the entail of the eftate of Kinrofs having 
been transferred by ajft of Pai^liampnt to Tillicoultry. The 
pumber of the old feus, or parts, was 40, but they are now 
moftly bought up, and ag^in united with the eftate, or in 
fhe pofTeffion of Mr Tait- The lands 9f Killtown, where 
lillicoultry houfe is fituated^ and the lands pf CQhrJlown 01^ 
Collintow/if belonging to Mr Joi^NsioN, were not fued. It 
is difficult to afcertain the quantity of Und belonging tQ 
each of the feus, as more or lefs feems to have been given, 
according to the quality and value of the foil, Qnie origi- 
nal 40th part at Drimmy contains at* prefent, nearly a^ 
much arable land as a 40th part and a half at Elleitown, an4 
near as much as twp 40th p^rts at Cairpftpwn. f Tillicoultry^ 
pays an annual feu-duty of 7 1. $s. Sterling, and 166 bolls of 
fait, called Khig's malt. This is a part of the Lordlhip of 
Stirling, having been originally paid at the caftlc of Stirling, 
for the ufe of the King's family, but was transferred, at an 
parly period, to the Earl of Marr, as a fecurity for fom^ 
money lent to the Crown* 


■j- Lord CoLviL f<u64 the greatelt part of his eftate to his teoants, >vhoin. 
he diftinguifhes in his charters, as auld, kindly^ native tenantsy and referved to 
himfeU a certain annoal feu-duty, which appears to have been the old rent. 

f It appears from the meal paid as fen ^uty by the feuars of Caimftown^ 
and the money paid bjr the other feuars, that a boll of meal, and 3s. 4d. Ster- 
ling, were confidered as being of equal yalue, in the condufion of the x6tlu 
9Dd be^miiog of the xyth centuries. 

of Tillicoultry. d i i 

i Anctent Charter. ^-^tXwttn 5C0 and 600 years ago, TilH- 

I coullry belonged to the family of Marr \ and an original 

charter, granted by King Alexander III. of Scotland, id 
the 14th year of his reign, is dill in the poiTefSon of Mr £r« 
^KiNE of Marr, who has obligingly favoured the author 
with a copy. This charter is twice referred to by Bifliop 
KiETH, in his hiftory of the Bifhops. It is elegantly written 
on parchment, with a very fair hand, and fine ink, and is iii 
I every refpea a remarkable curiofity. The whole parchment 

is near a fquare of 9^ inches, and the writing only meafures 
6 inches by 8 J. 

D d a kmlnent 

§ As thn charter ii no lefs a curiofity than many of thofe contained in 
ANoaatoN's Di^itmuta Sntig, the fubjoined'copy will be an acceptable pre- 
fent to antiqoariam : '* AtazANDKa, Dei gratia. Rex Scotomm, omnibul 
probis hominibus toti^is terre fue-^Salutem. Sciant prcfeotes et {"atari qood 
Alrdmus de MEsaa, fiUus et hetes quondam Alkumi de Masaa, totant 
icrramTuam de TuLLicouLTar^ cum pertincDtiis^ in feodo de Clackmanan^ 
quam de nobis tenoit hereditarie, per defe^Slam feruitii de dida ten a nobis de- 
hiil, coram ploribos noftri Regni ma^atibtis, fdlicet, Alcxandro CvM^rsi 
Comite de Bouchan, tunc JuiUciario Scotie, Huoon i de AavaNiTH, Magif- 
tio, W. Wi&cBAan tunc Canccllario, Faacusio Comtn, Waltkro de A- 
BcaNYTB, WiLLiaLMO dc Ltiurskr, et NicaoLAo de RoTraroan, ae 
multis alii% die San^e Tiinlutis, anno gtatie millefimo docmtefimo feia- 
gefimo primov ipud Caltnim Poeliarum, per fuibim et bacnlnm nobis reddi.- 
diiTet, et totum jus fuum quod habuit in dida terra cum pertinentiis, Tel ha- 
bere potuic pro fe et heredibuk fais in peipetuum quietum clamiiret, nos to« 
<am di^m terram dt TuLLicouLTRTy cum pertinentiSus, Wiiliilmo Co- 
miei de MAaa, dilcd^o noflro et fideli pro faomagio et fervitio ^do, dedimua 
conceflimus, et hac prefcnti caru noilra confirmaTimus, fine altquo retinemen- 
to, tenendam et habendam eidcm Williclmo, et beredibus fuis, de nof)i^ 
et hercdibuB nodris in feode et hereditate per cafdem divifas per quas 
Wai.T£ru8, filius ALAN2 Senefcftlli,^ tunc Jufiiciarius Scotie, et Ro- 
OERVS AufNBL, tunc vicccomcj de Strjueltn, predido Alevmo, patrl 
diAi Aleami, ex precepto inclito recordationis domini Alexandri Itegii; 
pacris ooUti carilllmi, allignauenint et tradiderunt, cum incremento quod per 
eofdem WALTxapu fiUum Ala^u et RooxaeM Avbmel fadumfuit. Ma- 

^12 Statijiical Account 

Eminent men, — Lord CoLViL, who was raifed to the peer- 
age by James VI. in 1609, was a man of a military genius^ 
and ferved with much reputation, in the wars under Henrt 
the IV. of France. Returning to Scotland, loaded with ho»- 
nours, he reHded at Tillicoultry, and m his old age, I'eviGted 
the Frerich court. As he appeared in the old fa(hioncd mi- 
litary drcfs, which he had formerly worn in the wars, the 
courtiers were aJl amazed when he entered the royal prcfcnce. 
But no fooner did Henry obferve the old warrior, than he 
clafped hirti in his arms, and embraced him with the great--^ 
eft afFe£lion,.to the utter aftonifliment of all prefent. After 
his return, Lord Colvil fpent much of his time at TillicouU 
try, and was particularly fond of walking on a beautiful ter« 
race, at the north end of the Kirk-lull, and ©f repoung him- 
fclf under a thorn tree, the venerable trunk of which dill re- 

TBEO Clertco de TuUlcdnltry, in nemore, in faltibns, in planii et afperi^ in 
tcrris ec aquit, in pratis et pafcuis, in morit et niarefiis, in ftagnia et malendi- 
nis, cum focco et facca, cum fnrca et foflk, cum Tol et Tbeitt et wfanieAef^ et 
cum omnibus allis judis pertinentiis fttis, et cum omnibus natiui* ejufdem 
terre, qui die collationis fadlepredido Aleumo^patri didi Aleumt, in dida ter« 
ra inanentcs fucrunt, llbere, quiete, plenarie et honoriike, pet feruitium u- 
niui militis, faluis noftris eleem^finiL Conceffimus etiam eidem Williilm4>^ 
Qt ipfe et heredes Aii, habehnt ct tcneant didam terram in liberum foreilam. 
Qua re firmicer prohibemus, ne quis Gne eorum licentia in pirdi^ terra fr- 
cet, aue venetur fuper noftram plenariam forKtfaduram decem librarum. 
Teflibus, vf nerabili patre Game lino, epifcopo Sandi Andree, ALCXANDtio 
CuHTN, Comlte de Bouchan Jufticiario Scotie, Waltero Comite de MoV' 
TETB, Johanns Cumtn, WiLLiELMo de Bkeecmtn, Eusi Acuto dc Tur- 
ribus, RegiNaldo le Chen, apud Forfar, vicdifimo primo die Decern briB> 
anno regui noflri quarto decimo." 

After the granting of this charter, TlUicoultry remained for a coufideni. 
ble period in the poiTeflion of the family of Mark ; but on account of a pre-^ 
tended fticceflion to Lady Isabella DoucLA9,CottDtels of MARR,wasfeit« 
ed by the Crown, notwithftanding an ezprefs declaration and proniife, by 
HoBKRT UI. nnder the Great Sea), that he would accept of no lands belong 
to that lady. 

ofTtlUcoultrj. ^1% 

mains. It unfortunateFy bappenedi that (landing one day 
on a ftone, and looking up to the thorn tree, dcfcribing his 
battles, he fell down the floping bank of the terrace, and, it 
is faid, was killed on the fpot, in the year 1620. It may not 
be improper to add, under this article, that in the popifh le- 
gends, Tillicoultry is mentioned as having been rifited by St. 
Serf or Servakus, an^ the fcene of fome of his pretended 
miracles. St. Serf lived m the end of the 6th century, and 
there is a particular account of him in Wintoffs Chronicle^f 
a manufcript in the Cottonian library f . Notwithftanding 
the very remote antiquity of St Serf, his memory is ftill, in 
fome degree, prefervcd, though his name is almoft en- 
tirely forgot ; but he is reprefented, by tradition, as a holy 
man, who travelled about the country, with a &€ape Goat X3 
which was unfortunately killed. There is a heap of ftones, 
called Cairn Cur or Gwr, which feems to have been intend- 
ed to perpetuate the ftory of tlie goat. The name has an c- 
vident affinity to the Latin word Gapirf and to the Gaelic^ 

Gobhur^ which figmfies a goat. 


\ Win TON, the author of the chronicle, was canon regalar of St An- 
drews, and prior of the monaiUry of Loch Levexi, and Uved in the end of the 
24 century. « ^ 

t An exceiptfrom this chronicle was lately pttbliihed by Pjnkbkton, in 

the Apfiendix to his coUeAioo of Old Scottiih poems. One of the mit acle* 

reported to have been perferaoed by St Seriy waa, the raifiag two jotm% men 

to Iife» who appear to have bees brothers. The account given of this in the 

chronicle, if not ^ry elegant, has at leaft the merit of being ahnndOTtty 


« In TuUycultry, cil a wif 

*• Two (bays be raiilt frae ded to lyf." 


t' In WiKTQN*a chronicle, in place of a Icape goat, mcnuon is made of « 
rom. The killing of the ram occafioned another miracle. The ftory is a^ 
bimdantly lodicrous) and aa kdicvouily reiaud by the poetical biographer : 


214 Statical Account 

Antiquities. "^TYitXQ arc few curiofitics, or remains of an- 
tiquity*. The rude Druidical circle, on the fouth end of the 
Cuninghar, deferves feme fmall notice. It is compofed of 
granites about 5 j feet long, and its diameter is near 60 feet. 
The fpot was covered by the late proprietor, with a circular 
thicket of Scotch firs, and is marked by Stobie, in his fplcn- 
did map of Perth and Clackmannan (hires. On the 
caflle Craig, the foundations $ of a round circular building 
arc ft ill vifible. 


Hiis holy man had a ram. 

That he had fed up of a lam : 

Aod oyfit hyxn ul folow zj, 

Quherevir he paflxt in his way. 

A theyf this fcheppe in Ackien fial« 
' And et'hym op in pecis (inalle. 
~X^hen San A Serf his ram had myQ, 

Quha that it ftal was few that wift : 

On prefumption nevirthclef** 
/ He that it ftal areftyl was ; 

And til SanA Serf fyne was he broucht. 

That fchctpe he faid that he ftal noucht; 

And tharfoff, for to fwer an ath^» 

He faid that he walde nocht be laythe. 
' But fone he worthit rede for fchayme. 

The fcheype that bletyt in his wayme. 
/ SwB was he taynetyt fchamfully ; 

And at San<£t Serf aflcyt mercy. 

• Tt is reported, there was a Roman ftation on the north end of the Cutt^ 
ibghar. About 50 yearR ago, the place was dag by order of Sir Robert 
Btuart, and fereral urns, containing human bones, were found. 

§ Between thefe and the hills, there has beeik a ditch by way of defence. , 
The Tul^ar tfadition is» that the Ptycbti had a (bronj^ fortification in this 
p-ace, and that the (tones of the edifite were carried away, when the caflle 
of Sctrling wa« biittt. A large ftone coffin, neatly cemented with whitiih 
clay , was difcovered about 8 years ago, in the midft of. a great caien or heap 
of ri -nes in Wertertown, anciently called Caimtowo* It wim fiUcd with &il» 
fiiMh. an J coQtained two finaU bonesv 

of TiSicoultrj. it$ 

CharaBer^ &c.— Wc have our good qualities as well iis 
our bad. Publicly to expofe the one might give ofience, and 
could do no good. To praife the other might appear often- 
tation and flattery. It is, however, but juftice to mention^ 
that the people are fober and indudrious, and attached to 
the King and Conftitution, and to the Preftyterjan form of 
worfliip and Church Government. The men moftly betake 
themfelves to country work, or to employments conne£led 
M-ith hufbandry; Pew of them enlift in the army, and not 
many of them engage in the feafaring line. The women arc 
thrifty and laborious, attentive to their families, and are much 
employed in fpinning warded and woolen yarn j particu- 
larly the latter. All ranks drefs better and finer than they 
formerly did. And as an inftance of refinement in the fur- 
niture of the houfes, it rtiay be mentioned, that in the year 
1764, there were only 9 or 10 clocks in the parifh, wjiereasi 
at prefcnt, there are above 60, ' 

Dlfaivantages. — It is apprehended, that Tillicoultry will 
decreafe in the number of its inhabitants, from the following 
^aufes : — ift The divifion of the conunon in the hills. — 2d 
The fale of many of the feus, each of which maintained fa- 
milies ; — 3d The neglefl of the coal 5 and, 4th, The fmall 
attention and encouragement which is given to the weaving 
of Tillicoultry ferge. It muft be acknowledged, however, 
that the eftablifhment of the Devon Company, in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, will, perhaps, overbalance all thefe 
apparent difadvantages, though the writer of thb account is 
by no means fanguine in his expeflation of that efi^e£t. 

Sources of Melioration. — The following particulars are hum- 
t>ly fubjoined, as probable fources of improvement, and me- 
Upration : — ^ift, If the public fchool were fituated more in the 


ax6 Stati/Ucal Account 

centre of the ]^ri(h, or if a ichool were cftabUflied at Coals-* 
saughton. 2dly^ If a bridge: were built o^irer the Dovan, be** 
low the Weftcrtown. 3dljr, If the farmers were to fallow 
more of tlieir land, and to pay more attention to fowing 
wheat. 4thly, If fome encouragement were given to the weav- 
ing of Tillicoultry ferge. 5thlyy If the cod were to be wrought 
as extenCvely as formerly, for fupplying the country and the 
foreign markets^ 6thly, If a waggon-way were made for 
carrying the coals to AU09 harbour. 7thly, If a navigable 
canal were made by means of the Devon to join the Jorth. 
Kthly, If fome puUic works^ fuch as an woolen manpfafbry^ 
or a cotton mill, or a printing field, were ere£ked at the Wef- 
tertown, as the; Gtuation is thought highly convenient and 
advantageous for fuch lifeful works. But the great fources 
of improvement and melioratioji are, honefty, induftry, fo- 
briety, and a regard to religion, without which, and the blef? 
(ing of Gpd| all human fchemes will be nugatory and vain* 


rjf Benholms. 2iy 




NOD OF Angus and Mearns.) 

Bj the Rev. Mr. James Scott, Minijier. 

Extent find Svfface, 

A HIS patifli IS about 3 Englifti miles iil lengthy ahd near- 
ly as much in breadth. The German Ocean bounds it oh 
the S. E. The face of the coxintry is confiderably diverfificd* . 
Clofe upon the fliorc lies a narrow ftrip^of land almoft level 
with the fca : Adjoining to this, a bank or rifing ground, of 
coniiderable height, extends the whole length of the parifli. 
Above this ancient boundary of the ocean, which is ftecp iii 
fome places, and flopes gently in others, the ground rifes by 
an unequal afcent towards the Ni W. A chain of little 
hiils, whofe fummits are covered with heath, run along the 
S. W. boundary, and a rifing ground, fome hundred yards 
above the level of the fea^ terminates the view on the N. Ei 
The interior parts of the parifti confift of hill and dtk* 
Vol. XV. E t 

a 1 8 Stattjlical Account 

RivuUtSy Cafcades^ Mi/l, Qive, tffc. — ^Two fmall rinxlctg-, 
arifmg on the fide adjacent adjacent to Garrock, at fomc dit- 
tancc from each other, add not a little to the agreeable va- 
riety. In fome places they form deep gulfs, in others beau- 
tiful cafcades ; now they are feen meandringamidft corn-fields- 
or pafturc grounds, then they run under t^^-o ftone arches ; 
and afterwards, dafhing among craigs and fragments of rock. 
Unite their ftreams a little below the church. Having con- 
tributed to diverlify and adorn a traft of fomc miles, they 
add to the conveniences of life by fupplying with water the 
only corn mill within the parifh. Down the ftream, in a fe- 
queftered retreat, where there is fcarcely any thing to be feen 
but the firmament/ and a wide espanCe of ocean, there is a 
cave of fufficient height to admit a man in an crtCt pofture. 
This fubteraneous abode gradually turns lower towards the 
extremity, and feems originally to have been formed by the 
dafhing of the waves, though it is now diftant from the (hore 
a full quarter of a mile, and more than i % feet above the 
prefent bed of the rivulet. 

Vitlagesy Sea Coajt^ Shfpwfech^ bfc.-^Thc opening of the 
land here bears a (Irong refemblance to a creek or harbour, 
which tends to miflead fuch as are unacquainted with the 
coad,^ whrch is flat and rocky. A fmall village of 1 5 houfes, 
built upon the beach^ contributes to this miftake, and while 
it feems to promife afTiftance to the diftreifcd mariner, al- 
lures him to de(lru£lion. Several vefiels have fuffered fliip* 
wreck by attempting to run afliore at this place \ and the ut- 
moft exertion of the people at land has feldom been effec- 
tual to refcuc their crews frofn the fury of the waves. This 
place is called the Houghs ofNetber Benholmey lies almod in 
a dire£t line with the church, and is nearly fituated in the 
middle between the fiihing towns of Gurdon and Johnjbavtn ; 


ofBtnhohne. ^ig 

one of which is in the parifh of Bervic, and the other in this 

Fi/h, K^lp, &c,-^The co*ft abounds with filh of various 
kinds.. Cod, ling, (katp, halibut, and fome turbet are caught 
from March to the end of July : Haddocks, fmall cod, whit- 
ings, and a few flounders, are taken all the year round, but 
in grcatcft plenty from Oftober to the middle of February. 
Crabs and lobfters, limpets and periwinkels, are likewife 
in abundance. Numbers of porpoifes, fpals, and fometimcs 
whales, are feen clofe upon the coaft. The rocks produce 
dulce and tangles, with various fea-weeds, which are con- 
verted into kelp. What quantity of this article may be an- 
nually exported is iincertaia. It cannot be inconMerable, 
however, as the people employed in making it are able to 
pay a yearly rent of 1 2I. to the proprietors, for liberty to 
crop the growth of their rocks* 

C/iwia/^—r-The climate varies confiderably in different 
parts of this parifli, according to the expofure and height of 
the ground. It is often mild and temperate upon the fhore, 
when k is cold and piercing in the more inland parts. Dur- 
ing the fpring and fummer months, thick mifts frequently arife 
from the fca ; fo that the air along the coaft is damp, though 
not unhealthy, being puri6ed by the North and Weil winds. 
Thefe winds are both fo frequent and ftrong here, that 
young trees arc generally obfcrved to incline towards the 8. E, 

SoU. — ^The foil upon the (hore is light and gravelly : in 
fome places, nothing but naked ftones appear j but wheVe 
thcfe have been covered wijth earth brought down from the 
higher grounds, either by human induftry or the winter 
rains, good crops are produced, when the feafon is not re- 
jnarkably dry. Farther up, the foil i$ deeper and mor« fer- 
E e a tile. 

^ze Staiijliccd Account 

tile. A few farms on the S. W. fide of the parifli arc light 
and gravelly. Of feme tlic foil is a deep rich lonm ; but ia 
the middle, and on the N. E. fide, it chiefly inclines to clay. 
Part lies on a cold tilly bottom, and part on irock *, but having 
the advantage of a fouthern cxpofure, and being (heltered by 
the rifing grounds from the North, it produces luxuriant 
crops, when properly cultivated. In the interior parts lies a 
confiderabie trac): of moor, where the qualities of the foil 
are various. Some places^ are wet and fpungy, others dry 
and gravelly 5 but the greateft part is capable of being cukU 

P/afrtaiictts.'r^Thc number of acres occupied in planting, 
both of moor and plcafure grounds, does not exceed 50. 1 he 
Scotch fir is not found to thrive here j but the larch and. 
other foreft trees make confiderabie progrefs in dens, and 
fuch places as arc flieltered from the fea air. Clofe upon 
the coaft, great trouble and cxpence is neceflliry to raife trees. 
They require ^o be, planted very thick, and after all feldon; 
come to any fizc, 

. jigriculture* and Produce. — ^None of the proprietors of this 
pari(h, who cultivate their own grounds, fl.ri£Hy adhere to 
any particular rotation of crops. Nor are the tenants bound 
to follow what their niafters do not praSife. In hufbandry, 


• In fo little repute was farming before the year 1 711, that the proprie- 
tor of Brotherfton found it neccfl*ary to give premiums in order to induce 
tenants to rent his farms. To one be gave a prefent of 3C0 merks Scotch, 
and faim-flocklng to the value of zooo^crks, free of intcreft foi three yeuts; 
to another the fame f um in a prefent, and 3000 merks value of Aock for his 
|iarm, free of intereft for 4 years. There is no ncccfiiry now for holding out 
pecuniary temptations to the farmer. Since the above mentioned period, the 
rents arc tripled, and numbers are dill ready to cffcr a confiderabie idrziae^ 
fvljcti thj? Icafc of ^ farm cxfircj. 

ofBenbolme. azi 

where much depends on the feafon, it is perhaps better to 
kave the pradical farmer unfettered. If he is pofleflcd of 
difccmmeot, he will naturally adopt that mode of cultivation, 
which, on a foil fimilar to his own, he obfervcs to fucceed 
bcft : if he is bound to follow a certain rotation, he can pio* 
fit but little cither by his own or his neighbour's experience. 
Some reftriftions towards the end of the leafc, to prevent 
the laud from being over-cropped, are doubtlefs neccflary, 
and generally made by every proprietor, when he lets a farm. 
The general praftice of tlie farmers in this parifti, when the 
foil is light, is to fow wheat after fallow which has been 
limed aiul dunged \ then barley, to which fucceeds peafe ; and 
then barley again, with clover andgrafs feeds, which are al- 
lowed to continue in the ground from a to 5 years. Oats 
are generally fown, when the Ity or fward is broken up ; 
next fucceeds barley and then fallow. Where the foil in- 
clines to clay, the common rotation of crops ia wheat, beans, 
barley and grafs feeds, which are feldom allowed to continue 
longer in the ground than two years \ oats, barley, and then a 
fallow. Befides the crops already mentioned, a confiderable 
quantity of turnips is annually raifed ; but very little flax, 
except what is ncceiTary for the ufe of private families. '^This 
may be owing in fome meafure to the want of lint<mill$ in 
the neighbourhood, or more probably to the nature of the 
foil, which in general is not adapted to the growth of this 
ufeful plant. Potatoes, yams, and cabbages, are likewife 
planted in the fields, and turn to good account. Some at- 
tempts have been made of late to introduce early oats, and 
it is to be hoped their utility, in a foil which is naturally - 
late, will foon recommend them to general ufe. Seed time 
and harveft greatly depend on the feafon ;• when that is fa- 
vourable, they begin here to fow in March, and to reap a- 
l:oju.tthc firft of September. Wheat is generally fown in 


122 StatiJlicaJ Acvotint 

Odober. A greater quantity of every fort of grain is raifed 
within this parifli than is neccflary for its fupport. The prin- 
cipal extraneous manure made ufe of here is lime, which is 
chiefly brought by land carriage, from a quarry in the parifli 
of St Cyrus, not two miles diftant. Many farmers, however, 
find their account in importing it from the Frith of Forth, 
and even from Sunderland. All agree that it is an eflentiat 
tequifite in farming. Forty bolls have commonly been al- 
loted to an acre ; but many begin to think that a much great- 
er proportion is neceffary for ftrong land. 

Ploughs^ Caitley &*a — There are from 36 to 40 ploughs 
in this parifli. About 6 of thefe are drawn by oxen, which 
are chiefly made ufe of where the land is rugged. When 
it is in an improved fl:ate, horfes are eniployed, and 2 arc 
thought fufficient for a plough. The Scotch plough is gene- 
rally ufed here, and fecms beft adapted to the nature of the 
foil ; though fcveral Norfolk wheel-ploughs are employed 
with advantage on fuch farms as are free from ftoncs, and m 
% high ftate of cultivation. Confiderable attention is bcftow- 
«d oil rearing, but very little on feeding black-cattle, though 
the demand for butcher meat daily increafes. Nor has this 
inducement hitherto prevailed on the farmer to feed more 
(hcep than is ncccflTary for the ufe of his own family* 

Rents y Inclofuresy Leafes^ ^r.— -By a furvey of the county, 
taken in 1774, this parifli contains 4721 Englifli acres, of 
which nearly a fifth part is uncultivated. The reft is divid- 
ed into 20 farms. Twelve of thcfc yield from 50I. to 210I. 
the other 8 from 20I. to 50I. Sterling of yearly rent. The 
heft arable land -is let at from il. to il. 175. an acre : And, 
when it is divided into fmall portions, from 2I. to 2I. 6s. 
Land of an inferior quality is npt let by the acre, but by tlie 


of Benbolnu. . 223 

piece, as parties can agree. There may be about 4-or 5 fmall 
farms let in this way, the yearly rent arifing from each of 
vhich will not amount to 2oi. Sterling. Several farms are 
inclofed, but a greater number ftill lie open- In this rcfpe£l 
there is great room for improvement here. The farmers, in- 
deed, are not infenfible to the advantages of inclofing, but 
it is fcarcely to be expefted that they will lay out the necef- 
fary expence to make inclofurcs, on fo (hort a leafe as 19 
years. Unlefs proprietors hold out fome inducement, either 
by incrcafing the length of their leafes, or advancing the ne- 
ceflary fums at a moderate iatercft, it is to be feared that 
many of tlie fields will continue long in their prefent naked 
and expofcd (late. The valued rent of the pariQi amounts 
to about 3980I. 9s. 8d. The real rent may be about iSooI. 

Eccleftaftlcal State. — Tlie patronage of the church was, 
fome time after the beginning of laft century, vefted in the 
proprietors of the eftates of Benholme, Brotherfton, and Ne- 
ther Benholme, who continue to exercife their right by 
turns *. Two of thefe gentlemen conftantly refide in the 
pariih, and a third, occafionaliy. The church, which Hands 
nearly in the centre, and mod agreeable part of the pariih, is 
an old irregular Gothic buildings On the Eaft end, a part is 


* About the beginning of the laft century, ttkc greateft part of the pro* 
pcrty within thU diftrid belonged to Earl MariscuaL) whofe ancient dotnl* 
nioni in thefe parts, can now only be traced from records and monumental in- 
fcriptions. Not long after that period, all this pariih, except BaLanjdro^ 
formed the eftate of Benholme, and belonged to a proprietor of the name «f 
Kbith, who was probably a younger branch, or near relation ef the Marif- 
chal Family. It was afterwards divided among his heirs into four portion^ 
which now compofe different eitates of Benholme, Brotherfton, Nether«Bea- 
holme, and Knox. * 

2 14 Statijiical Account 

raifcd higher than the reft, which formerly ferved for the 
choir, and dill retains the name, though it has been long 
ufcd as a burying place. The remains of a font are ftill to 
be feeh at one of the church doors, and other relics of fuper- 
ftition, which evidently Ihow that the whole has been built 
before the Reformation. The manfe was biiiit about 58 
years ago, and repaired in 1791. The living confills of 128 
bolls of bear and oat-meal, in equal portions; 301.* in mo- 
ney, and a glebe of 6 acres. It is difficult to fay what the 
original number of Seceders in this parifli was ; but they 
now amount to about 100 || . ITie other diflenters belong- 
ing to the parifli, are, I2 Epifcopalians, 2 Bereans, and i Ro- 
man Catholic. 

School. — ^The fchool is near to the church, and well attend* 
cd. Reading, \vriting, arithmetic, Latin, book-keeping, 
and navigation, are all taught by the fame mafter, whofe c- 
moluments are as follow : 


II All the Inhabitants of this parifli, ctcept a few, who continued their 
attachment to the Epifcopal religion, were regular attendants on public wor* 
ihip, 38 c{bblinied in the Church of Scotland, till abont the year 1763. At 
that time, the minifter's anxiety to improve the church^mufic, led him to 
tdopt the more approved method of ilnging without intermiOion, or reading 
the line, as it is called. This gave umbrage to many, who bad been accuftoip* 
ed to hear every line feparately given out by the precentor or ckrk, before 
the congregation joined in the pfalm. They were forced to acknowledge 
that the pfalm«dy would be improved by (inging without interruption ; but 
they urged, that many who could wrt reaJ, would, by that means, be entirely 
excluded from joining in this part of public wor(hip. Whether a regard to 
the ^Aod of others, was the realf or only the tftenfihU caufe of this oppofition ; 
or whether it proceeded from a dread of inna^aticn, ihey perfuled in it. They 
remonfiratcd again and again ; add when their remonftrances were not at- 
tended to, abapdoiied the church, built one for themfelves in John{haven,/D4 
invited a minifler of the Secelfion to fettle among them. 

ofBenbolmt* I25 

tcatl^ falary,' L. 6 



JDonation for teaching poor fcholars^ i 


Seffion-clerk-fee, - 2 

Pcrquifites for tegiftering marriages 

and births, at an average of 10 years, 3 


Quarterly payments, &g. - 1 2 


Amounting altogether to 35 6 10^ 

*f wo occalional fchools, one for bo^s, and another for girls> 
are kept in Johnfliaven. The number of fcholars attending 
each may be from 20 to 30. 

P^r.— The number of poor m this pariflb is cbnfiderable, 
owing to the variety of aged and infirm perfons, who come 
from neighbouring parifhes, and* take up their refidence in 
the town of Johnfliaven, when they are no longer fit for 
country work. Seldom fewer than 30 recfeivfe a monthly al- 
lowance from 2s. to 4s. and fometimes 5s. each, according 
to their heceflSties. Small fums ate likewife occafionally dif- 
tributed among fuch as are in ftraitened circumftartces, yet 
not fo indigent as to require a regular fupply. It is general- 
ly underftood, that the members of the Sei&on have a claim 
on whatever efFefts may be left by any one, who has been 
admitted oh the poors-roll, to the full amount of the fum ad- 
vanced ; fo that few folicit this afliftance, except thofe who 
^e really iii want. The means of relieving fuch, are derived 
ifrom various foUrces, of which the chief arc, the collcftions 
in the church on Sundays, which laft year exceeded 35I. 
Sterling ; the intereft of different fums, bequeathed for the 
iife of the poor, in the lands of fienholme and Knox % the 
faviogs of former contributions \ with better than 8L annu- 
ally for feat-rents, amotmting altogether to more than ($oI. 
iSterling. The diftribution of this fura falls within the pro-^ 
Vol. iv. F f tiflc« 

226 Statijiical jiccount 

vincc of the minifter and ciders, who make it' their bufinefs 
to become acquainted with the fituation of the pariftiioners, 
to fupply fuch as are in want, and to difcountenance beg- 
ging. Few beggars of courfe belong to this parilh \ but it 
is much infsfted by vagrants, efpecially from the North. 
Befides the other charitable donations, under the manage- 
ment of the kirk-feflion, there is a fund for teaching poor 
fcholars, and fupplying them with books. An annual col- 
ledlion is like wife made at the church doors» for the Infir-^ 
mary of Aberdeen, which entitles the poor to medical ad- 
vice and afliftance, when they labour under any bodily diC- 
trcfs, and likewife to proper accomodation, while their cure 
is performing. In few places, perhaps, are the induflrious 
and deferving poor better provided for than here. Befidcs 
the fources of affiftance already enumerated, they find a con- 
tinual fupply in the charitable diffiofition of their more opu- 
lent neighbours. 

Population, — ^The population within this parifli, during 
the lad 40 years, has been fluftuating. The total number 
of inhabitants, was 

In to* Country, In tb« Tinon, ^otai. Difference, 

In 1753, 598 75Z 135I 

In I755> 1367 Incrcafc in 2 years 16 

In 1 773 1 1715 Ditto in 18 years 348 

Total in ao years 364 
In 1793. 538 1019 1557 Dccrcafclaftaoycarsyg 

I Decrcafc 60 locreafe 266 Total increafc in 40 years ao6 

But as the ordlnp.ry cftimate in the Statiftical Account is only made from 
Dr W-ebilcr's report, the incrcaAi between 1753 and 175J, muft be 
dcduded - • 15 

"Which makes the exafft incrcafc within 38 years 190 




From the above ftatcmcnt it appears, that though the num- 
bers in the country part is diminifhed 60, yet the town of 
Johnfliaven being 266 more numerous than it was in 1753, 
the population has increafed on the whole 206 (ince that pe- 
riod. It IS evident, however, from the following table, that 
the population has been gradually diminlfliing Cnce the yfar 
1773. ^^ union of feveral fmall farms into one has con- 
tributed to thin the country, and increafe the number of 
town's people. But while one clafs of inhabitans was be- 
coming more numerous in Johnfliaven, various caufes con- 
fpired to difperfe another. It appears, from undoubted au- 
thority, that the fea- faring people, with their families, in that 
town, about the year I7S3» were equal to a third of the 
whole inhabitants of the parilh 5 but in 1793, they did not 
exceed a-Cxth part' of that number •, fo that this clafs of inr 
habitants has been rapidly declining for the lad 40 years. 

Table of Population in the Parish of Benholme, 
colleEled from private Bills of Mortality y kept by the laU Revi-- 
rend Mr Robert Young. 

Years. No. of Souu. Marriages. 















. A 


Mai. Fern 


MaL Fern, Tot, 

19 21 


. . j8 

21 35> 

28 18 


. . %i 

16 37 

29 26 


. . 6 

16 22 

31 30 


. . 19 

18 37 

29 13 


. . II 

15 26 

27 26 


. . 21 

31 5% 

19 22 


. . 9 

14 »3 

3a a2 


. . 13 

13 ^6 

27 17 


. . 18. 

19 37 

15 32 


. . 27 

29 56 



Statijiical Account^ 

Statistical Table of Benholme continue p. 



^0. of .*>ooti. Markiagei 

A _ 

Years. ^ 

k MmL Ffm. 


Mai. Fern, Tot. 

1763 . 

M99 , • 

. 15 . . 

. 16 



. . 29 29 58 


. ^sn 

. II . . 

. 43 



6 12 18 

1^5 . 

*543 . 

. 19 . . 

• 37 



. • II II 22 


1575 • 

. H . . 

• 19 



. . II 7- 18 

3767 . 

1613 . 

. JO . 

• - *4 



• . 19 15 34 

1768 . 

1667 ' . 

. 13 • 

• 24 



. . 19 22 5f 

1769 . 

1659 . 

. 10 . . 

. t8 



. . »4 35 59 


. i6?5 . 

• II . 

. . 31 



• • '5 15 30 


. 1713 

. li . 

. . as 



. . a» 15 37 

J 77* . 

1666 . 

. 15 . . 

. 30 



. . 25 24 49 


1715 • 

. 10 . 

. . 26 



. . 29 21 50 

J 774 

1676 . 

. 14 . 

' • V 



. . I(J 14 30 


1638 . 

. 7 . 

. 43 



. . 14 18 3* 


1657 . 

. 17 . . 

. »4 



. . 22 28 50 


. X668 , 

. 10 • . 

• 31 



. . 15 18 33 


. 14 . 

• »5 



.. 21 20 41 

'17.79 - 

. . 14 . . 

• • ^3 



. . 19 14 33 


. 15 . . 

. 21 



. , 20 28 48 



. . 15 . . 

. ^6 



. . 10 13 43 


. . 18 . , 

. a6 



. . 19 17 36 


. 8 . 

. . to 



. . 19 22 41 


. . 15 . 

• • 30 



. . 32 29 61 


. . 7 . 

. 18 



. . 21 21 44 


. . 9 . 

. . »i 



. . 21 25 47 


r . 13 . . 

• ^*' 



• . 14 43 3S 


I Tbi nitmher'rf fouh from tbt year If 1% to. the year 1789 caiuttt be fwmd 
anfoig the bilk of mortality. Jn tbefi years died 

Between tbe age of 70 and%o 

> ■■ I . — — 80 and 90 

— — — — • 90 aad 100 





Jfi 1777) tbe numhtr of^idowe in tbe farijb amounted to 94 
ti 1793) ^be number ofvfidowt were - 44 

■ Fern, 



of Widowers 49 
of widowers 18 

of Benholme. 


Statistical TAstE of Benholme continued. 

Years. No. of Souls. 







. 8 

• 7 
. x% 

. zo , 
. 18 
. 14 . 

Mai. Fcm. Tot. 

14 a» 36 

26 31 57 

ao 19 39 

%i 19 4» 

19 44 43 

24 19 43 


MaL Ftm. TVf, 
. 19 21 4« 
, «3 oo 43 ■ 

18 «5 43 

19 x8 37 

23 ^S 4? 
x8 IX 29 

List of Diseases, ofidoftteNuuufiVL 0/ People who died un^' 
der eachy from 1 778 to 1788, inclufive : Drawn up by the 
kit Reverend Mr Ropert Tounq Mintfter of Benholme. 

1 1 











1778 Ij 5 








79 7 




a % 


80 6 



4 13 



8i % 






8» 6 






83- 4 



3 Q 



84 4 


4 «4 




85 10 







86 7 







87 4 




3 4 




88 5 



3 • 

— p 


^o ' 5 ax 77 a9 xi 36 43 8 7 ft4t 8 

g ^r0a» X789, the biriht and dtaths of thofe Menging to the Seeeffion are omtt" 
ted, Wbetber they havt hew wferted in the previous ytarsy it uHterttum ; though «# 
w highly probaUey from Mr YoDNc's aceuraty^ thai they vfouU, 

f Of the 2^ under safualties, 6 were drowned* % fijoeated^ X hUled in haitit^ 
1 hy a fall from a horfe^ \ by a bite of a mad dog, and X byfaUing into thefre, 
Jn the bills are ftteral other diftttfet^wbicb art omitted on account oftbefmaU n 
her that died of them. 

130 Statijlical Account 

Fijhery, — About the year 1722, Johnshaven fe^ms to 
have ranked among the firft fitlung towns in Scotland ; 26 
boats were then employed in the fifhery, 13 of which car- 
ried each from 8 to 10 tons burden, the other 13, from 5 to 
6 tons, A large boat's crew, including one or two boys, ge- 
nerally confided of 10, a ftnall boat's, 8. Three of the crew 
'vi'crc called JkipperSy who had a (hare in the boat, kept her in 
repair, and became bound to indemnify the proprietor of the 
town for the fum of i co f merles Scotch, which he advanced 
to aflilt in building the boat \ and alfo to pay a yearly rent of 2L 
I OS. Sterling. To defray this expence, the (kippers were en- 
titled to every fifth filh taken, befides their own deal or fhaie. 
Large boats were employed from the beginning of May till 
the firll of Auguft, in catching cod, ling, &c. or in what is 
called the out fva Ji/Jjirrgi from the fifhing ground lying at the 
diftanc.e of 40 or 50 milts, from fhore. In favourable wea- 
ther, they generally continued one, two, or three nights at 
fea. During the months of Auguft and September, they 
brought a fufficient quantity of coiils and peats from the 
Trith of Forth to fuppiy the neighbourhood through the 
feafon: afitr which theio Urge boats vere laid up for win- 
ter. The fmalJ boats were then employed in catching had- 
docks,* whitings, Sec till the end of February, when the 
ticar gyeiitjlpjlngy about 8 or 10 miles from land, commen- 
ced. In this they were engaged, always leaving their lines 
at fea one night or mere, according to the weather,, till the 
b(.*ginning of May, when the large boats were again launch- 
ed into the deep. The great ftfli were purchafed by Mon- 
trofe merchants, faked and fent up the Mediterranean. The 


\ This money only became payable when the boat was 00 longer fit t^ 
go to I^ja. 

o/Benbolme* 231 

fmall fiOi found a ready market in the Frith of Forth,, and 
the price of them formed a ftock for the filhers to trade with 
in Autumn. 

Cat/fes of its Decline. — In this manner was the fifliing fuc- 
celifully carried on till the year 1743, when two of the boats 
foundered at fea. This was a fevere ftroke, and followed 
by another, a few years after, equally deftruftivc to the fifh- 
ing, though not fo fatal to the crews. As the boats were 
returning from the (ea in 1756, a tender intercepted 3 of 
them, and impreffed the ftouteft of their men. A demand 
from government of cvcxyji/th man to ferve on board the 
fleet foon followed. The filhers were obliged to comply with 
the neceffuy of the times, by cither going themfelves, or 
bribing others in their (lead : and thus purchafcd proteftions 
for thofe who remained, at a great cxpence. Reduced in 
*mea and money, they were, unable, by the end of the war ia 
1763, to fit out more than 8 large boats, and as many fmall. 
In 1768, they were harraflcd by Prefs-gatigSg and forced to 
raife a new levy, at the rate of lol. or 12I. a man. Diftrcf- 
fcd with fo many demands, and deprived of the means of 
fupplying them, many (lout young men abandoned the fiih- 
ing, and bound themfelves apprentices to colliers, in order 
to avoid ferving on board the navy j — a fervice, from which 
the impolitic, though fomc times necefi'ary, meafure of i//j- 
prejfmg is calculated to create averfion. The boats were now 
poorly mann'd, and unable to go to La, unlcfs in very fa- 
vourable weather. Through the poverty of their owners^ 
they fell to pieces, one after another, till the year 1776, 
when they were reduced to 5. The commencement of a 
new war created a new demand for men. Tenders and 
prcfs-gangs pcrfjcuted them at fea and fliorc, and prevented 
them from earning bread to their families. It therefore be- 

Ti^t Statijlicai Account 

came necefiary to (train the laft nerve, which masiy of theni 
did, by raifing the enormous contribution of i$l. for every 
man who was demanded,, in order to procure pr6te£lions for 
the reft. But now, by an unwarrantable breach of good 
faith, protefiions fcrvcd only as a pa/sport to the Navy*, One 
of the boat-mafters was imprefled with his prote£tion in his 
pocket, and died on board the Salijbury (hip of war going 
but to the Weft Indies. The exa£lions made on the fifliers, 
during laft war, gave a decifive blow to the fiftiety at Johns- 
haven; and deprived the nation of a valuable nurfery 
for hardy feamen. It is now reduced to one large boat in 
fummcr, and 4 or 5 yawls in winter, whofe drews confift of 
old men and boys, fcarce fit to manage an oar. Thus do the 
unjuftifiable means, which are had recourfe to for the tem- 
porary fapport of any ftate, frequently tend to its final de- 
ftruftion. Had greater moderation been ufci in demanding 
levies from Johnfhaven, during former wars, it might ftill 
have retained its rarik among fifhing towns, and been able, 
on the prefent emergency, to contribute to the general fup-^ 
port of the nation. 

Another caUfe concurred in depopulating the fea-faring 
part of the toWri, though tlie ruin of the fi(hery can only be 
afcribed to the hardfhips impofed on the fifhers by levying 
and impreffing them. Many no doubt returned from the 
wars richer than when they went away; but, after being 
accuftomed to a navy life, they returned with ideas above 
lifhing, as may be fuppofed, when the cafe of handing a fail 
fs compared with the labour of tugging at the oar. The 
prize money and wages many of them had gained, ferved to 
purchafe fmall veflels, which they employed in the coafting 
trade *, and their habits of ihduftry, acquired in early life, by 
degrees raifed them to larger. But the harbour of Johns* 
haven being i^nfafe for vcfiels of any confiderable buitben in 


ofBenbolme. 23 j 

winter^ it \)ccame ncceflary for them to quit their native 
place, where their property could not be protefted, and to 
take up their refidence "where (hips might be fecure in all 
feafons. Owing to this caufe, 15 mafters of veflels from ^o 
to 150 tons burden, with their families, have removed to 
Montrofe fince the year 1 766. An equal number of veflels; 
about the fame burthen, fttU belong to Johnfhaven, whidi 
cannot be brought there with fafety during winter. The 
mafters of tfaefe have hitherto ftruggled with the inconve- 
nience of having their families in one place, and their . pro* 
perty in another j nearly one half of the year \ but it is more 
than probable, that they will follow the example of their 
neighbours, unlefs fome material improvement is made upoti 
the harbour. 

' Pier and Pr^fed Improvement, — A fmall pier or wharf has 
been ereded of late, by means of which veflels may load and 
unload, at any time of the tide, in favourable weather ; but 
till a bulwark is raifed to break the force of the (ea, it never 
can become a place of fafety ; and any thing (hort of that can 
add little to the profperity of the town. The expence nece(r 
fary for this purppfe, according to ah eftimate made by an 
archite£^, who viewed the ground in 1754, would not ex- 
teed 900 L Nature has indeed laid die foundation, and like- 
wife furnifiied the materials for building a prbper hatbour: 
On the eaft fide^ a ledge of free ftone rocks, about 30 yards 
broad, reaches from high water, at neap tide, to low water' at 
fpring tide, which are feldom Overflowed except in feVere 
ftorms. On the Weft fide, a number of flat rocks run out 
from the beach S. S. W. into the open fea, clofe by the fide 
of which there is 6 or 8 fathom water. The South end ot 
thefe is covered by half tide, when fmall veflfels tnay entier 
the harbour, though they cannot, until near full fea^ reach th^* 
Vol- XV; C g prefent 

234 Statijlical Account 

prcfcnt warf. In ordinary tides the depth of the harbour is 
from lo to 12 feet, which might be farther incrcafed at no 
great expcnce, as the bottom is a foft marly rock. 

Probable Advantages* — ^Werc the advantages arifing from a 
fafe harbour at John&haven confined to the town or even 
nctghbourfiood, they might be thought fcarcely equivalent to 
the expence neceflary to procure them : But when it is confi- 
dered that a great part, one half at lead; of the county, would 
profit grcsitly by this improvement, the expence *muft appear 
inconfiderable. If the utility of the defign were attended to, 
it is highly probable that the time of its execution might not 
be very diftant. Many obftacles, which have hitherto pre- 
vented manufaflures from flouri(hing in this part of the 
county, would then be removed ; and the expence of land 
c^trriage, which is more or Icfs a draw back upon every branch 
of trade, would be greatly dimini(hed. To vefTels employed 
ia the coafting trade it wOuld prove of the utmoft confe^ 
qaence, ^s they might find an eafy and fafe retreat here from 
the ftorm, in certain winds, when it would be deflru£)ion 
for them to attempt landing on any other part of the coaft, 
betwixt the Frith of Forth and the Murray Frith. 

Trade and Commerce. — ^The trade here chiefly confifts in 
importing coals and exporting grain. A fufficient quantity 
of the former article is brought in fummer from Sunderland, 
and the Frith of Forth, to fupply the town and neighbour- 
hood' through the year. Some cargoes of lime ate alfo 
. brought from the fame places, for theufe of the farmer. Till 
of late, Montrofe was the only market for grain in this neigh- 
bourhood, when two merchants in Johnshaven were tempt- 
ed, by the fituation of the place, to commence dealers in 


ef Benbolme. 233 

grain. The adventure has not only proved advantageous to 
themfelves, but highly beneficial to the neighbourhood. The 
farmer being enabled to deliver his grain, in lefs than one half 
the time which was formerly required, has it more in his 
po^er to embrace a favourable feafon when it offers. This 
- is of the utmoft moment here, where the nature of the foil, 
in many places is fuch, that it can only be plowed to ad- 
vantage between wet and dry. The fliort carriage, therefore, 
gives them a decided preference above other merchants, who 
live at. a greater diflance, fo that they purchafe mod of the 
barley produced for many miles around, which they either 
convert into malt, for the Norway market, or feqd to the 
Frith of Forth. From 3000 to 400Q bolls of grain are an- 
nually exported 

ManufaBures. — A manufafture of fail cloth has of late 
been eftabliflied in the town of Johnshaven, by a Company 
of Dundee merchants. This affords employment at times to 
about 5® men^ befides a number of women. To form a fair 
opinion of any undertaking in its infancy is difHcult, but 
were the harbour improved, there is every probability that 
this would fucceed, as it would then labour under no loCal 

Table ^Tradesmen, Mechanics, &c. luithin the Parijb, 

Merchants, - a Inn. keepers in the town, 4 

Shore, mafter, 
Tide-waiter, ; 

Ditto in the country. 



Ship- carpenters, 

Houfe ditto. 


i 3 

Shop-keepers § , ; 


Cabinet maker, 

; I 


§ Moil of thefe give out flax to be fpun. 

2^6 Statijlical Mcount 



% Malt-men, 1 : 




63 Barbers, 


Stocking ditto* 


I Male domeftic fenrants : 




1% Female ditto. 




14 Male farm (ervants. 




4 Female ditto. 




%, Farms above 50L 




3 <«^ Ditto under thmt rent, : 


Gardeners, • 


4 Overfeers, 




% Country day-labourers, • 


Flazdreffen, • 


5 Shjp-maucrs, • • 




5 Seamen and boys, 




4 Two-wheel carts. 


Penny poft between Bervie and 

Draught horfes, 




I Foi4r-wheel carriages 


Prices of Labour and Provtfi$ns — Of late the price of la- 
bour and provifions has greately increafed ; 5 1. per annum 
^ould have been conCdered as lugh wages for the bed plough- 
man a few years ago ; now 8 1. would be offered in vain. 
From 30 s. to 2 1. were the common yearly wages of female 
fcrvants ', of late they receive from 3 1. to 4 1 ; a day-labour- 
er within thcfe few years thought himfelf well paid with 8d, 
but now expefts i s. per day. Except among houfe carpen- 
ters and mafons, who daily receive from IS. 6d. to 2s., the 
advance of wages has not been fo rapid in other occupations. 
As many employed in thefe, however, are paid by the piece, 
their income cannot be mentioned with certainty. Butchet 
meat, within the laft 30 years, has rifen from one id. to 3^ 
/>fr^»/irf, and many other articles of provifion in a higher 

Minerals, — ^In this parifli there are fevcral quarries of free 
^one, and one in particular upon the cftate of Benholme, of 
^n excellent quality. All the rocks on the coaft chiefly con- 


ofBenbohne. 137 

fift of tlm fort of ftone ; but what is found within flood 
mark, being impregnated with falitie particles, always retains 
a moifture, and is therefore improper for building dwelling 
houfes. Mill ftone of a good quality is found in many pla- 
ces along the (bore. 

Roads and Bridges. — ^The poft road leading from Montrofe 
to Aberdeen runs through this pari{h» in a line almoft parel- 
lel with the coaft, and nearly at the diftance of a mile from 
it. Not far from the churchi and near to each other, there 
are two ftone bridges upon this road, which contribute much 
to its improvement. A different dire£lion, however, would 
be neceffary to render it completely eafy, as the ground, both 
on the Eaft and Weft fides of thefe bridges, rifes to a confi- 
derable height. From the nature of the foil, and the difficul- 
ty of bringing gravel from the fliore, the high way has hither- 
to been deep in winter. Nor are the crofs roads in a better 
ftate. The ftatute labour is infufficient, and is performed with 
relu£iancy. A turnpike has often been propofed through 
this county, and will doubtlefs in the end be found the only 
means for promoting focial intercourfe, by rendering travel- 
ling more comfortable* 

Di/advantdgfs, — ^Deep roads and a. bad harbour are 
the only material difadvantages under which this diftrid la- 
bours. Fuel is no doubt fcarce ; but were the harbour im- 
proved, the opportunity of landing coals at all feafons, would 
prevent the want of any other kind of fuel from being felt. 
At prefent many poor people frequently pay an exorbiunt 
price for this neceffary article, and arc often obliged to en- 
dure die rigour of the cold, from not being able in fummer 
to lay in a fufficient fupply. 


«3& Stati/lical Account 

AnfrquUleS'-^Among the few antiquties in thJs pariHij may 
be mentionec! a fquare tower, which was the ancient refi- 
dence of the family of Benholme, and is ftill kept in repair^ 
though not inhabited. ' From its pcninfular fituation, thick- 
nefs of walls, and battlements on the roof ; this building 
feems to have been originally intended for a place of 
ftrcngth ; and before the ufc of artillery, was probably not 
lU calculated to refift the fudden attack of an enemy. When 
tUis ftrong hold was built is uncertain. On the fummit of 
the ncareft hill to the fea, except one, bordering with the 
parHh of Cyrus, and commanding an extenfive profpeft, 
ftands a rough ftone, in the circumference of a ftony circle, 
commonly called the Cloach Stone. It is more than a foot 
tkick, meafures 8 feet along the ground, and rifcs nearly 6 
jibove itsfurface, in an inclined diredlion towards the North. J 


% As there is no place in the neighbourhood, except one at the South ccmcr 
pf the parilh, clofc by the ihore, where (lones of the fame quality are founds 
it appears to have been brought from theoce, not without conliderable diffl- 
culty» the intervening fpace being a pretty fteep afcent of more than a mile. 
It would fccm therefore to have been ereded for Tome ufeful purpofe, per* 
hap4 with a view to perpetuate fome memorable event. Tradition fays, a bat- 
tle was fought near the place, and the number of flint heads of arrows, found 
on the Ade of the hill whore it ftands, affords fome rea{bn to credit this re- 
port. 6etv**een this and the coail, a great quantity of human bones has been 
<1iig up, in the coorfc otf improving the land, for nearly the fpace of .a mile a* 
long the rifing ground above Johnshaven. The bottom and fides of the graves, 
containing thefe bones, were all lined with rpugh (lones. Ic is diffipult to ac- 
cotmt for fu great a fpace being occupied by dead, bodies, on any other fup- 
poficion than that of an engagement : At the fame time, it feems doubtful 
whether fuch a degree of attention would be bellowed in burying all the dea^ 
/lain in the field of battle, unlefs we confider it as mark of regard from the 
furvivors, to thofe who had probably fallen in defence of their country. 
There were no arms in any of thefe graves ; but one or two have been found, 


tf Benbobne. -239 

ChartL^er and Manners. — Smuggling, which formcr- 
merly tended to debiuch the morals of the fca-faring-peoplc, 
is no longer carried on within the bounds of this pari(h« 
Drunkenne& and fighting are confequently little heard of. 
Any petty fquabbles, that now happen, feldom proceed far- 
ther than high words. A few profecutions for fcandalhave re^ 
formed the obnoxious praflice of abufive language, which 
was much in ufe, and taught the generality to* bridU their 
tongues. Frugality, fobriety, and induftry, are the diftin- 
guifliing chara£leriilics of the country people. The inhabi- 
tants of Jolinshavcn are not deficient in the two firft of thefc 
virtues, though there is ftill room for amendment with re- 
gard to induftry. Among every rank, however, both in 
country and town> there is charity enough to " cover a mul- 
" titude of fins." 

To Conclude. — About 50 years ago, the Excife officer's fa- 
mily was the only one in Johnshaven that made ufe of tea ; 
when the tea kettle was carried to the well, to bring in wa- 

in fK)nc coffiiM of aboat 4 feet long, at a place called Moat Hill, not far 
from the macfion houfe of Beoholme. On an eminence bordering with Gar- 
Tock, called Kincbett or, more properly, King*t Stat Hitl, there is a large heap 
of ftones or Cairns where, according to tradition, a King fat in judgement ; 
among other complaints, many were lodged againfl Melvilc of Allardice, 
at that time Sheriff of the county, for his oppreflion. The Royal Judge, 
either wearied with the complainers, or enraged at the offender, faid, proba- 
bly in a peeviih humour ; *< 1 wi{h that Sheriff were fodden and fupped in 
** brofe.*' Such was the favage barbarity of the times, that the Barons, who 
were litde accuftomed to the formalities of a uial, laid hold on thefe wordi, 
and put them literally in execution. The place where the deed was perpe- 
trated, lyes at the bottom of the hills,son the fide next Garvo<;k, is not unlike 
the cavity of a kiln for drying corn, and fliU retains the name of the Ssk&- 
RiF*8 Kettle. 

240 Statiftical Account 

ter» numbers both of children and grown people followed It, 
ezprefling their wonder, suid fuppofing it to be '^ « bem/l 
*^ with a barn.** In tbofe days of Cmplicity^ a watch or an 
eight day clock would have created equal furprife. Now the 
lea kettle has loft the power of aftonifhing, having become 
a neceiTary piece of fwnitiiTe among die meaaeft : and one 
can fcarcely enter a houfe where he is not put in .mind of 
the fleeting t>f time from fome one comer of it. 


^Monzie. 241 



(County of Perth, Presbytery op Auchtkrardbr, Simii ^ 
o» Perth and Stirling.) 

By the Rev, Mr Ozokot £rskin£, Minuter. 

Origin ^ the Namt. 


LLL •competent judgcis of the Gaelic agree that the 
name Monzie is derived from that language. But they difiicr 
la little about its orthography or fignification. Some think 
it (hould be wrote Monieu^ whidv figniiies Deer Hit/, as pro- 
bably at that period the hills abound with that fpecics of 
game. Others think it fliould be wrote Maniui, which fig- 
nffies hillfooU and is very cxprcffive of the fituation of the 
habitable parts of the pariCh. Biit a third clafs maintain^ and 
with the greatcft jh-obabiiity, that it fliould be virrote Moeghe^ 
wnich fignifies goodphih, as the low lying grounds are pret- 
ty fertii<5. 

Entintf Pifrm, aad Sftefl/iofi.— The exient of this parifii is 
tcry confideraUe^ bring from E. to W. 7 Engliih miles, and" 
Vol. XV. H b from 

24^ StaMJlkal Account 

from N. to S. at the greatefl; breadth, 12 miles* Its figure 
IS irregular> perhaps tbniewhat fimilar to the crofs« It is 
diflant from the tovi^n of Perth 14 miles^ and from the town 
of CrieflF, 3 miles. The parifh is a mountainous diftridi. It 
lies on the fouth fide of the Grampian hills. The habitibie 
part of the parilh is divided into the hadt and ibt forepart^ by 
a ridge of very high hills 4 miles in breadth. Each of fehefe 
habitable parts is a narrow valley, enclofed by hills all the 
length of the^parifhy from E. to W. 

S«7, Surface^ Cultivation j and Pr^iuce^ £^f .— The foil of 
tliis pariQi is various, in general it is light, dry and good, but 
(hallow. Part of it is graveilifh; much of it moily, and 
fome of it clay. By far the greatefl: part of the parifii con- 

-iifts of hilb and (beep farms. The faiiis are partly green, 
but moftly covered Mrith heath, and the interjacent flats are 
covered with bent, and rather fwampy. On the whole, not 
above a third part of the pariih is arable : In the lower part 
of the parifh, they are introducing the EngUQi ploughs, 
drawn with two horfes, and the man wlio holds, alfo drives 
it. In the more deep ground, they ufe the Scotch plough, 

• drawn by 4 hoifes, all a-breaft, bccaufe they think it anfwers 
better for going up bills. About the middle or end of the 
month of y arch, they fow oats and peafe, then their flax; after 

' "tt'hich they fct potatoes ; and lad of all they fow their barley. 
The earlieft barley is ripe about the middle of Auguft ; flie 
harveft becomes general in September, and is finiflied about 

' the end of that month. 

Cihnatf^ DifeafeSy and Longevitj.-^'Tht climate of this pa- 
rifli is good but various. Mild, gentle and dry in the vales^ 
while the hills are hid in fog, or covered with fnow, or waih- 
ed with rains. A very common diforder here, is the chronic 


ofMMzie. ' 243 

T}ieQinatifm> feizing the poorer fort of people^ efpecially thofc 
more advanced in life ; and this chiefly is owing to their mi- 
finrable mode of living, the coldnefs and dampnefs of their 
houfesy and the fcarcity and high price of fuel. Slow fevers 
too attack them about fpring and autumn, but feldom prove 
mortal. Some, though very few, die of confumption and 
palfey. The fmaU pox raged much here formerly, but is 
now much mitigated by the general introduflion of innocu- 
lation. The air on the whole being falubiious, there arc a 
number of inftances of longevity in the parifli. One man 
died lately aged ico years; one is (lill alive aged 92, who 
was formerly a day-labourer, and who is dill able to walk a- 
bout, and fee his friends ; and there is a conGdcrable nupj- 
ber of healthy people, aged 70 and 80. 

Rivers and Fijb. — Th^ Anton j or ^/ffioff, is the piincipal 
river. It runs through the Eaft part of the pariflj, and inter- 
fecls it about 1 2 miles. The river SiaggUy runs through th^ 
centre of the parifti, and divides it for about 3 miles. The 
river Ke/l/e runs through the parifti, towards the Weft cncjf 
interfe^ling it for about 2 miles i And, the fmall river Bar^ 
vie feparates this pari(h from, that of Monivaird, ior about 
2 miles. All thefetrivers hare their fources in the north- 
em part of this pariih, and^ after a variety of meiindeir- 
ing circuits among the hills, they run direftly South. The 
Amon, after apjAroaching near the South fide of this pariOi, 
runs eaftward, until it empties itfelf into the Tay above 
Perth. The reft of thefe rivers meet near the Weft end of 
the parifh, whence they run ftill farther weftward, in one 
ftream, which empties itfdf into the river Earn, a little a- 
bove CriefF. Each of thefe rivers, aar well as a number of 
bums^ which defcend from the hills» and run into them, a- 
bound with good black trouts ; and the Amon has a pecu- 

II ll 2 iM 

^44 Stat^kai Account 

Ibr, fpecies of fine white trouts. Some, have been takeo^ 
which weighed from 31b* to 41b ; and meafured from i to 
X i foot long. Salmon grilfes haye alfo been taken, ftom 
71b. to lolb. weight ( and at the fpawnjng ^ime, falmon hare 
been got, (though contrary to law) weighing ao lb* 

Woods. — About 50 years ajgo, this parifli abounded a great 
deal more in wood than it does at prefent. The back part 
of the pariOi, called Glenalmofjy fcems to have been once one 
continued fore'ft, whereas now there is only one large pine 
tree to be fcen in the whole of it. There is a confidcrablc 
quantity of woodland ftill in the fore part of the parifli ; it 
confifts of oaks, elms, beeches, birks, planes, and large faughs. 
There are 5 woods upon the cftate of Monzie, two upon that 
of Calendar, and one upon that of Cultoquhcy ; and all of 
them are very thriving. Befides thefe, there are beautiful 
and tall plantations around the man(ion>houfes of Monzie 
and Cultoquhey, Thefe woods were cut and fold vi'itlun 
thefe few years, and brought a high price, tfpon the banks 
of the rivers and burns, as^well as in the dens, there is a coh- 
fiderable quantity of Oirubs, which are both ufeful and orna* 

Wild Animals. — ^The wild quadrupeds are hares, badgers, 
rabbits, roebucks,. deers, foxes and ot^rs* All the wild 
fowls and birds of prey, which are iMitives of the North of 
Scotland, frequent die woods : Thruihes, linnets, black-birds, 
finches, ftariings, patridges^ wild' ducks, hf^iona, muir fowl ; 
hawks, ravens, hooded crows, and water crows \ and fome* 
times we are vifited by the eagle. The birds of the migra- 
.tory kind are the fwallow, cuckow, plover, feldtfare, and* at 
jftimes the kingVfiiher. 

State of "Property y Services^ t5V. — ^During thefe laft 30 
years, there hasr been no transfer of property in the parlfli. 

• '*' * • ' • A 

fffMonzie. ^45 

A confiderable part of it is inclofed, but the greater part of 
it ftill lies open. The tenants are fully convinced of the 
^eat adrantage of tncloGngj and would very willingly give 
the proprietors intereft for fuch fums as might be neoeflary 
for that pi^tpofe. However^ as many of them have no leafea 
of tbeir farms, fuch are difcouraged even from that. The 
dread of being rei^ioved, where an avaricious neighbour of- 
fers an augmentation, or an unfeeling mafter accepts the 
bribe of iniquity, binds up the hand of induilry, and bars 
the way of improvement. As the arable ground is of very 
different quality, fo we find it kt at very different rents. 
As to the /Wir/rr/, they rent their grounds at los. to 25s. 
an acre. Thofe who have large ifarms, rent the arable ground 
gt from 8s. to los. an acre. The hill part of the pariOi, is 
let by the lump to thofe farmers who are neareft to it, and 
they pay a feparate rent for it } grafs parks have been let in 
{his parifli at a]. 2s. per acre. A great deal of ferrices arc 
ftill .performed by all of them to the proprietors, which 
increafe the value of the rents. Thefe forvices are chief- 
ly farm work, with carriages of peats and coals. In the 
cefs book, the valued rent of the parifli is 2900I. Scotch ; 
the real rent is nearly l^OQ^. Sterling. As there never ws|s 
any furvey taken of this parifli, the exa£l number of acres in 
it cannot be afcertamed. None of the land is common. 
Every proprietor knows exaAly the marches of his own 
^eftate* The moft of the hilly part is pafture, becaufe of its 
fteepnefs, but the lower parts are cultivated and produce 
very virell. There is but a very (mall parr of the parifti •thir- 
led to their lairds mills, they being exempted from that bon- 
dage, and free to grind their com where they pleafe j upon 
conditkms of their paying to the proprietor a fum among 
them, equal to the vent of the null, and this in proportion to 
|heir own rents.' 

a^S , Statiflical Account 

Proiaccy Exports^ &c. — The principal crops raifcd in thi^ 
parifli, are oats, barley, flax, and potatoes. Of late, they 
haw fown feme peafe, rye, T^^eat, grafs feeds, and turnips, 
all of which do very well. As the produce, efpecially of the 
fore part of the parifli, is much greater than is neccflary for 
the confumption of its inhabitants, confidcrable quantities of 
butter, cheefe, meal, mutton, beef, pork, oat-meal, barley, 
and potatoes, are difpofed of in the towns and places adja* 

Hor/es^ Blachcattle^ Steep, and JVooL — The cattle arc all of 
the fmall kind, but good of their fizes. All the high priced 
cattle belong to the low part of the f ariih, and arc rear- 
ed in gentlemen's parks. Grazing cattle is now become 
more common than it was formerly. The farmers in gene- 
ral, rear their own cattle, of erery fpecies, and thus keep their 
Stock (as they term it,) alive» Thejr keep from 2 to 6 work- 
ing hoffes, each, and from 3 to 6, and fome even 10 or 12 
milk cows. It is believed, that there are 1 0,000 (heep rn 
the parifli. They are of the Scotch becd, and very hardy. 
Their wool is good, and their flelh very fwcet. The aver- 
age prices of cattle, wool, &c. are as follows : 

Workiof horfes fell at from X.. 3 o each, ro 

Milk cows 




10 per ftone, 


L. 8 





a 11 




Population. — ^There is every reafon to believe, that the po- 
pulation of this, as well as of fome of the neighbouring pa- 
rishes, has greatly diminiihed, fincc the beginning of the pre- 
fent century. The remains of uninhabited* houfcs, the enu- 


ofMomde. ^7 

|[ration8 of young people of both fexes, who, thinking their 
parents oppreffed in their farms, go away to other parts, and 
other employments ; fewer of thofe who remain joining in 
masriage now than formerly ; and, above all, the monopoly 
o£ farms, which fo much prevails ; fome individuals rent* 
ing and farming lands, formerly p^effed by <5, 8, or lOp 
and fome even pofTciTed by ao tenants ; thefe, and many o- 
ther circumftances, accoilnt for and prove the great decreaic 
of the population. No enumeration of this pariQi, however, 
previous to the one drawn up in 1755, ^^ ^^ requeft of Dr 
Wcbftcr, has been made ; or, if it was, can now be difcorer- 
cd. Upon comparing that report, however, with the refult 
of an enumeration made by the prefent .incumbent in 1792, 
the decreafe within theie-40 years does not appear fo greal^ 
as, from die above caufes, might have been cxpeftcd : 
For the number of fouls in I7S5> was - 1 192 

Ditto in 1792, - - 1 136 

Hence the decreafe is- only 

Of thefc there were examinable perfons, , 703 7 
Children under that age, - 433 j 

Married perfons, - - 326 

Widows and widowers, - - ^3 1 7^3 

Bachelors and unmarried women, - 294 
Inhabitants in the village. 
Poor on the roll. 

The No. of births *, from December 1 792 to De- 
cember 1793, was 

Marriages * within that period, 

■-^-^^ — Deaths* 






- ••• Norccor^.^ffwienashadcvfrbeeoke^t in Oie pari/h j^reWoiiB m 
December 1792 ; nor, for a long time, wa« there even any rcgifter of births 
ijf i^magc* ; but, u^on the moil accurate enquiry that can be made« the a- 
*ove*appcai to be the average nmnben for many yeanpaft. 

^4* StatiftUal Account 

Condttums and Occupaticns.-^AU the inhabitants of this p^ 
Tifh are eithdr proprietors, farmers^ tradefmen, or day4ap 
bourcrs. The great part of the farming work^ is done 
by the farmers themfclves, their wives, their fons, and their 
daughters. There is a great number of pendiclers and 'cot- 
tagers in this pariih. The former clafs are thofe who rent 
a houfe and a fmall piece of ground from the proprietor ; 
the latter rent it from the tenantt and are obliged to work to 
him during the harreft, and even at other times, if it be need-' 


— ^-^Wesrrm, 

54 Mafeos, 

4 MiUert, 


8 Licenfed tlcfdlen, 

8 — — Farmers, 


6 — Pcndidcn, 






Mani^aBures. — ^The principal one in the parifh is that of 
weaving* They weave all kinds of plain andptweclcd linen,' 
and woolen cloth ; and thefe not only for their own ufe, but 
iXio for ikle ; the chief kinds of cloth made by them are plaid- 
en, linen and fcrims. The plaiden they fell at from lod. 
to I4d. per yard. They taake a very large quantity of lincnl 
cloth, and bleach it excellently themfelvcs ; it is of various de- 
grees of finenefSy and they fell it at from i s. to 4s. per yard. 
Some families, where there are only two looms, have! madei 
and fold 1000 yards p§r annum. The fciim is a narrow 
linen cloth, of different degrees of finenefs, and which they 
fell without bleaching it It is all exported, perhaps for 
trowfcrs. The women fpin a great deal of yarn, which they 


ttiake into cloth for (ale, sind thus by their bduftry raiib i, 
part of their rent. 

Prica of Provijionf and Laiaur. — Owing to the wet hatveft 
In 1 792> provifions rofe much m their price. Work here ia 
generally done by the piece. The wages of domeftic fcr- 
vants .are nearly the fame with thofe of ^arm fervSLnts. The 
following are the average prices at prefent, (1793) both ot 
provifions and Jabour t 

Paiczs op PftovtaioNS. 

to Movcnaberjper day,£rQDi 

Oat meal, per peck, L. o 


11. to - L. 


Barley ditto, - o 


Dilto from Kot. to Maflrch, 

OaU, per boll, from t6s. to <J 18 - 


Bear per ditto, i««. to i 

tkito dvkig bafvta ttd 

Potatoes per peck, 3d. to 


hay-DMikiiig, - 


Bed, matton, veal, and poik,\ 

A woman^ at farm work in 

per lb. * • 


fununer^ • 


A pig, . c 


A Joiner, - 


A goofe, - 



A flater^ - 


A duck, * 


A tailor, whh mtintiiioance, 

A turkey, - [0 


A man fenrant per aanum^ with 

A hen, • 


ditto, from L. 3 to Z 

A cbickcD, • ""0 


A woman, per ditto with 

Batter 1, per lb. 


ditto, L. 3 to 4 

Checfe \ per ditto, from id. 

A man in harveft, fbr the 

to - 


feaXbd, - i 


PaiCBiov Labovr. 

A woman in ditt9, forditt^, 

A day labouier, froni March 

lis. to A t 


E£clefiafticaJ Sidie, Herihrs^ &c. — All the inhabitants are 
of the eftafcliflied church, excepting i Berean, 5 Epifcopa- 
lians, and 30 Antiburgher Seced^ra* There are np Romad 

Vol. XV I i Catholics 

\ \ Butter and chcefe are fold by the tron weight, aU other if(k}tl 
tither by EngKih or Putch, 

25c Statifikal Account 

Catholic* in this paiifh; All of thefe come occafionally to the . 
church, excepting the Antiburghers. The King is patron, 
but the family of Monzie have always had fufhcient intereft 
to f^cute th& pjefentation as thcy.wi(hed. The living con- 
fifts of 2 2.bolls of meal, 10 bolls of bear, and 53I. 6s. 6d. in 
moiTey, The ftipend is paid by 5 heritors, viz. Col. Camp- 
bell of Monzie, Mr Drummond of Logieamond, Mr Graham 
of Balgowan, -Col.. Rbbertfon of Lawers, and the Eail of 
Kinnoul. Col. Campbell is the only one who has a maniion 
houfe in the parifli. The manfe and offices were all built with- 
in thefe 3 years. The glebe conHfts of two parts ; one near 
the manfei containing about 5 acres of good arable ground ; 
the -other about a mile from tlie manfe> upon a fmall emi- 
nence, eontaimng about 3 acres of very bad ground. The 
church is 60* feet long, and 20 feet wide. It was built irt 
1685. It was lately repaired, is well feated, and very com- 
modious. The pulpit, which is made of oak, bears date 
161 7. That part of the pariih called Gienalmon is annexed 
quoad Jacra to the chapel of Amblerie. There is a village 
near the church. 

Schools. — ^tJntil of' late ttcre were 4 fchools in this paridi. ! 

One in the North part, another in the Eafl, a third in the 
^uth part, and the edablifiied fehool near |he centre. In | 

all of thefe were taught Englifb, writing, arithmetic, and book- I 

keeping. The firft of thefe fdiools, pwing to the union of 
farms, is given up, the teacher not being able to fupport him- I 

fclf. Tlie other 3 fiill continue. The falary of the one at the 
Eaft end of the parifh is 5I. per annnm^ with a houfe and 
garden. It is paid by the Duke of Athol out of the biihop's 
rents'. His fees, however, iot each of the branches taught 1 

arc only is. per quarter. The number of fcholars are from 

40 ) 

ofMonzie. 251 

40 to 60. The fchool on the South 'fide has no fixed falary, 
only a houfe and garden, given to him gratis by Mr Maxton 
of CuHtoquhey. The fees arc the fame as abovcj for each 
branch only is. per quarter. The number of fcholars are 
from 30 to 50. As to the cftablifhed fchool, thfe number of 
fchoJars attending it are from 40 to 70* The. mafter's fak^ 
ly and emoluments from the kirk feffion, and keeptrig 
the regifters, is about 12I. per annum ; he has a free houfe 
and garden. The fees for ]Engli(h are is. per quarter, for 
"writing is. 6d. per quarter, for arithmetic 2s. per quarter, 
and for a complete fet of book-keeping los. 6d. All of thefe 
fchools arc very convenient for the parifli, and the teachers 
are careful and diligent. . Learning is now more generally 
diffii fed than formerly. 

PGof^-^Tht amount of the ^neekty coHe£Uons is about iol. 
a-year. Befides this, there arc the dues ariling from the uife 
x)f two mort-cloths, the intereft of 120I. fank money,' tmd pe- 
nalties exafted from delinquents. The regular poor receive 
2s. a-month, and the occafional poor receive 5S. los. and 
fometimes even 20s. at a time. AH the poor are either 
maintained in their own houfcs, or, when necefliryi arc board- 
ed. The greateft number of the poor cam about two-thirds 
of their maiirtainancc-. None belonging to the pariiK arc aU 
lowed to beg, ahhough many (Irangcr vagrants infeft it not 
a little. 

Language, and Etym-jlt^ies, — Thisparifh being fituated on tfic 
borders of the Highlands, apd having much .intercourfe an4 
conneftionvwith the natives, wc need hotbe furprifcd toiind 
that the Gaelic is fpokcn in the back part of it, and the old 
5cotch dialeft in the fore part, pronounced with Ihe Gaefic 
tone and accent. There are, ho^ptx^ yery f^^w perfons u} 

952 Statifikal Account 

the whole parl(h, who do not either (jpeak or undecftand 
GaeUc. Moft of the names of places are evidently derived 
irOm that l^nguage^\and are expxeffive of their local (hna- 
fipn. The foUowing may fcrvc as a fpecimcai Liihenty 
£gi>ifies the broader country. Kinrtigira^on, the end of the 
YOCk. CulUquh^ is the Engliih nime for its original Gaelic 
naone^ Camhai-cuhs^ i. e^ Comhal*6 battle. 

Bridges, Roadsy AU-honfes^ Mil^, and Markets, — Over the 
river Aimon at Buchandy, there is a bridge of one arch, laid 
pvcr another, and bearing date i639. It was built by the 
Earl of Tullibardin when he had 14s fummer reHdence in 
this place, the remains of which rtfidence are ftlll to be 
feen. His arms are cut on it, and the initials of liis own and 
his lady's names. The proper name of the bridge, however, 
t$ M^Bean^s hri^ff^ becaufe of a chapel originally «car it, c^led' 
&t M^BearCs chapel |). On all the public roads there are good 
bridges. Thofe upon the county road built by the county^i 
and the others by {iibfeription^ The roads here were kept up 
formerly by the ftatutc labour, which is. generally very iU 
performed,, and therefore it is now commuted. They pay 
from 8s. to los. each plough, and the pendiclers and cot- 
tagers pay IS. 6d* a-year. There are 7 Itcenfed ale-houfes 
^n th^ pariih. There are 5 oat meal miUs^ and two flax mills. 

. The 

I Near the N. £. comer of the parifli, there had been another chapel, 
but no veftige of it is now to be feen. There is IIUI a burying ground in 
that place, and iU fkuation is moft roffianth;. Tradition hyt, t^at the even- 
ing before the battle of Lunkaity, 4o roeo took the femmcHt here, whn all 
frest to dte field,.and only 6 of them recuraed. In digging for inarl a- liccie 
|o the weft ^ MoDzie^ a part 9/ a deer's horn was found, 7 inches in rtrcun. 
fqrence ; and the barrel of a gun, 5 feet long,. 4 inches in circumference at 
the one, and 7 inches in circumference at the other end, 1 ftoncs in weight, 
ft had evidently "been uftd befbrt the inttntton of the Ibdtt, as the Butclii 
^dte is entire and piai% 

The meal milb make Kttj good pot hatkf , without any ^« 
ditional machinery. There is only one yearly market in tic' 
parifl), when every h^ufej huty and (had^a is aonverted into 
A dram-lhop ; it is held in the middle of Auguft. 

Romanik Scenery^ Cajcades^ &c. — ^This parifli is remark- 
able for romantic fcenery^ aotl. chiefly that part of it called 
GlenalwM. Near the Weft end of the fore part of the pa- 
rifli, the river Barvie runs through a deep den, where it 
forms feveraliioiall caicadee. The den is clothed with natu<« 
ral woody and at fome pkces koo feet deep. Near a mile 
North from the place of MonziC) upon t^e river Keltic, there 
is a remarkable den> with various cafcades. I he Mppevraoft 
cafcade, called «S^w/-^/7^» is in breadth at the top 5 feet \ the 
rivcx faUs over a fmo9th floping rock> the hei^t of which is 
po feet, and the breadth at the. bottom 43 feet. The river 
then contra£ts into its fovmer narrow chanAcl* runs through 
the thick wooded den, 150 feet deep. Here ther^ arc fome 
other water falls, 5 feet wide at tpp^ and 10 feet perpencU- 
cular, with bafons cut by lutiure out of the folid rock, one 
of which is i % feet diameter, and 9 feet deep. At the 
rTK)uth of the den, the river feems to have made a path for tt- 
felf in the folid rock, 6 feet in breadth at the top, and 10 feet 
in height; the bafon itfelf is la fec;t diameter* From 
this fall to the front of the rock is 24 feet \ but ^e opening, 
^t of which the river begins again to run, is only about 4 
feet wide. All the way from Monaie manfion-boufe to Spout- 
Bay, along the banks of the river, there is a foot path made 
and repaired by the family \ at the top of which, on the fide of 
the den, and in fufl view of Spout-bay, there is crefled a her- 
mitage, for the reception of the admiring vifitors of this caf- 
cade. About a mile above the village of Monzie there is a- 
noth^r beautiful cafcade^ upon the river Shaggie \ the breadth 


2^4 Statijlical Account 

of the Tivcr at the top is i8 feet, tlic hcfght of the fall 55 
feet, and the breadth at the bottom 43 feet. It falls over 
very rugged roeks. One wouW thmk the path had been 
made by the hand of t^xU Near the bridge of Buchancfy, 
there is a cafcadc to feet broad, and .16 feet high. 

Artificial Mount; Large Trees, g^c. — Oppofitc to the foot 
" of th'e principal entry into the tnanfioh-houfc of Monzie, 
thcfe is an artificial mount, near 70 feet high, in (hape 
* a truncated cone^ tipon which ^ftanJs a a Chinefc temple* 
^This temple is heiagonaf, and almoft entirely open, ex- 
cept the pillars which fupport the roof.* It is 1 4 feet long, 
12 broad, and 14 feet highr The roof terminates in a pointy 
upon which there is a balcony with a bell, about 4 feet high. 
In the garden of Monzic there are 4 larch trees, faid to be 
the finfeft and largcft in Britain* They are not yet 60 years 
old. One of them is 80 'feet high ; its circumference at 
mid-height is 7 feet, and its circumference at the ground 16 
feet; its branches eictcnd all around 30 feet on each fide. 
ITie other two are about the fame height, but the circum- 
fercricc pf the one at the ground is 15 feet, and that of the 
other is only 9 feet j the fourth is 90 feet high, and 8 feet 
In circumference at the ground. They arc" M in perfeft vi- 
gour, fending forth frefh £ho(Jts every year. Befidcs thcfe, 
there are among the planting, and near the houfe, a good 
deal of fpriice, Clvei' fit, balm-of-Gilead fir, &c. 60 and ^q 
feet high, and not hi the lead decaying. 

Mineral Springs Echoy Caves, Whirlwind^ &c. — There is one 
fpring in the parifli whoCe waters were held in great efteem, 
until about 20 years ago, when two trees which grew over it, 
f^Il, and the virtue of the well fell with them. In a parti- 
cular p^rX of Glenalmon^ am^ng the hills, there is an echo 


of Monzte-. 255. 

which repeats. dSftindlly every word. There arc many cavet 
here, but the moft rcmaikable one is at the back of Glcntur^ 
rety which is fufScicnt to hold 60 men under arms. It is (i- 
tuated in a rock, named Eaglis Rochj inacceflSble on all fides^ 
except one narrow path. It is (aid to be the cave into which 
Gara fled, after burning FiNGAt's houfe. Near this cave;. 
there is a high Pihe tree *, which is remarkable, becaufc 
there is not another tree at prefent to be foUnd in alt that 
part. This hill country is much expofed to tempefts, and 
efpccially to tlie whirlwind. It unroofs the houfes, over- 
turns the (lacks, tears up the heath and broom, and even 
fweeps large ftones before it. A moft remarkable thing in 
this wind is, a noife it makes, fo like thunder that (trangers 
cannot but believe it is fo. It makes tliis noife in a certain 
hollow part of the glen furrounded by rocks on all fides* 

Natural Pi/tnomena,^ — ^There is a great curiofity, called 
Tke'Kirk'Gf'the'Woodf not far from the Eagle's Rock. It is 
compofcd of large ftones, divided into feveral apartments, 
with arches and trances, and each ftone refting fo on ano- 
ther, that one would imagine it were the work of art. Near 


* Trudition fays, if any pafon cut a branch from thu tree h^ die», and 
that a itvet ! ! ! 

^ In the year 1756, a nnaUr Jpwt broke in the hills above Mooae ; ic 
took it« courfe down the river Shaggic, and raifcd it 20 feet perpendicular at 
the bridge ; it fwcpt entirely away a bank near Monzic, which cbft 500L 
Sterling, and it cad out upon the fides facb quantities of fiih, that the inha- 
bitants carried them home in balkets ; the river fublidiog fo quickly, that 
they were left behind. In the year '175S, during a heavy rainarf tfattfailb, die 
water coUe^ed on the top of the brae near Monzie, and carried down fuch 
a quantity of the earth into the Shaggie, as left a den aoo feet hm^, above 
100 feet broad, fi'om edge to edge, ahd 70 feet deep. For feveral yean pafi^ 
fome (hocks of an Earth^akt ivere feic here, and in the neighbouriDg pariih4 
their diredion was from £. to W. . • . 

2^6 Stat\fticnl Account : 

^NtW'.tbwn' there is a ftone, on which arc the figtnrcs of peo- 
ple's, feet, with thofc of die hooves of horfcs, cows, and 
Ibeep. ' 

Jbrtiqvkks.'^A^ the Rdinins and ancient Caledonians con« 
tinned tlieir contefls kmg about the:£roni; of die Grampian 
hills, we find a vaft number of cainps, forts, &c. and fini- 
lar relics of antiquity. About 2 miles eaft from tiie church, 
at the country called FinAcif, there is a iarge camp. It is 
fituated oppolite to the only proper paflage through the hills 
found in them, for about 40 miles : it ftaods on a high 
ground, defended by waters on two fides, and a mofs with 
fteep ground on the others. The trenches are ftill entire, 
and in fame places -6 feet deep* It is about iSo paces in 
length, and 80 paces in breadth, and was furrounded by a 
ftrong earthen wall, part of which ftill remains, and is near 
12 feet thick. Thofe who are connoifTeurs in fuch matters, 
fay It could contain 12*000 men. Within the camp there is 
a large plain, called Rathmorcy ue. fortification ^ which, howe- 
ver, fcems to be of a later date. Near this there arc many 
ruins, bunows, cairns of ftones, fome of which have 
been opened, and were found to be graves. Near this camp 
ftands a. village called, in Gaejic, Fianteach, /. ^. Fingal's 
houfej. Within two miles North from this, ftands the 
high hill of Dunm$re. On it there is a ftrong fort, which 
had the complete command of the paffage through the hills. 
This fort inclofes the fummit of the hill \ and is inacceflible 

' on 

4 'ttadmm ^^*t Finoal's houfis ftood here wiW \x wu bamt by G«r^ 
Companog tlw aafnei.of plftces, and the namet of ihe princes m memioiM4 
in. ttftorji it a probsble, tbls ctnii was occopkd abovt the year 300. Tra- 
6\Am fikjay Hagal dtralt for feme time in thit covntry, and we koow both hit . 
father and his Ibo 8f« bmried here. When digging latcl^T ^oMAg the rain^ 
plates of lead, curiow bcad.ft6ne», dogVcollan, Jcc were £ott»dtf 

tffMonxic. V57 

oil ill fldis "but orrc. It is defended by a deep trencJi ^xtff- • 
oiit the t(ralls. It is 30 paces in breadth within tlie ininer 
trail, and 180 paces around t)ie fort. Each ^11 Is lo feet 
thick, and 20 feet diftarit from each other, and from the 
cater wall to the trench is 30 paces. This is fald to havfe 
been Fingal*s habitation, after Gaua btimed his houfe •. 
The wails are built withftcmc but no cement, and fomc of 
the ftones would weigh 300 ftoncs weight. About a miles 
Eaft from Fiantiach, there is another fort, called .£f«^. It 
is twice as large as the one above, exceedingly {^rong, and 
appears to have becTi built by the fame perfons : It is fur- 
rounded with two wqlls. The inner wall is 240 paces round, 
the diftance between the walls is 10 feet, and eajph w;all is 
20 feet thick. On the contiguous muir there are many cairns, 
tttmuliy and burrows,- which are thought to be monuments of 
heroes, but even tradition is filent about them. One, however, 
is called Caim-Comhai J, in memory of Fikgal's father. In 
the fame moor there are alfo a cairns, 50 feet in circumfer- 
ence* On the top of a hill, on the other fide of .the paiTage 
through the hills, and oppofite to Dunmore, is ano^er-c^nia 
where the ftones feem to be a fallen arch \ it was probably 
a fmall fort, and is fo near that of Dunmore, that pe^rjfon^ 
could converie with each oth^r acrofs the glen, Thete is a 
fmall camp on the South fide of the parifli, near to Culto- 
quhey, called in Gz^igy Omial cult^ x. e. C?omhars battle |. 
Vol. XV, Kk We 

• Some bvg^ teeth w6«e ftond ktely, Ukd t pierkf i. r. 4 haatf xnSI, 
whkh W9I made of the hill Hone, and did not bear the mark of any tool. 

t Tku Cairn wai opened lately, and conuined a large flone eoffin, ^ 
ilone covering the lid of the coffin, was 4 feet |o inches long, a| feet broad, 
and 2 feet thick. 

I rradltlon fayft, that CoitHAL fought here, but loft the battle, Some 
1jrn> with aihci were dug up here htel;. In the regiffcr of St Andrew's wc 


^e ^ve ^very reafpn to believe^ that feme great men hayf 
^bcen bufiedin tbis'place, and we are certain, diat the {ac- 
inous Cakdoni^an bard, Ossi^N, lies here. His tomb is wep 
known, and oft^n v^fited. It is a coffin of 4 flones fet o^ 
edge, about 2 feet Jong, 2 feet 4^ep, \i feet broad, and 
over it is laid a great (lone, about 8 feet high, and 2 1 feet in 
circumference.. General Wade's fcrrant difcovered itj^ when 
making the King's high way. 

Chara^er and Manners^ Ssfr. — The people. of this parifh 
may be faid to anfwer iht general charafter of the Scotch ; 
for they are fober^ honeft, humane, indufirious, and lefpeii- 
ful to their fuperiors. The have a reafonable meafure of 
the comforts and conveniences of life, arc contented witfi 
their lot, attend moft regularly upon public worfhip, an4 
behave with a becoming decency in the houfe of God. Not 
one inftance of fuiclde, or o^ any perfon belonging to tliis 
parifh being judicially convlAed of any crime, has occurred 
thcfe 40 years. In general, they drcfs better than formerly. 
They meet together at times, and make merry. Their' chief 
-amufement at public meetings is dancing ; and, upon thefc 
'occafions, there is a pleafing cheerfulnefs and innocence a- ♦ 
mortg them. They are not however ent\rely free of fuper- 
ftition. Lucky and unlucky days znd feet are ftill attended to, 
cfpecially about the end and beginning of the year. No per- 
ibn will be proclaimed for marriage in the end of one year, 
or even quarter of the year, and be married in the beginning 
of the nes^t. The power of an evU eye^ too, is ftill believed, 

although y 

ate told, that Cokstantink the fon of Cullen was killed by Kcnnkth, 
the fon of MxicoLiil T. at Itathmore, in the year 99a. And it it probable' 
l^e is hurried in one of thofe cairns. HoLi.iNsuEO.teIU us, that king Culen 
-VI as killed by Eadua^o at Mcthven caille, almoft in the middle of his way 
to Scone ; and Methven fignifief mid-way in the Gaelic, and it is £tU3ted b^* 
tw'ixt Ratliniorc and Scone, 

ofMonzie. 259 

although the faith of the people in witchcraft is much en- 
feebled. The people have nothing rpmarkable in their fize, 
ftrength, or features. They z\t generally 6f the middle fize, 
and of a dufky complexion. There are fome, however, 6 
ifcet in height. 

Advantages and Dif advantages. ^^Th^ principal difadvan^ 
tage this parifh labours under, is its great diftance from fuel; 
The nearelt coal to Momzte is 20 miles diftaht. The com- 
mon people burn turf, heathy ^eats, wood, (hrubs^ and 
broom. Lail wiater, coals were fold here at 3d.a ftone ; and 
even in fummer, they are ad. the done* Another difadVan- 
tage is the want of lime ; for although it can be got at no 
great diftance, yet the expence of fuel for burning it, renders 
It ufcleFs. Marl is near us, but faid not to be very good ; 
beHdes it is extremely dear, and the farmers wotild all give 
the preference to lime. Great advantages, however, arc ex- 
pe£ted from the improvement and extenfion of the roads. 
In partitular, from that excelleht one nt^w opetied bettvcctt 
Perth and Crieff, and which is intended to be carried for- 
ward to Stirling. There are alfo fomc bthfer roads in con- 
templation. Great honour is due to the public fpirit and 
a£tivity of thofc Gentlemen, in this and the neighbouring 
pariihesj for the attempts they are at prefenit making to dif* 
cover coal in this part of the country. We hope, by perfc- 
verancej thefe attempts will at laft be crowned with fucccfs* 

%\iz NUMBER. 

26o Statijlical Account 



(Presbttert ov Dunfermline, Synod of Fife, County of 

Fife.) , 

By the Rev. Mr Peter Primrose. 

Situation and Extent, 

H^ panQi of. D^lgety is fituated in th^ county of Ftfe» 
and in the pre%tery of DunferiQline. It is bounded by the 
paiUb of Aberdour on the Eaft and North, by Inverkeithing 
on the Wcftt A"d W A ^^ P^vt of the parifii of Dunferm- 
line on the North Weft : On the Souths it is hounded by the 
Frith of Forth, along which it extends in a ftraight line about 
three miles ; bat as the eoaft in this place is interfe£led by 
many bays, its circuitous extent is conCderahly more* It is 
of an irregular form, but approaches neareft to tlie triangu- 
lar, being about four miles^long from South to North, but its 
breadth gradually diminiihes towar^is the Norths and in fome 
places it fcarcely exceeds half-aomile^ 

Sfi/, Surface^ and Produce. — The* fi)il is various. In fome 
places it confifts of a light loam^ and is dry \ but the greater 


ofDalgetx. o&t 

part of the parUh co^fifts of a deep ftrong loan), mixed ^^fi^ 
clay, naturally wet and ftiff, but productive in general of fer- 
tile crops. Tbe ground, in moft places, rifes conri^crably a- 
bove the level of the coaft ; but there ajrc few hilb in thepa- 
ri(b, and thefe are njcitber higb» nor much covered witk 
rocks. The furface in fome places i^ covered with besth^ 
and a few lit^e hiOs with furze : there are aUb fome fipali 
mofles and f^^mpy grounds but the fpace which thefe 
occupy is of fo little extent, that t)Lere« i^ not above a 
fixth part of the pariih which 13 not arable. The principali 
crop^ raifed in the p^rifli are wheat, barley, oati, peafe^ and 
beans. Potatoes too are cultivated in coniiderable quantitje^^ 
and, in fome places, partly ufed for feeding cattle. *Tufnip9. 
are alio raifed for this purpofe, and grow to ^ copfideirable 
fize \ but, on account of the wetnefs of the fuxface» and the 
injury which tlie laxul might fuftain in winter, by being cut 
with horfes and carta when they ^re carried off, they are not 
generally ufed. Tares are fometimes fown, and produi^ a- 
bundant crops : Flax is feldom raifed but fpr private nfe«" A. 
great part of the pariih confiits of grafs grounds, which have 
been laid down in good order, and, when let to graziers, yieU* 
confiderafale rents. From ibme inclofures, a proprietor ha» 
been known to draw al. 55. per a^re ; but the average rent of 
the land in grafs may he from il. 53. to il. los. annually, 
per acre. A confiderablc number of blackrcattle, and about 
9Q0 Ihccp, arc ufually grazed in the pariih. 

Prices tf Grain and Provi/sofu.'-^Thc price of wheat and 
barley is frequently regulated by the. iiars of Mid Lp^hian. 
Some farmers get the. higheft fiars for their grain, and othera\ 
in the Northern part of the pariih, where the land is ufually 
of an inferior quality, fell fomewhat lower. Few oats aire 
ibid in the pariih^ ^nd the price of oat meal is generg% thc; 


26^ Statyiical Account 

fikmc with tliat of the Edinburgh market. Though the nuhi- 
)xv of inhabitants 13 nbt large in proportion to the extent of 
the parifli, yet, on account of the great quantity of land in 
gnfsy befides what is allotted to the produ£Kon of other crops> 
the oats raifed in the parifli are far from being fuf&cient 
t» fupply the confumption of meal. The average price of 
beef, mutton, and Teal, is 4d. the pound, Dutch weight. The 
price of a hen is from isi to ts. 3d; aiid chickens are fold 
from 8d. to lod. the pair. Butter is ufually at pd* the pound 
Tron weight. *Cheefe varies according to its quality ; biit the 
ordinary kind is 3d. the pound. Eggs are fold at 4d. and iti 
the feafon of fcarcity, at 6d. the dozert. During thcfe two 
laft winters^ herrings have been caught in great jjlcnty upon 
this coaft, and the fifliermen ate encouraged td bring ver^ 
confiderable quantities of theiti to St Darid'sj a harbour in 
the parifh^ both for the purpofe of curing, and of fupplying 
the people in the neighbourhood. They proVe a vei7 benefi- 
cial article of food to this part of the country, and are fold 
at an eafy rate, being frequently at 6d. the hundred of fix 
fcore. It is thought by many, that flioals 6i herrings have^ 
for a long time pad, come into this Frith in winter, without 
being generally difcoveted or looked after ; i^hether they 
were in fuch great quantities as they have been thefe two' 
yelirs, it is impoffible to afcertain : but a fiflierman in 
the neighbourhood^ has, for many years, caught fome dur- 
ing the fpring feafon^ in a net little accommodated for the 
purpofe, from the widencfs of its intcrftxces, and which 
he had fpread out near the coaft, where there were ri^ns of 
frcfli water, in order to catch falmon trouts. It is therefore 
much to be wiflied^ that fiftietmen would be diligent in 
fearching the Frith occafionally every winter, to difcoVer if 
there arc any herrings in it, and upon what part of the coaff 
they prmcipaliy lie, that they may lofe no opportunity of be- 

ing employed in a fiOier y at once fo profitable to themfelvesy 
and fo beneficial to the community. Perhaps the ofier of ^ 
{landing premium or bounty to the crews of the firft boatSs 
who (hall, afi^er a particular feafon every year, carry a cey- 
tain quantity caught in the Fritli to the Edinburgh market, 
might prove an ufeful incentive to their diligence in this le^ 
fpeft, ' X 

Number of ProprictorSjf Tenants^ Amount of Rtni^ 55*^-^The|j: 
are three proprietors who pofiefs all the land in the pari(hj 
and have houfes in It, where fome of them ufually, and o- 
thers of th^m occafionally, refide, viz. the Earl of Moray at 
Donibriftle, Sir John Henderfon at Eordel, and Dr Robert 
Moubray at Co<;kairny. The two firft of thefc retain in their 
own hands a 9onriderable part of their eftates in the pariih| 
and they Jiave of late highly improved their grounds, and j^- 
dorned them with thriving plantations. The farm Cockair- 
ny is th^ laTgcft that is let in the parilb \ and there are ele* 
yen others of f mailer ej^tent. The are about 190 inhabit£4 
houfes in the pariQi, of \vhich o^ly i x are feus, U^e rf Q: 
belonging to the proprietors ; ^d by far the greateft number 
to Sir John Henderfon^ for the acconunodation of the peo« 
pie employed in ^^orking his coal. As a gr,eat part of 4he 
land in the pari(h is not at preient let» the real rent cannot 
be afcertaine4 ;.but iU annual value, it is fuppofed, would v 
mount to 2,cool. Streling, or upwards. The valued rent, ^ 
^ated in the cefs*rpll, amounts, according to the old valuat^oni 
to 5394!* Scots» 

Populatiofi.^n 1755 the numbers were rated at 761. By 
an enumeration lately made, there were 869 perfons in th^ 
parilb, of whom there were 


3&( Stat^iU AuouHt 

Between lo and lo X6j 

Above 20 unmarried 1 80 

Married pcrfons 276 

'WrdowcfB or widows 4^ 

Number of fouk in 1755 761 

Increafe ' icS 

'Tliere are no particular inflances of longevity in the parifh 
at prefeiit. A few of the oldeft inhabitants may be about 
80 years of age, and fome have lately died, who were fup- 
pofcd to be upwards of go* In the year 1770, James Spital 
Efq; of Lcuchart died in this parifli, reported by fome to have 
' arrived at the age of f 02 : lie had been in the Scotch Parlia- 
ment; and, for a confiderable tirnc before his death, was 
fuppofcd to be the only furviving member. 

Climate and Diseases, — In the lower part of the parHh^ 
which id upon the coaft, it is confldetably warmef and intld* 
er than in the upper, and the difffeJrente is very perceptible 
wh^n the wind blows from any northern dire&ion ; but duf- 
Iftg the Eafterly vlrind^^ which particularly prcTail in the fpting 
feafon, it is (harp and cold, almoft oir^r the whole parifii. 
The air however is generally dry, and, dtrriilg the continu- 
ance of the £aft wind, is ufusilly mote free frorti fogs or damp 
than the fhore on the oppofite (tde. There ate do dtftafea 
•that can be faid to be peculiar to the inhabitants, or thiit pre-» 
Tail here more than in the neighbouring parlfhcs. I hiivc 
obferved indeed a few more inftances of rheumatifm, and o- 
ther complaints ariGng from cold, among the collieTSj^ than a« 
mong the other parifhioners, but thcfe are to be attributed, 
not fo much to the climate, as to the damp fituaCions in 
which they have fome times to work. An epidemical dif- 


ittaiper^ winch madt ks fit ft ai$peftratice in (he vIlBige of A- 
heriaur in fummeT 1790, and created no fmall alaxctii got in- 
to this ptxltti in the autunin> stnd two tt three people died 
^ it ; but as the weather ttlnied bokleir, it became lefs Altai 
and ii)feCtio«i^> and in the winter it altogether abated. The 
ihiall-pox fom^times makers great ratagei \ and it it to be la- 
mented, that the prejudices againft inocuidnri&n are fo ftrohg 
-among the generality bf peopte in this patt of the eountry^ 
that noperfiiaiion can reitioVe theih i nor tzti the evident in« 
ftanccs of its falutaty efie£is^ often exiubited by the medical 
gentleiiien iii this quarteri reconcile them to the praQiccj e* 
ten when the difeafe is gathering gtound^ and provti^ t cry 
fatal in the natural way. 

Language and Eimohgy of Names.^^-n^ language com- 
monly fpoken in the parifh is the Old Scotch diale£t» and 
thete feetti to be no peculiar words or phrafes which are not 
in general nfe throughout ihoR parts of the kihgdoin. Hie 
words ate pronounced with a broad accent ; atid I have ofteti 
h^ard in this part of the countty a found given to the diph- 
thong 01, whidi is not^ I believe, fo nfual in other places : it 
is freqn^tltly pronounced as if it confifted of the letters on, 
as for hill boil, pount A>r point, vouce for voice, &c. Many 
of the nafti6s of places are derived fibm the fehglifhj atid are 
exprelllve of their particular or relative fituations^ as Hlllanfl, 
SeafieM^ Bahkhead, broomfide, Boghead, Gr0fsgat^» tkc. O- 
Atts are pfdbably derived froth the Ga^lic^ and denote gireat- 
eir iintiqttity in regard to their name8> as Dotiibriftle, Fotdel^ 
Cockaitny, Lethem, &c« 

CharaSer of the Peo^e.^^Tht people are in general fober 
and itiduftrious i ahd, with a few exceptions, regular in at-r 
tending, and paying r^fpeft to th€ public inftitutions of re- 

Vol,. XV. LI lig5oi\r 

966 Staii/lical Account 

Itgion. Though) in regard to the doftrioefr of Chriftiahtty« 
many of them, as in other places, are yet perhaps top foo^ 
.of hearing ipecplatiye propoHtiond) and abilradl reafoning ; 
tbey alfo. lifter^ with attention to difcpurfcs ^yh^ch reprefent 
rellgioa as a. moral fciencei whofe doflrin^s and precepts are. 
all calculated for the improvement of the charaftcr. It is 
pleafing tpobierye that the coIljer^> who compofe a con^der- 
,able part of the inhabitants of the p^^rilh, and who^ in form- 
.^r times, were kfs enlightened ^nd civilized, have, for a lonj* 
while, been making progrefs in religious knowledge ;^nd mo- 
ral improvepient ; and fo attentive a^e they to give education 
to their childjrcn, a duty formerly among this clafs of people; 
too much neglefted, that for many years they hav.e mantain- 
ed a teacher by fubfcription, as they are at a great diftance 
from the parpchial fchqol. 

EccUftaJiical State of the Par'i/h. — ^Ther.e i^ oo church bi|t 
the eftabliflied one in the pariih. The Seccders who refidc 
in it are moflly Burghers, apd attend a meeting houfe in In- 
vcikeithing. The chufcb is an old buildinj:^, very much out 
of repair, and not well adapted, cither in refpeft of cpnilruc- 
lion or fituation, as a place pf worfhip for the pari(h \ the 
iituation is peculiarly inconvenient, being upon the coift, and 
the moft populous part of the parifli almoft at the other c:r- 
tremi^y. The manfe is about a qi^aiter of a <nile Weft from 
the church : it is alfo an old hpufe, but there is a profpeft 
that another one will foon be built. The following is a lift 
of the miiiifteKS of this pari^i, as far back as the Seffion re- 
cords give information- Mr Andrew Donaldfon was fettlgd 
in 1644. Upon the introduftion of Epifcopacy into this 
country, he was obliged to retire, and Mr John Corfar was 
fettled in 1669 ; Mt John Lumfdaine in 1680, and Mr George 
Gray in 1637., After the Revo)ition, Mr Donaldfon, though 

of Dalget^. 267 

"six an ddvanced age, was Called to refume his paftoral chargei 
and continued to officiate as minifter here till the time of bis 
death. It is reported^ that during the time he >vlis laid afide^ 
which might be about twenty years, he lived in a building on 
the Weft end of thpe church, which is now partly ufed as a 
feffion room, fupported by prefents from the pari(hioner8> 
and undifturbed by the abote mencioped Epifcopal clergy- 
men, which does credit to the fteady attachment of the form-, 
er^ and to the liberality and forbearing fpirit of the latter^ iti 
thofe times of intolerance and pcrfecution. Mr Archibald 
Campbell was ibttled iii \6g6\ Mr William Henderfon in 
1717 ; Mr James Bathgate in 173-8 ; Mr John Hoyes in 1778 ; 
and, upon his tranflation to anothef parifli, the prcfeHt.incum-. 
bent was: fettled, in 1787. The ftipend, by a decreet grant- 
ed in the year 1650, confifted of 67 boils, a firlotsi 3 pecks> 
and I lippie of grain, and 37I; 6s. 5^d. Sterling.' By ari 
augmentation lately obtained^ the s ftipend is now raifed to 
115 bolls, 2 firlots, 3 pecks, and f lippie of grain, and 42I. 
68. 5T^d. Sterling. The glebe cdnfifts of about 12 acres. 
Tlic Earl of Moray is patron. There are two fchools in the 
parilh, one eftablifhed and provided with a falary^ the other, 
as formerly obfervedj maintained by fubfcription. With re- 
fpe£t to the parochial fchool, the falary, as in moft other 
places, is too fmall, being fomewhat below 7I. There is in- 
deed a profpeft of its being a little increafed here, from a vo- 
luntary offer lately made ; but there is much need of a ge- 
neral increafc, riot only in humanity, anrfit may be faid jut 
tice^to fuch as arc engaged in the praftice of teaching, but 
for the fake of thofe who are to be benefited by their iriftruc- 
tions. It rhuft be admitted, that die defire of acquiring in-i 
independence and fame Operates chiefly on the minds of men 
in regard to the choice of their purfuits in lifb \ and in the 
hnproved and improving ftate of things in this country^ 


268 Statiflkatl Account 

where fa many patlie lif open to tbefe by feltowing the Ta« 
rious arts, it is eafy to forefee, that) whUe tha piroiifioii «&• 
letted to ftK'h aft ufeful €la& of men a9 fchootmafters, k in 
genera] fo fmall, and inadequate to die purpofes of a decent 
matntainance, few perfons of libei^ education, andpoiei&d 
of that fpirit which a mind enlatged wkh {cnowtedge hat ai 
tendency to inspire, wilt torn their views to a pvofeffioa thai 
may reduce them to (traits, and of courfe fink them iato con^^i 
tempt. The difficulty of ebnihiing proper teacfaevs in cotti|t'< 
ry (chools begins already to be fek ) and it is mMch to be feaiw 
ed thai> learning will foon come to decline, if eocourageinesit 
be not given to fit perfons to difiufe and pvomote its growth* 
Many who at. prefent fubmit ta this lahoiionB taik, eaimol 
earn more than a daily labourer ^ and m^uft iMt thenfingge- 
neratioil and pofteriey fuffer fai an educa|ion oondudtod b]r 
^fc, who may hereaftisr turn dieir thoaghts to fi|ch an un* 
gainful profeffion i Ignorance,, among the balk of the peopk» 
would certainly be attended with the morfl pesnicbus eSt&t^ 
and it is to be hoped that all who are inlcrcfted In the ho-, 
nour and welfaf e of their country, will have difcejoment to 
ferefee, and patriotifm to guard againft, focb an evil before it 
comes to any alarming height: and what can confii;»butc 
more fuccefsfuUy to this beneficial purpofe, ijiaa to encQi|« 
rage the diffuGon of knowledge by competent rewards I 

. &fate of the Pio^r.^^There have been ufuaUy, ojf kte^ to or 
12 perfons upoa the poors rc^, who receive aid from the 
weekly coUc^ions, and from the iotereft of ij^oU arlGng 
from legacies appropriated for their fupport. In the yeai( 
1783, the heritors and feflioa bought 69 bolis of oattn^stU 
part of which was given to families in indigent circuoi&an- 
cesf and the reft fold to othera that were l^i^ n^dyf 9t re* 


d«ec4 prkl^B wW^h cwWrlbwM bW^ to, t|>^ ^\iei (rf ^e 
pwfiih, duwig tb^ fwi:ity vbi^h then pceyail^ 

fiuvc^d^ ?xiqi4< alf^g t^e Forth aho^l; ^hve^ miles} aq4 ^ 
l)9jj^ axi< iq ipaqf plfVC^^ ipl^iqa^ifvillf &ut^ Willi tree^ 
aad 4»^^cd ^it)i fuctir a, v;^iety^ of Bfofpe£iS| both of na? 
ti«r« ^ vt, s^ pwftut flf^aay fpfipfcs tr^^J piQ^rclquc ^I^A 
fi\I^Umet Tl^esc i^ ?lfa a fa>all Iq^K ^ ptter(lQ^» abo«t 3^ 

ijl}r^4 i W it« J^^nl^ft fta»d thv^P gcptknvcn'si Iwft^ t^P 0^ 
^l^g]^ ^1^ itm iaH^u^ I s^(| if U lo furcomi4ed yitk riQni^ 
gTO^zid i^i^ ti(^$,. ^Si ^ fumUli a pleaftng oainiature j(cei:^« 
Tb«fi ar€i fpH? ftmigwUkf in tHfi pariQ), ^pd pqiuff ripng t^jicfi? 
wbich ^^[p^ fngh aa Ui« vama^ of w^iat i^ f^BB^^^^ ^^ ^^y^ 
fytcn a ^;»9>j^i ^ DifKidical (f^pki ^^4 9n<^ P^ ^^ '^^^ 
commonly 9%})^ ;^ ^^^4hg ^f¥% ^1^$ ^ PP copfiftept tj^m 
dition, nor certain account. The houfe of Donibriftle was 
formerly the refidence of the Abbot of St Combe, but it has 
(ince been greatly enlarged and improyed. OppoGte to the 
eaftern extremity of the parilli, and within a mile of the fliore, 
is the ifland of St Combe, the defcription of which, and of 
the monaftery upon it, have been given in the Statidical Ac« 
couut of the pari(h of Abcrdour. The Eail of Dunfermline's 
feat formerly flood at a little diftance from the churcliof Dal- 
gety, but little of it nov/ remains. The church itfelf is a very 
ancient building. The exad period of its ere£lion cannot be 
afcertained \ but there are documents which (how tliat a 
grant of the ground on which it (lands, was made to the 
Abbot of St Combe, as far back as the 14th century, Ad*- 
ditions however have been made to it, which bear ^he marks 
of a later date. 

%'jo Statijlical Account 

Srtfrff.— -There is no particular branch of trade in the pa- 
rifb^ except what arifes from the coal and fait works, carried 
on to a confiderahle extent on the property of Sir John Hen- 
derfon. The various branches of thefe works afibrd main- 
tenance to feveral hundred people of one defcription or o« 
ther. The greateft part of the coal and fait is exported from 
St Davids, a fpacious harbour fituated at the Weftem ex- 
tremity of the parilh in Inverkeithing bay, where veflcls of a- 
ny burthen,- not exceeding 500 or 600 tons, can load in &fety. 
The diftance from the pits to the (hore is near 4 miles, a- 
long which the coals are carried in waggons that contain 48 
cwt. It- is well afcertained, that this coal has been known 
and wrought for upwards of 200 years, and a confiderable 
field of it ftill remains. The furrounding diftitfl:, lying in 
the pariflies of Dunfermline and Aberdour, contdins alfo ma- 
ny feams of coal of an excellent quaUty, fufficient ic is thought^ 
to fupply the ufual demand for centuries to come. . 


efBaldernock, «7i 


(Presbytery of Dunbarton, County of Stirling, St^ 
NOD OF Glasgow and Ayr.) 

By the Rev. Mr. James Cooper, Mini/ten 



N the beginning of the reign of Alexander the II. the 
lands of Cartonbenach were conveyed to Maurice Galbraith 
by charter from Malduin Earl of Lennox- Soon after, in 
the year 1238, we find the fame barony granted by a new 
charter, under the name of Bathernock, to Arthur fon of 
Maurice Galbraith, with power tq feize and condemn male- 
fa£lors, on condition that the convi£ls (hould be hanged on 
the Earl's gallows. From the Galbraiths of Bathernoclci 
chiefs of the name, defcended the Galbraiths of Culcruich, 
Greenock, Killeam, and Balgair, which eftates have all, ex- 
cept the laft, pafTed, by females, long ago into families of o« 
iher names. The family of Bathernock ended alfo in an 
heirefs, and the eftate, about the beginning of the 14th cen- 
tury, paired by marriage to David, fon of Lord Hamilton, 


17^ Si^^h^i Actpunt 

and anceftor of the prefent John Hamilton, Efq; of Bar* 
dowie. From that time, the proprietor of the barony ap- 
pears to have t^ken the title of featdowie ; and the title of 
Bathernock (new written Baldernock,) dropped by the fami- 
)y, was probably revived and perpetuated by bellowing it on 
,the pariih, when it came to be ereftcd. But wheft that 
creftion took place, or when the name Bathernock came to 
be written Baldernock, as at prefent, is uncertain. If a con- 
jefture may be hazarded with refpcfk to the name, we (bould 
rather fuppofe, that Baldernock was not a new name, but 
the original one revived, of which Bathernock was a corrup- 
tion ', and that Baldernock is alfo a corruption of Baldsuin^ 
ich, (/. f. Druidftown) it being highly probable, that this was 
a Druidical place of worfhipi as will appear from a remark- 
able monument of Druidifm to be mentioned afterwards. 

Siluation and Surface, — It it is fituated within the county 
Stirling, in the presbytery of Dunbarton, and fynod of Glaf- 
and Ayr. The furface is various. On the South, where it 
is bounded by the river Kelvin, there are fix or feven hun- 
dred acres of rich flat land. The inundations of this river 
frequently blafted the hopes of the husbandman, by dan*, 
maging, or fweeping away his luxuriant aops. To prevent 
fuch difafters, the proprietors, about 16 or id year^ago, united 
in raiSng a bank upon the brink of the river : hut there are 
icafons ftiil, when it breaks over^ or burfts throttgh its bar- 
riers, to refume for a little its former defolating fway. From 
South to North there is a gradual afcent, pleafaxxtly dtverfi- 
fied by round fwelling hills. The 8at ground, before meiv* 
tioned, is a rich loam ; the rifing grounds towards the Eaft, 
are a clayey foil over tiH \ and thofe towards the Weft, a 
^ light fharp foil over whin rock. On the North fide tfaete 
k fome moorilh ground^ l)ut the greater part of the pari(h va 


i>f Baidetriock. 15^3 

arable. *f oWards the South Weft lyes Bardowk Loch, cov- 
lering about 70 acres. In it are plenty of pike and perch, of 
a good fize and quality. The banks are pleafant, upon which 
Is fituated the houfe of Bardowie, within a few paces of the 

Climate and Difeajts.-^Th& air, on the high groiinds cfpe- 
tially, is ext^remely falubrious, and the inhabitants healthy. 
There are no difeaifes unconimon, or peculiar to the place^ 
nor any, for a long time pail, that could be called epidemi- 
cal, unlefs we (hould rank flow fevers xinder this clafs* They 
make their appearance fometimes in the fpring, but more fre- 
)quently in the autumn, and fptead through whole families^ 
and from family to family. This is obferved lo happen chief- 
ly imong thofc whofe houfes are fmall, dirty^ and not pro- 
perly ventilated. It is to be regretted that the abfurd, and 
not altogether innocent pradiice, of expofing themfelves and 
their families, by unneceiTary vifits t^ thofe who have beeii 
feized with this infeftious difeafe, but too much prevails. 
And it is alfo a fubjctl of juft regret, that the prejudice a- 
gatnil innocttlation of the fmalUpox ftill keeps hold of thfe 
minds of many iri this part of the conntry. The p<Jot child- 
ren aire thereby expofed to the danger of that difeafe in Inrhat 
they call the natural Way *, but the iiinoculation is iequall^ 
well entitled to be called the natural \^ay. The one way 
dif&rs ifrom the other in this only, that, by the innoculationj 
the infeftibn is, by the tender ahd prudent care of the pa- 
tents, communicated in that way which, by long eJcpcriencCi 
has been fbund rtioft fafe and €afy \ whereas, without the ino- 
bulation^ the infeftion is, by carelefs and fuperftitious parents^ 
left to be corhmuriicated from their own cloaths after vifiting 
children Under the diferfe, br by accidental intercourfe of 
ihcir children with perfons who have the infeftioti about their 

Vol. XV. Mm doathti 

274 Statijlical Account 

cloathsi In that way which experience (hows to be mod fevere 
and fatal. 

Population^ &c. — In the month of April 1 794, the number 
of families was 137, of pcrfons 620, of whom there are, 
Under xo yean of tge 136 

Between 10 and 20 Z33 

■ > ao and jo 24s 

■ ■ '■ 50 and 70 98 

■ ' 70 and 85 XI 

Total 6ao 
There are at prefent in this parilh no inftanccs of remarkable 

Bachelors from 20 to 40 4^ 

I' — 40 to 60 7 

■ ■ above 60 % 

Widowers from 20 to 60 o 

— — — Upwards of 60 10 

Yearly average of baptiims iS 

■■■ " ■'■ — Marriages 6 

Occupations r-^ht greater part of the inhabitants of this 
f ariQi devote their time to that moft innocent and mod ufe-* 
ful of fecular employments^ the cultivation of the earth. 
There are 45 farmers, including 12 feuars, who cultivate 
their own grounds ; 36 labourers, 43 male fervants, all la« 
bourersj 38 female fcrvants, almoft all labourers, 10 weavers 
of houfehold cloth, i taylor, 3 (hoe-makers, 3 mafons, 3 car- 
penters, 2 millers, 2 gardeners, 2 fmiths, i engraver, i flax- 
dreffer, 4 miners, and one man who exercifes the feveral oc- 
cupations, of weaver, conftable, phy&cian, furgeon, apothe- 
cary, and man- midwife. 

CharaHer. — ^The people are, In general, remarkable for 
a fober and regular deportment ; an advantage, in a great 


of Baldernock. 275 

fneafure, to be afcribed to their occupation, and to want of 
manufaftures, whofe boaded benefits make but a poor com* 
penfatioh for their baneful influence on the morals of the 

Rent of the Parijb. — ^Thc valuation of the parifli is 1744I. 
Scots. It is not eafy to afcertain the real rent, becaufe a 
fiumber of the proprietors cultivate their own ground ; but 
it is fuppofed that it will not be over-rated at 3000I. Ster- 
ling. Arable land is rented from los. to 2I. per acre : and 
befides their rent to the landlord, the tenants are generally 
bound by dicir tacks to pay all the public burdens upon the 
lands they poiTefs. Moft of their farms are alfo thirled to 
a particular mill, and pay, fome of them fo high as the i6th 
or 1 7th part of all the grain which they have occafion to 
grind ; a difcouragcmenc to induftry now altogether unnc- 
ceflary, and which every landholder, who wi flies to advance 
the value of his property, by encouraging the induftry of his 
tenants, ought if pof&ble to remove, 

M§de of Cultivation. — ^The farms are in general fmall, in- 
clofed and fubdivided j and the prcfent race of farmers are 
fuppofed to furpafs their fathers in (kill and induftry. Clear- 
ing the ground of ftones, draining, levelling the ine<^ua]ities 
of the furface, ftraighcening the ridges, laying on lime, and 
guarding againft the common miftake of overcropping, may 
be cfteemed the chief improvements. The Scotch plough, 
drawn by 3, and fometimes by 4 horfes,is that in moft com- 
mon ufe. Oats and barley are the kinds of grain chiefly cultiva- 
ted. The plough goes little before the beginning of March \ 
^nd the farmers feem not anxious to have the fowing of oats fi- 
fiiftied before the end of April, and the barley before the 20th 
qf May. After liming their ground, they generally take two 

M m 2 cropil 

iJ76. S^tatijlical Accaunt^ 

crops of oat$, and one of barley. With the barky, rye- grafr 
and clover are fown, of whicji hay is made in the enfuing 
fummcr, and fometimes for two fummerfi* They afterwards 
pafture for two or more years, as they judge requifite to, 
give the ground 'a fufficient reft, before the fame rotation 
be repeated. In the flat lands, wheat has been tried with fuc- 
cefs, and has been found to fuffer leis damage tlian other 
crops, by the Qooda, fxom ^hich thefe grounds are, natwith- 
ftanding the embankment, not yet effcftually fccured. Po- 
tatoes are raifed fufScient for home confumpt, and fome to 
fpare for the Glafgow market, where they generally draw 
from 8d. to is. per water peck. From the few trials that 
hav« been made, there is much encouragement for the culti- 
yatiqn of turnip. The Uack cattle are moftly fmall, and the 
farmers not very attentive to improve the breed of their milk 

Roads^ — ^The, multiplicity of roads renders it impoffiblc, by. 
the convernon of the ftatute labour, ta put them all in a pro- 
per ftate of repair. V It- deferves therefore the attention of 
both mafters and tenants, how far the improvement of the 
country, and their own private intereft, might b^ promoted, 
by (hutting up fome of the roads that arc of leaft public uti- 
lity, and by making an extraordinary exertion for a year or 
two, to put the refl; once in good repair, after which the 
road-money would be fufBcient to keep them fo. A good 
turnpike road has lately been made, pafTmg through xht. (kirts 
of this parifli, from the thriving and now populous village of 
]^alfrone to Glafgow. If is thought that, by direfting it 
nearer the centre of this parifh, a faving of a mile and a half • 
at leaft might liave been made in a diftapce of nine miles. 

Price of Labour and Provifi^ns. — A good ploughman re- 
ceives, befides his board, from 5I. to 7L per half year, and a 
• ' ' ' fervant 

of BaUernoch^ ^77 

{«na&f woman from 35 to 50 (hillings* The cooimon wagqs 
of a l^^boi^rer are 1 4d« per day ; and when they work at piece 
work, they generally earn from is. 6d. to as* per day. They 
axe better cloathed and lodged, and in every reipe^i live move 
comfortably than thofe of the fame rank, half a century ago. 
P14 people remember that, in their early years, there was 
not a cow killed for beef by any one in the pari(hi excepting 
in gentlemen's families, and by one or two more \ but now 
there are few families that cannot attain to half a qow at 
lead. The price of all kinds of provifions is nearly the fame 
widi that of the Gla%ow markets. 

Ecclefiaftkal State.T-Tlxttt vet no families belonging to, 
the Eftabliflied church, 1 1 to the Relief, 10 to the Burghers, 
% to the Antiburghers, 3 to the CameronianS| and 1 to the 

The prcfent incumbent was admitted in 1783. His pre^ 
deceflbrs, fince the Revolution 1688, were Meflrs Wallace, 
Colquhoun, Garrick, and Taylor. The King is patron of 
the parifh. The living confifts of 63 bolls of oat-meal, 33!. 
in money, a manfe, and a glebe of 10 acres, whereof 7 are 
arable. I he church has been built at different times. The 
laft enlargement was probably made before the beginning of 
this century, with a view to accomodate the inhabitants of 
the lands annexed by decreet 164^. The manfe was built 
about 50 years ago^ and has undergone feveral repairs. 

State of the Poor.— The average number of poor in this parifh 
is about fix. They are fupported, according to their exlgenciest 
in their own houfcs, from the weekly coUeftions at the church 
door, and from the intereft of a capital of 420!. which has 
accumulated by the donations of charitable perfons, and from 
^he furplus of the weekly coUeftions. None of the poor of 
* . tius 

aj^ Statiftical Account 

tliis parifli are difpofed to beg, eidier in this or neighbouring 
parifhes ; but much is given away bj the inhabitants in alms 
to beggars which fwarm from other places, efpecially from 
manufa£kuring towns and villages. 

Minerals and Fuel. — ^This parifli abounds in coal and Rme- 
ftonc. The coal refembles that of Newcaftlc, caking toge- 
ther, and making a ftrong fire, when properly put on, and al- 
lowed to reft three or four hours before it be ftirred. It is 
generally found in a ftratum of from 3 to 4I feet thick, be- 
tween two ftrata of Hme-ftones. The upper ftratum of lime- 
ftone is called the blue Hme^ and the lower the nvhite lime, 
which laft has generally been efteemed of an inferior quality 
to the blue. Thefe ufeful minerals, in places where there ia 
no great thicknefs of ftrata above them, are come at by re- 
moving the fuperincumbent foil : but wherp they lie deep, 
the coal is wrought firft by miners, and afterwards the up- 
per or blue lime is feparated from the roof by wedges or 
gunpowder. Tlie^oals are fold at the pit for 3d, per hutch, 
five of which may be drawn in a cart, by an ordinary horfe, 
and fix by an able bodied horfe. The only coal in the pa- 
rifli wrought for fuel, is the property of Robert Dunmore, 
Efq; of Ballindalloch, whofe excrtiotis for the improvement 
of his own cftate, and of the country in general, cannot be 
mentioned with too much praifc. He works the lime alfo to 
a very confiderable extent. Befides his, there are three other 
limeworks.gbing in the parifli, but upon a (mailer fcale •, and 
there is llmc^ftone, more or lefs, through almoft all the high 
grounds. In it are found petrified ftiells of a variety of kinds, 
ftimuliting the cpnjeclurcs of naturalifts concerning the re- 
volutions of this globe. There is abundance of freeftonc of 
a good quality for building, and a little iron-ftone ; but, at 
the phce where it hath been obferved, the ftratum is fo thin 


(fBaldernoek. 279 

1^6 not to be worth working. A fmall rivulet in the Bad end 
of the parilh makes a very plentiful depofition of ochre^ 
whichj if proper means were ufed to collect it, might turn to 
fome account. Peats can eafily .be procured for fuel^ but 
few of them are ufed, the coals being found lefs coftly* 
A confiderable quantity of them was formerly required by 
the farmers for kiln-drying their vi£lual j but by the introduc* 
tion of kilns with brick beadS) they have become lefs necefla- 
ry« coals anfwering the purpofe equally well. 

Antiquitifs, — ^Upon the high ground, in a commanding 
lituation, at the North" Weft comer of the parifli, ftands an 
old ruinous tower, being all that now remains of the manfion 
houfe of the Galbraiths of Bathernock, which appears to 
have been a large building furrounded with a ditch. Its an« 
tiquity muft be very confiderable, but how great, even tra- 
dition does not venture to determine. Not far from thence* 
to the eaftward, are feveral of thofe large loofe heaps of ftones 
called Cah'ns, fome of them oblong, and others of a circular 
ihape. One of the circular ones, which has not yet been 
broken up, is about 80 yards in circumference. From two 
that have been broken up, it appears that they are compofed 
of loofe flones carelefsly thrown together ; but at the bottom 
are large flags placed on edge, in two parallel rows, at the 
diftance of between 3 or 4 feet, lidded over with flags laid 
acrofs, the cavity thus formed is divided by partitions into 
cells of 6 or 7 feet long. In one of the long cairns lately 
broken up, were found feveral fragments of a large coarfelj 
fabricated urn, and fome pieces of human bones. Tradition 
fays, that in this place, called Craigmadden moor, a battle 
was fought with the Danes, in which one of their princes was 
flain. The farm in which thefe cairns are, is named Bloch- 
airni which may be a corruption of Balcairn^ x. e. the town 


aSb Statijlical Account 

oi the cairns. But the moft curious remain of antiquity in 
this parifh, is a (IruAure called the Auld wtffs lift. It is fituat- 
ci near a mile Nortli from the church, on very high ground^ 
in a little flat of about i oo pa6e» diameter, furrounded by an af- 
cq^t of a few yards in height, in the form of an amphitheatre. 
It confifts of three ftones only, two of which, of a prifmatic 
fliape, are laid along clofc by each other upon tlie earth % 
and the third, which was once probably a regular paralello- 
piped, and ftill, notwlthftanding the depredations of time, 
approaches that figure, is laid above the other two. The 
uppcrmoft ftone is \% feet long, 1 1 broad, and 6 deep, plac- 
ed nearly horiiontally with a fmall dip to the North. Its 
two fupporters are about the fame fize. It can hardly be 
matter of doubt, that this is one of thofe rude ftru£lures 
ere£ted by the Druids in their facred groves. Its fituatlon, 
in a very fcqueftered fpot, on an eminence, furrounied by a 
grove of oaks, ftumps of which trees are ftill vifibic, correfponds 
exactly to every defcription we have of thcfe places of wor- 
ihip. The figure of the ftones themfelves, and their poiltion^ 
bear a ftrong refcmblancc to others which antiquarians havd 
not hcfitatcd to pronounce monuments of Druidifm. Thd 
tiame by which they at-e called feems no fmall confirmation 
of the truth of thii opinion; A Driiidical ftohe in Ireland^ 
mentioned by Canibden, is called the l^ed ftone ; and theni 
arc fofiie in PoitietS in France, known by the rianie of Pier- 
tcs levccsi But bcCdcs that the ftones under cbnfideratiorl 
have the name of lift, which appears to be the general ap^ 
pellation of fiich IJtuidical ftones, the fpecific part of theit 
name, viz. Auld wives, is eafily accounted for, on the fame 
fuppofition. Upon the authority of Tacitus and Meia, we 
know that female Druids, generally pretty far advanced id 
yeat^i lived together in fifterhoods, in fcqueftered fpots, de- 
Voting their time to the offices of the DruFdical worfhip; 


o/BaJdernocL 28 i 

Thcfc were by the people held in high efteem, and called Sen^^ 
or venerable women^ words nearly fynonymous to the Scots 
word Auld wives. Hence we are induced to conclude, that this 
is one of thofe lifted ftones^ Pierres levees } and that it is called 
the Auldwive's lift, becaufe it was the lifted (lone where 
the Senx, or fifterhood of venerable female Druids redding 
here, paid their devotions* Upon the fuppoCtiohi alfo, thai 
this was a feat of the Druid worfhip, vi^e have fuggefted td' 
us a very probable etymology of the name of the pariih. Bal^ ' 
in the Gaelic language fignifies town^ and Uruinich, of or 
belonging to the Druids. The prefent name, Baldcmock, is 
not a greater conuptioii of Baldruinich, u e, Druidftown^ 
than might be expected in the lapfe of eighteen hundred ' 


282 Stati/lkal Account 



District of Bdch/im^ CobKTt of Aberdeen, Presbttb- 
RT OP Debr, and Synod of Aberdeen. 

By the Rev. Mr. William Ckxio^ Minijier. 

Situation and Extent. 

HE parifli of Longjide is fitaated in that diftri£t of A- 
berdecif^fiiire called Buchan* It is an irregular fquare, of a- 
bout 5 Englifli miles, and is boundedj^on the North, by the 
parifhes of Old Deer and Lonmay ; on the Eaft, by thofe of 
St: Fergus atld Peterhead ; pn the South by Cruden ; and 
on the Weft by Old Deer. It is, like Buchan in general, 
very level ; there being no hill of any confequence in the pa- 
ri(h. As a proof of this, it may be mentiohed, that the 
Ugie, which divides it in thefMire£lion of W. and E. fre- 
qnently overflows the adjoining ground to a very confider- 
able extent, from almoft one fide of the parifli to the other \ 
and, in the hands of our neighbours in the Netherlands, 
^ would be embanlied like the Maefe or the Rhine. This has 


(f Longjide. 283 

fuggefted the idea of a canal along its banks, from its mouth 
near Peterhead, to the village of Old Deer ; a diftance of a* 
bout I o miles. The plan might be executed at a very incon- 
fiderable cxpence ; and would contribute much to the im- 
provement of a v^ry valuable di(lri£t. It is, in general, a 
light foil, eafily improved, and lying at the diftance of only 
from 4 to 9 miles from Peterhead, enjoys almoft every ad- 
vantage for the exportation of its produce, and the importa- 
tion of lime, coals, and other neccflary articles. 

The prefcnt ftate of the parifii, as welKas its fufccptibility 
of farther improvement, may be inferred from the following 

Population. — It contains, according to a very accurate lift, 
taken by. the writer of the prefent article, in the end of the 
year 17^0 and beginning of 1791, 1792 inhabitants*. 

Of thefe 817 are males, and 975 are femaie^f 
Under xo yean of age there are 270 
From JO to ao 334 

From flo to 50 743 

From 50 to 76 323 

From 70 to zoo ^ i^% 

They are divided into 473 families j which is not quite 4 to 
a family. Of thefe families, about 100 arc employed mfarn^ 
tng ; 60, as weaver J ; 100 as ffinners offloiCy and wool^com- 
hrs, &c. from 40 to 50, as day-labourers. Nearly 40 aie 
poor families, occafionally (Applied from the public funds of 
O o 2 the 

* By Dr Webfler't Report in 1755, 1 ^^ that the number of inbabitanU 
was 1979, or nearly aoo more than the above. As do fatisfa^ory reaioQ 
can be aflipied for this dimioutioD, from the hiftory of the pariih, I am in- 
0iiie4 to chink that the account fent to the PoAor mvft have been inaccvraft* 

^84 Sta^Hcal Accoujit 

the pariih« The remamder are mafons^ taylors, &c. ^& 
Almofl; all have a few acres of ground, which they cultivate^ 
at the lame time that they purfue their other occupations. 
From this circumftance, it may be inferred, that the different 
t>ranches of labour above enumerated are Aill io an unim- 
proved ftatc. Some approaches, however, towards a regular 
divifion and (implification of labour have been made of late ; 
particularly at Nether Kinmundy : which will be mentioned 

From an infpe£tion of the regifler of births, marriages, and 
deaths, for 6 years, from the year > 7S5, it appears that the 
average bf baptifms, durii^g that period, is 29 ; that the male 
births are to the female as 4 to 3 ; that the average of pa^^ 
fifiiioners married in the above period, is only 2 1 \ that the 
average of burials is 20 } that the whole number of inter- 
ments, including perfons brought from neighbouring parifbes^ 
is 2o8- ; whofe ages amount to 9444 years ; and that of con* 
fequence the average of an age is fomewhat more than 45. 

jlgricultunr^'When I fay that 100 Cimilics arid upwards 
are employed in farming, or that tlhere are ico farms in the 
pariQi, it will readily be inferred that many of thefe farms 
mull be fmall : And when this is the cafe, it is impofliblc 
that lands can be improved to any confiderablc extent. Many 
of them are what are called crofts ; which do not admit of 
the tenants having a plough. Two, or three, and fometimes 
four, arie obliged to join for thife purpofe : which is, in other 
words, faying, that the work is ill-performed, and at a great 
cxpence of time and labour. No fimplification of the differ- 
ent branches of agriculture can be accomplilhed in a very 
ittiall fcale: And yet, when this is not done,— when one 
man mult do 8 or 10 different forts of ^ork, little knowledge 
^'" ' •— ^ or 

of Longjidf^ ^85 

gr dexterity can be expefled on his part, atid little profit qx\ 
the part pf the employer. The number of acres in the pa- 
riffi amount to about i2)OCO, (rented for little more than 
2000I. Sterling) of which above 7000 are at prefent in a 
{tate of cultivation \ 1800 are mofs, (a confiderable part of 
it very deep) only 257 are planted ; and the remainder is 
uncultivated. Though there is but a fmall proportion which 
is not fufccptible pf cultivation, yet, owing to the impro^ 
per modes of agriculture adopted, perhaps 3000 bolls of oatr 
meal and bear are all that are exported annually ; ar^d the 
whole produce rot much above 7000 bolls. Svppofing the 
attention of farmers and proprieters confined to the 7000 
acres above-mentioned, and no more than 3500 to be under 
a grain crop \ from 15,000 to 20,000 bolls, at lead, might 
be reafpnably expefted under, a judicious plan of manage* 
ment. A perfon interefted in the welfare of the country 
inuft be hurt, when he remarks the ftatc of our com farm- 
ing ; fields ploughed, from which fcarcely twice the feed can 
be expe£led, and fpecies of grain fomethnes growings which 
require two bolls to produce one of meal. Nor will he be 
Icfs hurt, when he remarks the neceflary confequences of 
this management with regard to hay and pailure ; extenfive 
ranges of country, where thefe ought to be found in great 
abundance, yielding a fcanty fubfiftence to a few {Keep. 

The parifh is divided among fix heritors. Nearly the half 
belongs to one of thcm-f. And by granting no leafes for 
many years paft, he has at prefent much in his power, with 
regard to new- modelling his farms, and puting them upon a 
proper footing. With this view, he has paid particular at- 
tention to the different modes of farming, both in England 
and in the South of Scotland. But to introduce fo complete 
a change as either of thefe modes, all at once, (if at all prac- 

' ticable) 

j Mr Fe&ouson of Pitfour, Member of Parliament for the Coontf. 

286 Statijlical Account 

ticable) is attended with great difficulties : and gradual rc^^ 
formation is perhaps here, as well as in mod other depart- 
ments of human labour, the preferable plan. 

From the obfervatlons already made, it is evident that wc 
Hand much in need of improvement. If the fmall farms 
could be united, and many of the prefent poflcflbrs of them 
converted into day-labourers, under tenants who could afford 
them conftant employment j and if a few tenants from the 
Southern counties, of fubftancc and knowledge, were encou- 
raged to fettle, as patterns to our native tenants ; both claf- 
fes would be benefited, and live infinitely better than thefe 
do at prefent. Proprietors ought at leaft to have this in 
view, if they w;(h to fee their eftates improved, or the ten- 
ants on them comfortable. It admits of proof, notwithftand- 
ing the complaints which we frequently hear of the difficuU 
ty of finding fervants, and of the unjuft preference which 
is given to manufa£lures, that there are inh<ibitants fuiHcient 
in tlic country for ^he purpofes of its improvement, if a cer- 
tain indolence and want of fpring (which is one of the cfia- 
rafteriftic features in the lower ranks in this part of the 
kingdom) could, by proper motives and encouragements, be 
removed : And this depends on landlords, and on the choice 
which they make of tenants. 

Befides the 3000 bolls of grain already mentioned, about 
300 black cattle are exported annually ; and butter, cheefe^ 
and eggs, to the amount of about loool. Sterling.^ The prices 
of the lail mentioned articles are from 6d. to 8d. for 20 
ounces of butter ; from 3s. to 43. for the (lone of cheefe % 
and from 2d. to 6d. for the dozen of eggs. 

MantiJaBures, — ^This branch of induftry has made very 
confiderable progrefs in the parifli within thefe few years* 
gefides the fpinning of flax to a very confiderable amount for 

af Longjide. it'J 

the thr^ad*manufa£lures in Peterhead, a manufafiure of 
Woollen cloth at Neiher-Kinmundj (the property of Francis 
Garden of Troup, Efq;) has, of late, become very confider* 
able for an infant manufacture. It is conduded by Mejprs 
Thomas (^ Robert Kilgour^ and dcferves to be particularly 

About 40 families are employed by them conftantly ; to 
Mrhom they give houfes and gardens. But far the greater 
number whom they employ, are fcattered in this and the 
neighbouring parifties, and work for the company only occa- 
Gonally. The articles manufactured here are narrow cloths, 
from 28. 3d. to 5s. per yard \ and jemmys from is. id. to i^. 
6d. per yard. They are ufcd moftly at home. For the 
higher priced fort of narrow cloths, the demand is daily in- 
creafing. Men, thus employed, earn from 4s. to 10s. a- week; 
and women from is. 6d. to 3d. 'And in this manner about 
2000I. Sterling is diiburfed annually. It is with pleafure 
the writer of the prefent article adds, from his own obferva* 
tion, as well as from the exprefs teftimony of their employ- 
ers, that both men and women are peaceable, fober, and at- 
tentive. As a proof of this, it dcferves to be mentioned, 
that during the fpace of 1 5 years, not a Gngle perfon has 
been difmiffed. Living in a healthy county, and not crowd- 
ed together, as in towns ; and having, moreover, all gardens 
for the employment of their fpare hours, they, in general, en- 
joy good health, and have numerous families. Of late, the 
labour of carding, teafing, &c. has been much facilitated by 
the introduftion of machinery moved by water. The raw 
materials are brought from the N. of England, and not un- 
frequently from the London market. 

Religious SeBs and Principles. — Public inftitutions, whe- 
ther religious or civil, are fertile fources of moral principles. 


iti Staii/iical Account 

lit tj^is parifh, neither our civil, nor our ecclefiaftical efta-* 
bHfhments have been without their efied. The inhabitants 
are peaceable and good fabje£t8 ; and the fpirit of our reli- 
gioni if, in general, underftood and felt to be, what it ever 
ought to be, a fupport to found morality. An oppofition be- 
tween fpeculatioR and pra£lical religion, is a common error 
among the more unenlightened ranks of every country. Its in- 
fluence is in fome degree felt here. But a more rational fpi«> 
rit feems to be gaining ground. With regard to forms^ and 
opinions of fecondary importance, the parifli has been long 
divided \ and where this happens, fome degree of illiberali- 
ty is to be looked for. In the year 1790, the writer of this 
article found 908 belonging to the Eftabliihed Church -, 723 
belonging to the Epifcopal Church of Scotland, and 85 to 
the Church of England \ 63 were Seceders \ 6 were Roman 
Catholics \ and the remainiug 7 were either infane, or be- 
longjpd to no religious community. But, in general, all 
thefe fedts maintain a peaceable and friendly intercourfe with 
one another. It might gratify curlofity, and illuilrate fome 
of the leading principles in human nature, to trace the ope- 
ration of thofe caufes which have concurred to produce fo 
great a number of Epifcopals in this and in fon>e of the 
neighbouring pariihes. But fuch an equiry would fwell this 
part of the Statiftical Account too much. It may be ob- 
ferved, in general, that, as the lower ranks are incapable of 
forming .i;eligious .creeds^ which can ftand the teft, evpn of 
t^iueir own rQfieAions,<for any length of time, we mud look 
fpr the c^h(€^ of a long eftabliihed attachment, to opiniona 
and fprm% In the influence of authority, intjcrcft, and habit. 
If oppo(lcionr.2ip4 pci^fccution unhappily lend their aid to that 
influencc,jj^ip5<ytiaUty,i8 gei%r/dly baajfticdiand the cfl^ft bc- 
compf.^cxud^ft©ijg^;: , 

oJLongfide* 180 

Posi\ — The fund for the fupport of the poor^ arlfcs from 
the vftfiVS^ colledions, and the intered of a fmall fum, be- 
gun by charitable donations, and encreafed by an ceconomt* 
cal managemont, particularly during years when the necet 
faries of life were eafily acquired ; about 20 L Sterling is 
diftribut^ annually among about 30 families, but is» by no 
means, found fuf&cient to aflifl; induftry in procuring a com« 
fortable fubfiftence . — With no other view ought money to be 
given ; and with this, a very fmall fum will do more fervice 
than ten times its ^aluc^ when it is depended on as d fubfli- 
tute for induftry. Of the 20 1. above mentioned, 5 1. Ster- 
ling is given annually by one of the heritors* ; and the dif- 
tribution of it is confined to the poor on his own eftates.: 
— A praAice which defcrvcs to be imitated -, particularly in 
a parifli where, in the prefent cafe, there is not a (izigle re- 
ildent heritor (o attend to the wants of the poor in extraor* 
dinary cafes. N. B. The members of the epifcopal congre*". 
ga^mi fupport their own poon 

Man/f, Stipeudy ^hool, &V. — The parilh of Ix)ngfide wa4. 
ere<£led in the year. 1620, from the pariflies of Peterhead 
and Crimond ( M'ith which laft mentioned parifli there 
ieems to have been formerly a communication in the N. £• 
<forner, where now the pariflies of St Fergus and Lonmay 
meet each other. The original ftipend was 1 20 L Scots^ 
and 400 merks of vicarage t<:inds, which are fliU , drawn by 
the minifter, but do not produee above a6o rotrks^ In 1668^ 
ix was augmcnteii with 4 chalders df grainy andy is 179U 
with 3 chalders morci and 66 Scota for communion elcmentst 
At the time of the laft mentioned angmentatioti, an appli- 
cation Was ri)ade to have the vie0rage Uindt converted, on ac- 
count of the deficiency aboTe mentioned^ and ihe ^agrecabl^ 

Vol. XV P p ctrcomftancer 

* Mr Fcf^tifon aWve aBnde4 ML- 

2^0 * Statijlival Account 

cumftances attending their collection (circumftanccs fre- 
quently incompatible with the afeftilncfs of a clergyman^) 
but failed. 

The family of Rlarlfchall, which had formerly very confi- 
derable property in the pnrifh, were the original patrons 5 pro- 
bably in confequence of the canonical rule ; Patronumfd'- 
ciunty dofj csd'tjicathy fundus. The right of pre fen ling is nbw 
annexed to the Crown. The prefent incumbent has no 
manfe, but receives in lieu of it an annuity from the heritors. 
The original church ftill remains ; bat hag been repaired at 
different times. 

Under this head, the fituatio'n of the fchool ought to be 
mentioned ; as being (the writer of the prefent article would 
gladly hope) Angular. The falary is only nine hells ^ meal ; 
which the fchoolnlader has to colleft from the tenants in 
very fmall quantities, and of confequcnce at a great lofs. The 
emoluments arifmg from teaching, owing to the Yery low 
price of education, (for the fchoolmafter is acknowledged to 
be well qualified for his office) are^ at an average of eight 
years, 4 !. 6s. 7d. a yean Perquifites ari(ing from his offices^ 
as precenter and clerk to the feflion, do .not exceed 4 1. Ster- 
ling. Of c<JnfcquciKe, his whole liring does not amount to 
more than i a 1, Sterling annually ; a fum not equal to the 
wages of an ordinary fafm-fervant. When it is , confidered 
of how muck confequence it is to focicty (particularly, at a 
period when the principles of the lower ranks are of infini- 
tely more confequcnce to its welfare than ever they were be- 
fore,) to Iwavc perfons properly qualified for-the education of 
youth appointed in the different pariflie^, the circumftanccs 
above mentidded feem to demand attention from hcritorg, 
and others whom the law authbrifes to provide for the pnv 
per maintenance of fchoolmaftcrs. 

£>fLmgfide. $91 

Planting. — ^The want of woods and (helter in this corner of 
Abcrdeenfhirc, is one of the circumftanccs which ftcins to 
operate moft powerfully to its difadvantage^ in -the- opinion 
of our fouthern neighbours. Such extendve trails of count- 
ry as thofc of Crudcn, Longfide, Peterhead, &c, without 
either trees or hedges to diverfify the hndfcape, are, to be 
fure, not very gratifying to the eye. And this famenefs is the 
more to be regretted, that the fields are far from conveying 
the idea of barrcnnefs, and thjt nature by no means intended 
them to be thus naked and unprote£ied. It is very evident 
that Buchan was, fome centuries ago, remarkably well wood- 
ed. Its extenfive moffes contain the remains of very mag- 
nificent trees. No good rcjifon, therefore, can be affigned 

• fqr the fame fjrts of wood not thriving in it again, if judiciouf- 
ly managed. But few attempts (comparatively fpeaking) 
have been made to renew its woods j and thofc which have 
been made, have in general been confined to the hiHy and 
moft banen parts of the country \ where the plants have. not 
only had no fbelter, but little foil to bring them forward. It 
deferves attention, that in the moffes, where fo many trunks 
of large trees are every year dug up, none of the Scotch firs 
are ever found. Yet thij is the tree which Kas generally 

^been planted. It commonly rifes to a fufficient height to af- 
ford fhelter to other plants j and this feems to be all that 
ought to be expe£led. There are fcveral inftances in the pa- 
rifh, of the afli, the plane, the birch, laburnum, larch, fpruce, 
and even the oaks thriving well, if we make allowance for 
the difadvantagcs under which they, labour, with regard to 
fliclter. The only plantation of any confequencc in the pa- 
rifli, is one of about 250 aj^res ; to which the above pbferva- 
tions arc very applicable. When the interftices between the 
Scotch firs (hall be filled up with other trees more fuited to 

P p a the 

^i Statifiit'di 'Account 

the <lt4artf<it foils, and fdrtic ot&t wet places cliained, (^^hioK 
is the intenrlon of the proprietor,) fome hopes may be cn^ 
tcftoed* of his fiiccefs m wiping oflFthc reproach of naked-* 
nefe from thft part of the parift. 

Leafcs and Rents, -^l havQ already mentioned, that ^ conr 
fiderable part of the pari(h is held without leafcs. The ten- 
fints, whq haye a^j, generally haye life-rent ones \ and fcarce- 
ly any h^vc more tha^ i p years. When this circumftance 
i& coolidercdy ^nd .^t the fame tim? the fmallnefs of the farms, 
the backward, {(ate of improvement ^vill be eafily accounted 
for. The rept^ arc generally paid in meal and pioney •, be- 
de^ which, there ftijl irem-riin fome reHques of the ancient 
feudal fer\'itudes, upder die name of cuftoms *, fuch as the 
payment of peats, poultry, a certain number of da^-IaboaJrv 
crs, &<;• 

Afg/f.-r-From the great extent of mof^, it will readily b^ 
inferred (hat fuel is to be had iti great abundance. In gCn 
neral it is fo. But wtien it is confider^d, hbw mudh of th^ 
beft feafon of the year is fpent in preparing it, how difliciik 
it is to be obtained in rainy feafons, an^ how ill provided 
particulaT eftates are with this neccfliry article ; the wife po- 
licy of repealing the late high duties on coals will 'appear 

Natural jH^fl^ry.— Under the head of natural hiftory, may 
)>e mentioned various forts of granite, with which the pariOi 
abounds* A very beautiful fpecies of a dark blue colour is 
found in the N. E. corner of it, which appears to great ad- 
.Y?mtag,e in a ver^ elegant houfe building by one of the ii^ri- 

of LoHgfide. 293 

tors'* at Csumefs; in the parlfh of I^ionmay. Another fpecie^ 
of a lighter colour^ but alfo very beautiful^ is found at Cairn- 
gaU ; frequent fpecimens of which ate to be feen in London 
and other parts of England. Of both fpecies very large 
pieces are frequently cut out, fit for pillars of 12 and i c,and 
fometimes 10 feet high. Their hardnefs, however, renders 
them unfit for^y, except the plainer orders of archite£lure« 

i)ifeafes.—hho}}X 3 years ago, the putrid fotc throit cut 
off a good many (principally young perfons) ; in fome in^ 
fiances 4 ouf of a family. Gravelifh coniplaints are alfo fre- 
quent, which perhaps may, in fome meafure, be 'i^tributcd 
to the great quantities of beer ufed, and to the little paiiis 
taken ip preparing it. Rheumatifms, tod, are common, 
frequent fogs in the fummer, arifing from the iow wet 
grounds and mofTes in the parifh, dnd fudden changes of 
weather, occalioned by our peninfular (ituation between the 
German Ocean, on the one hand, and the Murray Frith, on 
the other, fccm to point out their caufcs. But notwithfland- 
ing thcfe niementoi of frailty, the climate, on the whol^ 
inay b^ termed healthy. And though no very extraordina- 
ry inflances of longevity can be mentioned, few parifhes can 
produce a jgreatei^ number pf perfons above th^ age of foui^ 

i^dr)^.*— This article would be almoft entirely confined to 
tlic hiftory of private families, and of the changes which land* 
ed property has undergone in the parifh (circumflances too 
minute and uninterefling, to merit a place in a Statiflical Ac- 
count of a country) did not one part of it give fome indica- 
dons of its having been the fcene oi^bFtc and naituml conuft. 

' This 

f ClvrksO«rdo«iofBml4aw,Efq; 

294 ' Statyiical Mcount 

This 1$ the^part of the parifli where it join? Crudcn. Qn the 
declivity of a hill, which feparates the two pari fhes, there 
are ftill vifible a great number of tumuli, or fmall cairns, in 
which are found fquare apartments, formed by rough ftones, 
of from J 8 iiit^lics to 2 feet, and containing afhes or red 
earth. At a fmall diftance from thefe, and nearly on the 
Ijighelt part of the hill^ is a cairn of a much larger fize, of 
an elliptical form, and meafuring in circumference about 
400 feet at its bafe. Ij: is well known by the jiame of Cairn 
Catto ; and fome traditionary legends conned its hiftory with 
fimilar cairns in the paiifti of Crudcn, sind in fome of the 
neighbouring p^rifhes, along the Murray Frith, as well as 
with the idea of a foreign invafion. At the bottom of the 
hill are foxne Q>ruigs, known by the name of the Kempy or 
Camp-wells ,• and a little farther to the Weft, on the oppo- 
fite rifing ground^ is a fields which dill bears the name of 
XYi^ BatiU'Jauld. 

Language. — ^The Buchan dialeft has been long famous for 
the want of that neatnefs of articulation, and of that elegance 
of found and accent, by which the Southern and more culti- 
vated nations have charaiE^rifed their refpediive languages« 
In proportion as language becomes more refined, the uncouth 
guttural is cither entirely excluded, or very much foftened. 
In the'Englifli and French, and indeed in all the Southern 
languages, it is not to be found. In German, Dutch, and 
Scotch, and the other northern diale£b of Europe^ it is con- 
ftantly recurring, and (eems to point out their common ori- 
gin, independent of etymology. But where any attention has 
been paid to the cultivation of thefe dialefls, the guttural 
and harfli founds of the g and ch, have been almoft entirely 
dene away, and either foftened into the refemblance of y, or 
hardened into that of i. Any perfon will be fenfible of this, 


of Long fide. 295 

who has heard the pronounciation of Dutch from the month 
of a well educated Dutchman ; and ftill more, if he has at^ 
tended the theatre at Drcfden or Leipfic. In this corner we 
retain all the Wo^dnefs of artidilation, and, I am forry to 
add, all the vulgarity of idiom, metaphor, and accent, which 
is to be met with in any part of the world. And it is pro- 
bable that we (hall retain thcfe peculiarities of language 
longer than moft places equally diftant from the capita! \ be- 
caufe, except the refort of ftrangers to Peterhead, during the. 
Watcr-feafon, few vifit us ; and, of confequence, little of that 
intercourfc is enjoyed, by which language is fo materially af- 
fcfted. If the degree of mental cultivation in a country be 
comraenfurable by the ftate in which a language is found, 
(which is not a very uncommon rule) then wc muft not 
ftate our pretenfiorts very high. But the phrafe, mental cul- 
tivation, is not very definite \ and many minds might be 
pointed out, to whofe improvement their language would be 
a very imjperfeft index. That feleftion of agreeable meta- 
phors, and that polifh of articulation and accent, which are 
100 often confidercd as the moft effential ingredients in good 
language, are rather the efFe£l of a cultivated tafte, than of 
a cultivated underftanding. And though we may be obliged 
to give up the former, it is not necefl'ary, on that account, to 
give up all pretenfions to the latter. On the contrary, the 
parifli contains a body of men very refpeftable for their know- 
ledge and education, if their circumftvinces and purfuits la 
life be properly attended to. 

Provincial CharoHer, — ^Thc charafter of the inhabitants of 
iBuchan, m genera), fcen?!i to differ confiderably from that of 
the inhabitants of the other counties, and even of the other 
diftrifts of the fame county. They have not theit livelinefa 
of imagination, nor their warmth of feeling. They feem to 


7^ StatiJHcal Account 

occupy a pbcc in the fcale of national chamber nearer tli^ 
phlegm of Dutchmen, than the other inhabitants of Scotland 
m general. The writer of the prefent article was forcibly 
firuck with this obfervation, when he firft fettled in the pa* 
flfh-; and its truth has been confirmed by a few years expc* 
rience. He has frequently attempted to account for it. Al- 
though political inditutions have a greater influence on 
general charaScr than almoft any other caufc, yet the ap- 
pearance of a country operates with an uniform and unceaf* 
ing» and therefore with a very powerful efTe^); on the minds 
of its inhabitants. And it is to thjs canfe that the peculiari- 
ty of charader above*mentioned may, perhaps, in a great 
meafurc, be afcribed. A conftant uniformity in the appear- 
ances of nature around us, gives no fcope for that violent a- 
gitation, which fo frequently takes place in the breads of 
Swifs and Scotchmen, when tliey contemplate their moun- 
tains, their woods, and their precipices. Our mental con^^ 
ftitution, therefore, naturally fettles into a fpecies of unifor- 
mity, analogous to the country which we inhabit ; and the 
lefs elevated and romantic emotions, raifed by intereft and 
mutual intercourfe, take the lead in forming the charaAcr. 
Such feems to be the cafe with the inhabitants of tJiis corn* 
cr of Scotland,' The confequences are, fewer charafier^ 
very ftrongly marked, and more difficulty in changing men- 
tal habits. In this refpefl, there exifts a (Irong finiilarity be- 
tween the charaftcr of the boors in Holland, and that of the 
peafants in this part of Scotland. The latter, however, pof- 
fefs a greater (hare of general knowledge ; the former a far 
more intimate and accurate acquaintance with their own par- 
ticular department* - It is betwecij thcfc two clafles that a 
comparifon, with regard to provincial and national charac^ 
ter, can be inftituted with the greateft propriety. B;;caufei 


$fLongfide. t^ 

kfiowledge and eztenGve mtercoorfe generally bring ^ }4gb* 
er ranks nearly to a lerei iaall countries ; es^cepl^ jq fr^^^ Pf^* 
ticularsj which are not very efiential tacharader. Jit will be 
teadily perceived that this is a fubjef^ perfe£Uy diftijqi^ ^ovol 
that of moral anicl rtligious chara£ler| wlwch iMBcn^l^ed ia 
vnother part of die prc&nt articki - 

\ii i?tTMBSlU 


29? Stat^ical Account 





J[y ^il^^ Rev. Mr James Watson, Minijler. 

Situation and Extent* 

DotJTH Ronaldfay is a populous ifland in the moft fouth- 
eni'' extremity of the cxjunty of Orkney, abopit 6 miles long 
"wd 3 miles broad, in which thei% are two pariihes, called 
~Sauth pariih and North parifh of South Ronaldfay. It proba- 
bly derives its name from Ronald, a Danifli Count, and South 
is prefixed to diftinguiQi it from North Ronaldfay, the moft 
nothem ifland in Orkney. South Ronaldfay is bounded by 
<hc Pentland Firth on the South and Weft, by the German 
Ocean on the Eaft, and by Ac Ferry of Water Sound, about a 
mile J>road, which divides it from Burray, on the North. 
There is a fmall ifland, about a mile longt and half a mile 
broad, called Swinna, lying tiear the middle of the Pentland 
Firth, containing 2i fouls, which makes a part of the South 
pariQi South Ronaldfay. It is feparated from South Ronald- 

tf Shutb Ronald/ay and Surrayi 199 

fay by a branch of the Pcntland Firth, thro^gh which (hips of 
any burden may pafs. Swinna is a barren inhofpitable iflandy 
expofed on all fides to the utmoft rage of the Pentlind Firth. 
What probably induced any perfon at firft to dwell in it, was 
the hope of high wages from pilotage. Though, ac new 
and full moon, tlie tide runs againft this iiUnd at the rate 
of nine miles an hour, yet there are few inftances of wrecks 
on it : For the refiftance which the rocks give to the violence 
of the large current, produces a f mall current running along 
its (hore to each end of the ifland : Thus, it gives to many 
a trembling mariner a mod agreeable difappointment. When 
the ftrong large tide carries him fo near, that he every mo- 
ment expefis his bowfprit to (Irike againft the rocks, and his 
veflcl to fall to pieces under him, he is delightfully furprifed 
to feci a current coming from Swinna, which turns him a-' 
bout in a moment, and fafely condu£ts him round its terri- 
fying rocks. 

Burray is an ifland about 4 miles long and one mile broad, 
bounded by Water Sound on the South ; Holm Sound, 3 mile* 
broad, which feparates it from the pariih of Holm, on the 
North ; and the German Ocean on the Eaft; Thefe pariflie^ 
are a part of the presbytery ef Kirkwall, and fynod of Ork« 
ney. Befidea the three inhabited iflands above mentioned, 
there are, within the bounds of thefe pariflies, three uninha- 
bited green iflands called Glemfholm, Horda, near Burray, 
and Pentland Skerry, about ^ miles South from Sputh Ronr 
aldfay, near the middle of the Eaft end of the Pentland 
Firth. On thefe iflcs, each of which is about a mile long, 
and half a mik broad, iheep and cattle are fed. There is a 
light-houfe to be ere£led this year on the Pentland Skerry, 
which will unqueftionably be attended with manifold advan- 
|agcs to the dipping, coming to the Pentland Firth, through 

Q q ^ vhich 

go* Statiftical Accouj^ 

which| It U tompatedj there pafs^ at ao average^ nine T^fleh 
^ilj. Near tlu8 Pentland Skeiry, there are two or three 
Other flcexries or rocksi on which there is not nourifliment 
for any tame Uvii^ creature. 

S&il and P^diiAr^.-rrThe arable ground in thefe ifles is Tttuated 
^long the Chores. The foil in Swinna is fhallow, compoied of 
fome bUck earth, gravel, and fand» The feil of Burray may, 
in generalj be called a light dry fand, mixed in a few places 
with fome coarfe clay. In the month of July, the bear *an4 
oats in it promife a rich crop ; but in Augull or September, 
when the ear demands a greater degree of nourifliment, it id 
refufed ; the confequence pf which is, that the grain is ill fil- 
led, fmall, and hungry. But in no part, perhaps of the king- 
dom, can there be fcen a richer or more beautiful crop of 
natural grafs mixed with white and red clover. Potatoes^ 
turnips, peafe, onions, carrots, cabbages, grow on it to great 
perfe^iiph. It is the fole property of Sir Thomas Dundas, 
and it is let in tacks to his fador^ who has very much im- 
proved his breed pf cattle, by raifing a great abundance of as 
excellent turnips as cai\ be found in Scotland. Glim{holm» 
and particularly B.tnrray, abounds with rabbiu. It is com- 
puted, that they produce annually about aopo ikins. The 
foil of South Ronaldfay is extremely various in different 
parts of the illand, and even different in the fame field. It 
confifts of clay, black loams, fand, and mofe. In fome pla* 
ces, the fpil is of an excellent quality, but almpft every wh^re 
(hallow. In all the Orkney ifles, the plough generally touches 
a rocky or gravelly bottom. For want of inclofUrers, there 
is no fbwn grais :— But large quantities of ground have, from 
time immemorial, been lef't to produce natural grafs, on 
\trldch die horfes and cattle are tied throughout the fum-* 


^ South Rottobyiv ond Bar ray. ^f^ 

inert a part being refervcd fipr natural hay^ which is ufed iri 
ViAter aod fpring. 

f Prefini Ztati if Agriculture. — ^Iti thcfc iflcs farmiag is in a 

very rude ftate indeed. The hand of art gives little afliiU 
tance to that nature. Almoft every £af mer is a fifher, and 
a kelp manufadurer. The fame man may be feen» in ^ Jo* 

Ily morning, cairying earth to his dunglnil \ in the forenoonn 
catching fi(h in the fea ; and, in the afternoon, burning kcjp. 
pn the ihore. Some of the pooreft people dig their grouij^ 
with a bit of iron about .3 inches broad^ fixed on the end of 
a long ftick. Fallowing is not ufed : there is no change of 
feed : there is no proper rotation of crops. Small bear or 
bigf and black oats, have been fown alternately pn the fan^e 
(ield for feveral hundred years. The fecd-oats ixever enter 

I ^nto a riddle, but are held up to the wind ei^er in a man's 

hands, or in a creel, called a cofie, made of ftraw. Xh^ 
bear feed is put through a riddle, but the fmall grains ^e 

; not feparated from it with any degree of care. Every far- 

rier has a ridge of pot^oes, which he giants with Ikill, aud 
weeds with great care \ and he is abundantly repaid. One 

f half of his farm ia fown with oats, which being generally 

full of weeds, gives a very poor return ; the other half with 

! bear, which, being manured with plenty of rich farm dung 

pr fcs^-weed, yields a tolerable crop, ^fhe plough has two 
(lilts, and is drawn by four horfes yoked in pairs. Many of 
the farmers, ufe harrows with wooden teeth, which are drawn 

I not diagonally, but with tlie broad fide foremoft, by a rope 

I fixed in the middle of the harrow. The plough, which is 

fo light that a man can lift it in his lund with eafe, turns tlie 
ground very imperfeflly. It requires all the ploughman's 

ftrencth to keep it in the ground. And the force which be 

* applies 


^2 Statijikal Account 

applies for this purpofe, occafions as hard a pull to the horfes 
as if the plough was of a heavier make. If tva or three hor- 
fes or oxen be yoked in the harrows^ there is a perfon ap- 
pointed to lead each horfe or ox. Sometimes the horfos, 
and fometimes the women, carry out on their backs, in creels 
made of ftraw, called cafies> the dung to the fields. Though 
the poft goes iveekly South and North through thefe parifties 
of Ronaldfay and Burrayi yet there never was a road made 
in either. Of confequenc^ few carts are ufed. It is no un- 
common thing to fee fix perfons with fix horfes, carrying to 
the mill three bolls of bear. 

The tenants in general are tenants at wiH. South Ro* 
naldfay belongs to 33 different proprietors, few of irfhom* re- 
Cde in it. In tlie mixture of their property, there is a kind 
of regular confufion, which bids defiance to inclofures, and 
flifles the very idea of improvement. In winter, the horfes 
and cattle wander through, a^d poach the fields, and many 
hundreds of hogs arc digging holes and ditches in them, and 
in the meadow ground, by night and by day. Some farm- 
ers in Burray fowed. fomc of their fields about two years a- 
go with oats, without any other ploughing than what they 
received from the nofcs of the hogs. And they were of o- 
pinion, that as it was a light fandy foil, they had a better crop, 
and fewer weeds, than if they had turned it up with the 
plou^. The fcafon for fowing oats is generally iri April, 
for bear in May 5 and they are reaped in September and Oc- 
tober. Amidil all the errors in farming already mentioned, 
there is one practice in harveft prevails in thefe parifhes, 
which the writer gladly begs leave to recommend to the at« 
tention of thofc in the Highlands of Scotland, or wherever 
the crop is in danger of being rotted by rain \ and it is this : 
every (heaf, after it is cut, is bound, and fet on its end, in a 
kind of triangular pofition, the crop broke gently down } if 


of South Ronaldfay and Burr ay. 303 

they are tumbled ovej by a gale of wihd» they are fet up a« 
before j wheo tolerably dry, they are put together in one, two, 
QX three thraves, more or lefs, according to the drynefs, and 
built on the field in the fame round form, as in the barn- 
yard^ but more loofely, for admitting air ; on the top they 
are placed very (lompadi, and faftened to each other, to pre- 
vent their falling. By.thefe means, the invention of necef* 
fity, in a damp, rainy climate, an Orkney farmer, though it 
(hould have rained in the forenoon, can carry his grain from 
his field to his bam-yard in the afternoon ; a^d he often does 
it with (afety. 

Climaiei — ^It admits of no doubt that fmall ifles, in fuch a 
high latitude, are blefied with a pure air, and a wholefome 
climate. Of confequence, the inhabitants enjoy perhaps a 
better ftate of health, without the phyGcians aid, than thofe 
of Mid-Lothian or Middlefex. The climate of Orkney dif- 
fers not much from that of other places on the £aft and 
North Eaft coaft of Scotland, but owing to fdme local caufei, 
it is more uncertain and variable. For three months in fam- 
mer the weather is generally fettled, and the fea ferene. £• 
very creature by land and water is in motion, and appears 
happy. In Jane, the rays of the fun feem unwilling to de« 
part. They rttire riOt above half an hour. At this fealbn, 
when the fun dips into the Atlantic, the appearance of nu- 
merous rocks and ifles fcattered through the ocean, the mo- 
tion of boats and ihips innumerable, thoufands of cattle, 
grazing on the land, and many more thoufands of fi(hes» 
great and fmall, jumping in the water, prefents a fcene tru- 
ly delightful, and awfully grand. But fometimes, in Auguft 
or September, a ftrong.gale of wind fuddenly changes this 
icene into fadnefs. The fame fofce of wind, which, in the 
interior parts of Scotland; produces no bad efie&> is, among 


3^4 Statifiical Accoimi 

narrow iflands> waflied o|i aD fides by jhe German and At-^ 
lantic oceanst attended with material injury to boats, fbips^ 
and the growing com. The fea, arHuigfrom its bed, da&es a- 
gainft the rocks :— the winds waft its fptay over the furface of 
the ides :— and thus the ctop, Bbum Labores^ the hufbandmac^c 
fupport and hope throughout the year, is blafted in an hour^ 
Boats are overfet, (hips are wrecked, and the hardy marinerf 

White are tlie decks with foam, the winds aloud 

Howl o^er the niafts, ahd fing through every fhroud ; 

Pale, trembling, tit'd, the failors freeze with iears. 

And inftant death on every wave appears. 
Lands on a Weft or South Weft expofure are moft Kable ttt 
damages from this catife. Aftet a ftorm of this kind, the 
flalk of oats or bear whitens, confumes, and dies. But if the 
ftorm has not been very violent, and if it be immediately fuc-^ 
ceeded by rain, many of the ftalks recover their colour, and 
part of their former vigour. ' Even the natural grafs efcapes 
not altogether unhurt. There is lefs froft and fnow, and a 
mote eqi^al temperature^ as to heat and cold, in Orkney, thail 
can be found perhaps in any other county of Scotland; 

/forfci/rx.— Widcwall bay lies on the Weft fide of South 
ftonald&y, and has a good opening to the Pentland Ftith 
and to Strothnefs« Ships of 500 or 600 tolls burden^ parti- 
cularly thofe from the Baltic, Weftward bound, frequently 
Ttde in it with fafety. On the North end of the hmz iflandi 
there is another harbour, caUed St Margaret s Hope, whidi^ 
for fmall vefieb, is one of the fafeft and beft in the kingdom^ 
It is much frequented by lobfter fmacks, belonging to M^ 
Selby and Co. London^ and to the Kortumberlaild ft(hingSa« 
ciety. For a confiderable time paft, different Engltfli Cosi* 
panics have profectfted this fiflieryt and, ftrange to tell ! it is 


of South Rondidfay a^d iurtaj. ^ Jjoj 

ihfc only fifliery ftat is profecutcd m Orkney. This fiftiing 
generally begins in March, and continues imtil June ? begind 
again in Ofteber, and continues until December. Orkney- 
men are employed to -catch the lobfters, and the frtiacks call 
weekly to receive them. They cannot be caught in the day 
time. Two men in a fmall boat^ in the nighty may catch 
ftom 50 to 100, more or lefs* each night, and they teceivi 
for each ^ farthings. This fifhery unqueftionably brings mo- 
iiy into the country ; but as thfe fiihers are employed in it i 
part of the year, and le&rn, dUritig the other part of it, hai 
bits of idlenefs and extravagance, it is, upon the wholes doubt- 
ful whether it be ufeful or not to the country. ' 

High Rods ami Curiour 5)fc^^-^In South Ronaldfay thcri 
arc three headlands or toeks, prefenting a bold front to the 
ocean, called Barfick Head, on the wteft fide $ Halero Head 
. and Stores Head, on the eaft fide, each about 250 feet per. 
pendicular above the level of the Tea. There is a fihall ftone 
ere£^d in Sandwlck, another near Stores, and a Urge bn^ 
near the manfe, about 14 feet high, 2 feet broad, ahd tf 
inches thick* About thefe ftone^ conje£iurti is Glentj and e- 
ven tradition tells liot a lie. 

jintiqttiiies.'^The Roman Catholic Keligioii had once i 
firm footing in thefe Ifles. In thofe days. South Ronald* 
fay was the deanery pi Orkney,- and its clergyman provoft o£ 
the cathedral; There are yet to be feen in this iflarid the 
ruins of 7 old chapels, it if believed that fome of them 
Xverc ere£l^ed by mariners, who, dcfpaiting of life in icmfiefU 
at fea^ vowed to build a church on their arrival at the firft 

At the chapel near St Mai^aret's tlope, burnt earth anil 
ft^nes, pieces of deer's horns, and human boocij have beed 

R t frequently 

3o6 Stati/lical Account 

frequently dug up. There arc alfo fome remain$ of Pi£li(h 
houfcsi and watch-^cwers, in difitrent parts of the ifland* 
But, in treating on this fubjefl, the inquifitive mind every 
where meets with darkncfs vifible. 

MilL — ^There is plenty of good fpring well water in thefc 
pariiliesy but not fo abundant as to form a lake or river. A« 
bout 5 or 6 months yearly^ the mills are fupplied with water 
by rain from the heavens. There is one water mill in Bur- 
ray ; but that ifiand U fo dry that it is feldom able to grind 
much of the fubteiiants grain. For this purpofe, they muit 
crofs over ftas y suidy to coihfort them in thi» labour, they 
muft pay multure at the mill where they grind, and alfo at 
their own, where they cannot grind. There are 4 water 
mills in South Ronaldfay, at which the 12th part of oats» 
and the 14th of bear^ aie paid.' The two wind-miils, lately 
ere£ted in it, grind bear only, and are paid with tlie 16th part* 
Kelp is made from die weed& which grow below the flood 
water mark, of which there ars 4 diSerent fpecics, technical- 
ly named, and accursftely diftinguifbed, by Linnaeus. As the 
fea ebbsi thefe weeds are cut with hooks, carried above the 
flood water mark on barrows, ami, after being fpread and 
dried, they are burnt in a round hole dug in the ear^, built 
about witii ftones. * The fubftance extradied by burning 
from thefe weedd, in its liquid. (late, fomewhat refembles tar, 
or melted lead. When cool, it becomes hard as the folid 
rock. It is ufed in the manufa£hire of foap, allum, coarfe 
and fine glafs, &Cr Thcte are abfout 125 tons of kelp made 
amiually in thefe pari(he9. This is a valuable fource of wealth 
to thefe ifles \ and could a method be found out, during the 
burning operation, to preferve the kelp in a found (late, and 
at the fame time free from impure mixtures of iearth, fand, 
and ftonesj it would very confiderably extend its ufe^ and en-* 


9f South Ronald/ay and Burray. 30 jr 

b^nce its price. This is a great defideratum, for which Ork- 
ney ought to give a thoufand guineas as a premium. 

Ecciejiajflcai SiaU ofihefe Parijhes. — Sir Thomas Dundas of 
Kerfe» Baronet, is patron. There is a new manfe and offices 
building, by the authority, and under the dire£lIon of the 
Court t)f Seflion. The church of the South parifli was re- 
built about 5 years ago. The church 'of Burray neevls 
fomc repair. The North pariOi church walls have for feve- 
ral years ftood without a roof, cxpofed to all the winds of 
heaven. There never was a parochial fchool in the charge. 

Lady Charlotte Pundas has, within thefe lafl feven years, 
with a liberal hujuanity, exerted herfelf to promot<* fome ufe- 
fol plan of education. For this purpofe^ (he has repeatedly 
fent quantities of writing paper, and a variety of well chofen 
bpoks to the minifter, to \it diftribu^ed aniong (h^ poor and 
ignorant. William Jamifon, Efq; a native of South parifli 
$outh Ronaldfay, who went abput 34 years ago toHudfon^s 
Bay, where he ilill rcCdes a^ 9 faftor fpr the Cpmpany, 
wrote laft year to Andrew Graham, Efq*, hid friend and ar 
gent in Edinburgh, and alfo to the minifter, to appropriate 
20 1. Sterling a year, as a falary to a fchooln^afler in the pa- 
rifli where he was born. There are no diflentcrs or fcflarics 
of any kind in thcfe parilhes. No mifchief is dreaded here, 
(either from the flame c^ fanaticifm^ or the fire of fedition. 
Inftead of fe£laries, eager about building new churches, there 
is generally a law fuit, at the inftance of the minifter, for re- 
pairing or rebuilding the old ones. The greatcft part of the 
minifter's ftipend i^ paid in kind, principally in bear and but- 
fen The yearly average value of it may be called ^5 L Stcrr 

ii r a . .PAPULATIONS 

ta9 Siaiiftiatl Acc§w$$ 


No. «f famtlies in South HoQ^IdTAy* • - S74 

-— ^ ibult in ditto ^ • 1^15 

-— - fouls io 3un'»T • • 3>' 

*— p- fouls iq Swion^ • - %i 

Total number in the charge 1954 

^0. of b«pu(ins in South Hooaldfay for 1791 are 44 

* — —:— > ■ — ' ' » ' for i7y» an 36 

1. TT — ■ for 1793 «» I 4« 

Maryiagcs in it for 1791 are !• 

; ■ ■ I ' — for 1 79* arc 4 

y ■ >■ ■ — for 1793 ' are % 

\a thf South parifli of Spnth RxwahUay the No of fouls ara 547 

|n the ^QTth pariih of ditto - • • 104I 

Males ... ^7^ 

Temales • - - 48} 

Children under ^ years of age - * 288 

Faluid Rent, Sfoclj 5#r.— The valued rent of South Ron- 
fldfay^ Burray, and Swinna is 35 12 1. Scots. It is extremely 
difficult to ftate with precifion the real rent, as it is paid iiv 
money, in bear,^ malt, meal ; in butter, oil, hogs, gecfe^ hens, 
9nd ferviccs. By a rough calculation, the prefcnt yearly rent 
^f thefe parifhesi includmg kelp, may be called 1500 L Ster- 

The Na of hotCea in Sovth Ronaldiay are • 674 

No. of carts in ditto r * >3> 

No. of cows in dittc^ . . • 4jj( 

No. of iheep in ditto. • • 746 

No. of hogs in ditto . • • 340 

No. of fiihing boau in ditto • « 51 

If q. of flocks and geei^ - • ao 

No* of ankers of fpiriu confomed yearly in ditto ' • yjo 

f rices of Labour^ ProviftqnSf &c. — ^Thc wages for a prin- 
cipal man fexyant for farmiftgi i» yearly from 3 L to 4 i. Stcr? 

of South JbuaMfay ^ni Surray. 30^ 

ling ; for an ordinary nan fervant, from 2 gHineas to 50 1 1 
for a boy» horn ao s. to 25 s ^ for a female fervaoi for farm- 
ing, a guinea. In harveft» a man fcrrant 12 a. to 15 Sv ; a 
female fervant» for harTeft, from 5 s. to 7 9. There is tittle 
or no dtmzni for day-labourers, and when there is, few or 
none can be found. Sometimes they arc paid 'with 4 d, 
fometimes with 6d, and Yiftuals four times each day. 

The fmaii horlcs, generally brought to theje partflies from 
Csuthnefs, and Strathnaver, only one year old, are bought at 
from 2 1, to 5 }• Sterling $ and they are begun to work when 
two years old. After eight years of age, or more, they are 
generally ibid ag^n at nearly the fame prices to tlie inhabi- 
tants of the countries from whence they came« The price 
of an ox, when young, that will weighs about 18 flone, 
is from 3 1. to 4 1. Sterling ;^of a young cow that will weigh 
about 1 5 ftone, from 50 s- to-} L Sterling ) a wedder 5 s. 
or ds; a lamb 2Qd« oras) a hog from 6 s* to 10s; a 
goefe I s. or ( 8. 2d } a hen jd, or 6d } a doaen o( eggs 2d, 
and 2| V a ftone of potatoes 3d ; a (tone of oatmeal 18.4^; 
of bear meal i s. 2d ; ailone of malt i s } a ftone of wool 
los^ or 12 s; a ftone of butt^ <s ; a ftone of cheefe ftrom 
3 s. to 4*s ; a pound of beef, which can only be got from 
Lambmasto MartinmaS| at i^. 

Mi/cellaneo^. R^marks^'^r^Therc is one fioop belonging to 
South Ronaldfay, which each fpring carries fait beef, pork» 
hides» tallow, yam, butter, geefe, value about 60 1. SterKngi 
to Leith, the produce of thefe parilhes, and brings back mer- 
c^nt goods. During the futi(»mer (he is freighted with kc^ 
to Dundee, Leith, New Caftle, Hull, &c. 

There are 5 or 4 merchants at the village of St. Margarsts 
liope, in ^k>tttfa •Ronaid(ky. 

Hiere is one Robert Cromarty, an exoellent weav^er of (a* 
Ifle fifths anffioe Unen : There ztc 6 odm weavers o£coarfe 


^i# Stati/lical AtictuiU 

fluff: There are four blackfmitbs, and 6 or 7 coblera. Vaf 
^ employers of the fjormfer nwft furaifli iron and coals^ 
and <^ the latter, hemp and leather. There are in thefe pa- 
Ti(bes a indificT^t, and i tolerably good inns } the houfes for 
filing ale and fpirit$ are by far too numerous* There ace 
alfo one good fquare wrigbt, and 3 or four of inferior ikiU : 
There are 2 fidlers, and one piperi who profefles by meai^s 
pf his muficy to baniOi the rats from their habitations. Their 
IS one notary public, who ha^ property in South RonaUfay, 
and occaGonaly refides in it. CorbjeSi jcrows, and qfteii 
eagiesy axe found in thefe pariihes: They often do coq- 
fiderable damage to the com, lambs, and poultry. Gulls, 
icarfs, ]cttty-weaks, rock-pidgeons, plovers, fnipes, folqn 
gee(c, ktrks, tails, and ducks of all kinds, abound. There arp 
po hares or foxes to be found, and it is faid they cannot liye 
in Orkney* There is no inftance reniembered of a dog beii^ 
mad : Muir fowl are numerous in many ifles of this coun- 
|ry» but for wa^nt qf ^leathy few or none can be foupd ix) tbf fq 

F\Jhis. — Cod, ling, (kate, turbet, haddocks, Cilocks, quith^ 
pr cuddens, lobfters, cockles, are found around thefe illes in 
fuch abundance, that almoft every perfon fuppiies l}imfelf^ 
and few or none are fold- The price offered by the pnrcha- 
fer is not a fufEcient compenfation for the labour and ex- 
pence of the ii(her. On account of the high duties on fait, 
very few indeed are cured fqr market. Confequently thofe 
who do not fi(h, or have no (hare of a boat, are at all times 
ill fupplied, and in ftqrmy weather, even thofe who do fifli, 
mud reft fatisfied with the four fifii, which are dried by tho 
fun and air, or by the fmoke and fire i^ their houfes. In 
July and Augufl, (hoals of herrings, numerous as the fam) 
on the fea ihore, are feen around thefe parifhes ^ but for want 
of nets, (alt, Sccnone are caught or cured here. . . 

^ Stmtb KonaJdfqy arid Surray. 31 1 

CburaBer and Manners tf the PeopU-^Thttt arc few <jr 
no inibmccs'of any perfons being conTiSed of capital crimes) 
but petty theft is very frequent. There Arc no Juftice$ 
of Peace to punifli this vice ; and if there were, it would be 
extremely difficult to convid the delinquent 5 becaufe there 
is a very general belief, that who(bever is concerned iat 
bringing die guilty to punilhmcnt, will never thrive. 

Within thcfe laft fevcn years, the minifter has been twice 
interrupted in admtniftering baptifm to a female child^ be«* 
fore /the male child, who was baptized immediately af-' 
ter. When the fervice was over, he was gravely told, that 
he had done very wrong, for as the female child was fiift 
baptized, Oie would, on her coming to the years of difoe* 
cretion, mod certainly have a ftrong beard, and th€ boy 
would have none. No couple chufes to marry except with 
a growing moon, and fome even wifli for a flowing tide. 
The exiftcnce of fairies and witches is ferioufly believed by 
fome, who, in order to prote£l themfelves from their attacks, 
draw imaginary circles, and place knives in ihc walls of 
houfes* The word confequence of this (tuperftitious belief 
is, that when a perfon lofes a horfe or cow, it fometimes hap- 
pens that a poor woman in the neighbourhood is blamed, 
and knocked in fome part of the head, above the breath, un- 
til the blood appears. But in thefe parifhes there are many 
decent, honeft, and fenfible people, who laugh at fuch abfur- 
dities, and treat them with deferved contempt. The paflion 
of the young men for a fea faring life nothing can exceed, ex- 
cept their averfion to a military one. Four or five young men 
have this winter voluntarily entered on board his Majefty's 
navy. Every year feveral young men go to Greenland or 
Iceland fifliing, to Hudfon's Bay, or on board fome mer- 
chant ihip : AU of them prove to be excellent failors. And 


it ts belicTed, that they are more indaflrioas abroad thait fit 
hpme. In no country are the people more tenacious of theur 
dd cuftoms than here. There are 3 churches in the minifc 
iter's charge, at which he preaches by turns ; but few of the 
people are difpofed to attend divine worfhip, except once in 
the three weeks at their own parifh church. 

. Means by which the Situaiiw ^f the People cduU he elnmram^ 
/m/.**— On this part of the fubjed, the writer enters widi dif* 
fidcnce. For lie is abundantly fenGUe, that it is much eafier 
to find fault with what is, than to propofe proper praflicable 
tctnedies. Anxious, however, about the profperity, and zu 
dently wifliiing to promote the induftry of thefo patifhes, he 
begs leave to fubmit to the tonfideration of the difcerning 
few, the following improvements : 

ri«c, A good road for the pod, through the middle of the 
iflands of Burray and South Ronaldfay. 

21&, That the proprietors grant at lead a nineteen years 
leafe, to each of their tenants, for a certain rent, one half of 
which to be payable in money, the other half in kind *, the 
money rent to be paid in 6 months after his entry, the rent 
in kind in 1 8 months after his entry, and fo on during the 
the Icafc. Each tenant to receive from his proprietor one 
or two carts, at the option of the tenant, the value of which 
to be edimated by two perfons mutually cliofen, and paid by 
the tenant in fuch moities, and in fuch time as can be agreed- 
on* No (ervices to be demanded of the tenant. 

3/ih7, That the tenants be encouraged to labour rather with 
oxen than hprfes, many of which die yearly, 

4A?, That there be two fchools ereded in South Ronald- 
fay, and one in Burray, for the education of youth. 

t>f South Rj^nuldfay arid Burt ay. 313 

Ito^ That there be two houfesin Burray, and three in 
South Ronaldfay, and no more, allowed to fell fpirits and ale. 

6fno^ That every farmer (hall keep his beftial throughout 
the year on his own ground* 

7/009 That the proprietolfs Ihall inftru£l and advife their 
tenants, frequently to change their feed-oats ahd bear, and tO 
drefs both with (kill and care. 

8w, That if a foaperic, ropcrie, or herring fifliery, were 
eftabliihed near the harbours of WidewaU Bay and St. Mar- 
garet's Hope> in addition to the improvements above re^ 
commeadedf the writer would not defpair of feeing the in* 
habitants of thefe pariOies, as induftrious in their ftations^ 
and as comfortably eafy in their circumftances, as could be 
found in this, or any other parifli in die North ^-Scotland. 


314 Stdtijlicai ActDunt ^ 



^ County of Stirling.) 

By the Aev. Mft/jAiift^ LAj(>stiE, Minijler. 

Situation and l^ami. 

HE parifh of Caxnprfie meafures eight Englifli miles in 
length, and feven in breadth^ following the two great lines of 
road which interfe£t the pariOi nearly at light angles ; 
the mean length is about fix miles» and the mean breadth fix, 
containing 36 fquare miles ;; and allowing only 400 acres to 
every fquare* jn3€, the amount trill be 14400 acres y it con- 
tains 10 1 plough gates of land, and is valued at 6429 pounds 

Scots. $ 


% This parifli, prerioas to the dlsjondion ia the 1^49, made a puztlcular 
diftrid of country by itfelf, not a little marked by peculiar manners and cuf- 
toms. It was bound on the North, by a range of hilh running parallel to the 
Strath for near ten mOet ; on the dontb, by the river Kelvin, which, in thefe 
days, formed a fwunp impaflible lb. Winter ; on the Eafl, the Gurrel Glen 
became another natural barrier ; on tht Weft, Craig-Maddie Muir and. the 
Brawftt Bum feparated this diflrid from Srathblaae aod Balderaock. 


qfCampJie. 315 

. It u hounded on tile-North^ by the parifli of Fintry*| on 
the Weft, by Srathblane and BalderAock ^ on. the South by 
Caldcr and, Kirkintilloch ; and on the Eaft by Kilfyth ; form- 
ing % dtftia£l commiflar^ot alpqg wi(h Hamilton, ftiled fhe 
commiHariot of Hamilton ai^jd Campfie, 

It is prefumed, that ^ winding appearance of the ftrath 
jn general, and particularly of the glens np^r which the pa- 
ri(h church is fituatcd, has given rife to the name Campfie, 
or Camfi, whicli, in th^e Celtic language, i^ faid to fignify 
crookpd Strath or Glenw-rOf cpuffe, th^ Clachaji of Carap^ 
fie, i$^ the place of worlhip of the crooked glens. 

Indeed, if we attend carefully to the appearance which thi$ 
diftria prefents to thofe who from any of the neigh- 
bourbg ftations, particul^ly the beading pf tlie hills in tlic 
form of an amphitheatre, above the village pf Clachan, fronx 
l^hich five ftreams, pouring down from five winding glens, 
5 f ^ fprm. 

Campfie, in its onginal ftatr, was eleven EogUih miles long, (cpfn.^MCcfl;, 
to Eaft; its breadth varied on the Weft march, from Calfler houfe to the 
Carl's feat, it was at leaft nioe EDglUh miles ; whereas, on the Eaft ma:ch, its 
Wcadth was fcarcely fix. 

It contained 150 plough gates of land and was vahied at 9(7^ pounds; 
Scots. It may be oberve<f that Campfie is fitoa^eA in the LeoQoz, ^ and for- 
merly made the eaftero dhrifton of that aaciet^t territorial thaneihip. In tb^ 
year 1649, '^^ Lords Commiffioners for Valuation of Teinds, disjoined all 
that part which lay betwixt Inch- Wood Bum and<he Garrel Glen on the 
Eaft, annexing it to the parilh Mdnniabrugh, now better kaowljy the nam«.- 
of KiUyth, which portion contained 30 plough gatea of land[, and is rated at 
acx>o pounds Scots vaiution. In li^e mj^nper they di^oiped al{ that portion 
on the South Weft, which is Ctuated betwixt Balgrochan and the Brawzyec 
Burn, annexing it to the parifli of Baldernock, containing ai ploujrh gates of 
land, and valued in the county books at 1341 pounds Scots. Thefe two dis-« 
pna portions will nq doubt be defcribed by the mioi^en of the rerpje^i^^ 
^iriilies tq which they belong. 

3i5 Statijtical AtcoutU 

form the water of Glazirt, Ais ceymology of Campfie wiU 
not appear unnatural. 

£xifrnal Appeardhce and Soil, — Jt wouH not be eafy to rt- 
fl|ice ^e fuperficial appearance of this parKh to any regttht 
iigiire ; it can neither be (aid that it is a fqitare, a parallelo- 
gram, or a triangle ; the irregular bending of the hills prevents 
the eye firom comprehending it in one view, and the bound- 
ing lines of the parifh have never been accurately ipeafttred'; 
in loofe terms, it may be faid to confift 6( two hills, with a 
confiderable valley of ftrath between Aem *, the South hil} 
being the continuation of the Ktlpatrick Braes, Hoping gent- 
ly down upon the Glazert and Kelvin ; the height is about 
feven hundred feet, arable to the top. — Between this South 
brae and the North hUli (better known by the name of 
Campfie Fells,) there is a conGderable itratk, narrow indeed 
on the Weft, but as it runs Eaft, it widens into an open 
champaign country. The furface of the ftrath is uneven, ex- 
cepting a few haughs on the Kelvin, and'Giazert.^-*Not tbat 
the land can be ftyled rugged or broken ; for almoft on every 
fide of the gentle fwells, with which this ftrath abounds, fomt 
fmall rivulets cplle£l the waters fr4:im the rifing grounds ; fa 
that, even fuppofing the arable prt of the palrifli to be in tb^ 
higheft ftate of cultivation, the husbandman would neither 
find it eafy nor expedi<j;nt to plow the ridges long in one di- 
Te£lion» — One meets with boggy, ftanneryi croft^ and clay 
ground, almoft in every famif-^The haughs whick ly upoti 
the Glazert and Kelvin, are compofed of cirfied earth, 
brought down from the hills in floods ; of courfe, thofe upon 
tke Qlazerty as being nearer the hiU$^ contain a conHderable 
Quantity of gravel, and arc better calculated.for raiSpg pota,<» 
toes^ and turnip. The Kelvin haughs, on the other hand,^ 


bemf formed of the flei^h wlijch dve vWev (tepofit* on oteiw 
flowiftg^itd banks, moft be tefOer ald»pted>fov the caltnroof 
beans aifid wheat ; and as the Kelimi» by the new^cut Mrhloh 
is making, will foon be confined within its proper channel^ it 
is to be prefumed, that the farmers will then make the moft of 
the eicellfent foil whi<{h lyes upon diatTi^er* At the kirk of 
Campfie, there is a haugl^ of near three hundred acres, ca* 
pable of producing all fevlsof gre^h cvopSi at ieaft eqaal. tai 
any in the coniity. ^ ■ ' 

CKmate.-^Iha cli«i4te of this pemih, liice every other part 
in d^ Weft of Scotland, confiftmgof hill and dak, is exceeds 
tngly variable *, at the fan>e time, there is reafbn to believe^ 
that more rain falls at the kirk of Campde than in any of tl^ 
neighbouring pariChes to ihe^Soodt and Baft : Nor ir it to bs 
wondered that th^ cfimate (hould be wer/whea tbefirbatioQ 


• AUhottgfa tbe {oil of thii ptrSfli be £> eKpedTngly vat ied>.iicVacthtk& 
fhat'pan of it which coouias coal and HxnA, untibrroly appcari to be cla^ 
forming two belts of unequal breadth ; the one upon the Korth of the wa* 
ter of GUzerty is nearly a thoufand yards in breadth, commencing about a 
mile Bad from the church, and cofitinoing all ahmg the ba^ of the HSttr '«• 
the eaftem boondM'T of the pariih. The other belt encircles the South braes, 
and its breadth is fomewhat greater ; fuch u the appearance of the furface 
id the fitrath. As to the Cami^e FeUs» which make about two fifths of the 
whole p^Hht they run f arallci to the Svath, from one end of the diiln<£t to 
the ether. Th^face of the hill b iiomewhat broken with craigs and glens ; 
the ftHBQiit and back part is a deep muir ground, interfperfed with mofs 
kags ; the fell oa the face of the hills produces a fliort feeding grafs, equal tc^ 
any brae grooad in tbe kingdom; while the muirs are thought to be wel) 
calculated for the rearing of young black cattle in the more marfliy parts, 
end fot kespteg ftocks of ewes upon the drier gro^tod^ In goneral, it mafbc 
£iid, chat the foil in the Weft end of the pasifr, and perticuiarly North of the 
Glasart, is taoH adapted fev peftwa } whcr<M the land on the South «nd ^aft 
&le, feems fitter for grain* 

^|8 Statijiical Account 

of the place is confidered ; the Campfie Fells being fituatet} 
betvizt the Friths of Forth and Qydey the vapours which 
co\\t€t from either fea, as they float aloi^g, are intercept- 
ed \^J the Ugh ridge of the mountain \ and beiqg thus com- 
prefled, they defcend in (bowers upon th^ valky \ neverthe^ 
lefsy it bemg a light. gfav^Uy bottoni> the Stvath being wel) 
ventilated, and the ftreanos of water, owing xq^ the great de? 
clivity^ running oiF quicUy> the pari(h is, upon the whole, 
uncommonly healthy. Perhaps the great plenty of coal, whic];i 
enables the meaneft cottager to obtain a hearty fire, along 
with the uncommon purity of the ^ring water, may nqt a 
little contribute to the falubrity of a climate \{hich in other 
refpeAs might be prejudicial to health from its ds^mpnels. 
Whatever other obfervation one might be difpoiipd to make 
on the weather in this diftr^, it muA be fallowed, that it is 
lematkable for variety ; we have often fcen fnow in a mof 117 
ingt rain at mid-day, and froft in the evening, and this alter- 
nately for feveral days,— rOf courfe, it would be impoflibie to 
fay, as it is faid in fome parts of the iOand, that fuch a month 
is dry, or fuch a month is warm ; the drought of Auguft 
yrt have often witncfsed in November, and the tempeftuou^ 
(^ow^r$ of February are often experienced in July. 


t Old people prfetend to flry that the fetfons are akered, aii4 pmicvlarlyr 
that they have become colder; and in corroberatioli of their opinion, they 
adduce the very flattering but falUcioni teftimony of what they felt in their 
j^outh, and bow the com ripened fooner on the braes than now ; The tefti* 
mony of an old man, about what he felt in his youth, when his blood wai 
warm, and hit fpirits high, can by no means be cpnfidered as an ^une^uifo- 
cal proof of the ftate of the weather ; nor is the circumftance of the eoms 00 
the high ground ripening fooner than at prefent, an index of the alteration 
of the feafons. For we all know, that where the foil is thin, and often 
ploughed, the fcanty meagre crop will be difpofed fooner to whiten, e«en if 



ofCdmpJie. 31^ 

Water f tTood, and Mhuntams.'^Tlm parifli maybe faid to 
be uncommonly well watered : In the greatcft droughty tbd 
number of fprings from the hills affind fuch quantities of 
Water, that the maclimery at the different print-fields have a 
conftant fupply> There is properly fpeaking but one river in 
the pariih s and even fhis one is on a fmall fcaie ; it is fdrnsed 
by three ftreams, uniting below the kirk. of Campfie : it then 
receives the name of Glazert^ which is faid to fignify in Gae^ 
lie, tlie water of the gray, or green promontory, alluding 
peiiiaps to the greenneft of the hsUs iiom whence the ftre^ms 
flow. The Glazeit, allorving for.-aU its windings, runs a^ 
bout five EngEih miles, before it joins the Kelvin oppofite to 
Kirkintilloch. It. runs with confiderable Rapidity } tile {aU 
from the kirk of Campfie to; the Goyle-bridge bj^ing fomewhyfii 


ihe climate (bou)d be w^ter and colder, than opqn well-rcded rich Uod. As 
far, however, as we .can pronounce any thing certain, relative to the climate, 
it may be fald that we have fcarcely any perm'ajaent froft, tQl afte^ Chtiff- 
mas : we have (eldotn wind from tlie North and £aft, except in the tifaitf of 
a fiorm of froft juoii faxm,- and ufnaUy for a few days kbout the beginning o£ 
Maf, when in genjeral it is accompanied with an JBaftland charr, very deftruc* 
tive to bloiTomf ^f fruit treea. Our rain in general is from tHe South Weft ; 
and we fcarcely ever fail to have our Lammas floods, azid oiir ^quinon^ial 
liorm,the firfi calculated to lodge our com, before they are riptf, and the* laft 
to rot them in the ituke. Summer zySi vias remarkable for a cold drought, 
tvhich continued feveral weeks withering the grafs, and introducing^ black 
fly upon the corns, which prevented the grain from being fo plump as ufual. 
J1%% was remarkable for being a backward feafon, fo that fonie of our comV 
were buried below the fnow on the 3 x£l of O<^ober. Summer 1783 was re- 
asarkabieibr a thick fbg» whereby the fun was fcarcely viilble for three 
weeks ; we £elt that fummer a flight fliock of an earthquake. Our fum- 
mcrs upon the whole^ for thefe fix years bygone, have been rather cnld ; our 
Winters, on the other hand, have been open and frefli, as it is termed. So 
wet have our fummers been, as almaft to countenance the fanciful opinion of 
old people, that the climate was altogether changed. Sumn^ 1794 has bcoi 
renurkabl/ wra. 

^10 Statyikal jic^ount 

more than ico feet^ above ad fieet^tinUe« Befides.llitf 
Gtii2£rtj there are no k& than 19 fm«ll. bmm$ which fall into 
it. Perhaps to peofde whojiftre been aecuftomed to itGde 
chiefly in a level conminryy few fcenea will appear more tm\f 
ptdurefque than that of, die ftre«m8 t»f iM^ater^flitng itown 
ibe fides of (he Campiie Fells in a flood, while the top of the 
mountain i^ perfe6tly hid in the blue mift. This ftreai*acf 
water, though highly piAurefque, and exceeding ufefiil, tiftill 
accompanied with fome^ixiconveniences: -In .the ifi phvoCf 
^hen there id a great oii^Hight, the fpring water is a^t to be 
impregnated too much with onneral water coming from the 
e6;d4evel8, which muft prove highly prejudicial to the bleach* 
er. Iti'tfie 2//pl4ce,11ielea(lihowi:r bangs down fucha quan^ 
4ity of mofs from the hills, as to prove very trooblefome in the 
finer operations of preparing the cloth : the manufacturers, 
however, have contrived in a great meafure to remedy both 
dcfe(Jls,. by filtrating the water through the fine beds of gra- 
vcj, up^n which iheir.yprks are fituated ; there is one acci- 
d^t which happ^si,.ag<^init'the bad e&A^ of. which there 
is iio guarding, but by turning off the water altogether frdm 
the worta 5 and tliat is; when the ffagnating water in fome 
old cbid- wafte breaks out, it will tinge every ftone in the ri- 
'Verj jfop, .miles,, and kill every filh which comes within its 
poifonous influence. We have feen the trouts, after fuch an 
irruption, floating on the furfacc, gathered in baflcets full, and 
eaten by the country people, yet no bad efFeQ following from 
eating fuch poifoned fifli *. This difttiil originally muft 
have been much better wooded than at prefent, as is evident 


f The otazert, in former times, was a gxieat depoflt lor ialmoD fpawn, 

fvhereby an uncommoQ quantity o£ fry was yeaady prodttced» for recruttiog 

•ibc fi&erie^ en the Clyde, the number of its fords and £ui4 banks being weU 

calculated for fuch a nnrfcry. It is (aid that the raiiing of the Damhead at 



qfCampJie. 321 

from, the remains of large trees occafionally dug up in the 
fwampS) and of the fcattered copfe-woods in the glens and 
braes. There are ftiil three confidcrable woods in the pariih'; 
the three together contain at lead one hundred and ten acres 
of ground^ and conflft of oak, aller,. birch, faugh,, and' adr; 
though the timber of thefe woods be reckoned good^ they are 
but of flow growth ; the woods upon the banks of Lociilo* 
mond arrive at fulkr maturity i» 18 year^ chan theCamfh 
p(ie wood in z8* 

The different articles made from thefe woods are fold at 
the following prices on the fpot : Stobs at 4&. the hundred, 
four feet long ; kcbbres for houies at 3fi. per dozen, if made 
of Inrch, and 68. of afli ; cart- trees at is* and- is. 4d. the pair. 
A woodman receives is* ad. for cutting and making the him- 
dred ftobs ; and peelers of bark, if men, is. perday, andwo- 
men 8d. Bark fells at 15s. theboUjia ftone' weight } and 

Vol. XV T t the 

Dartick mills, upon the KelTtn, U the fole canfe why the filh come not up in 
rodding time to the Glazert Perhaps there irfome truth in faying- th^t oft^ 
great reafon of the ficarcity of falmon in the Clyde, is the little regard paid tp 
the yoong fry. 

It would at leaH be an objeift to the country at large, and particolarly-to 
that city, that greater attention fliould be paid to this article, fo that the tri% 
butary fit earns which formerly ftippHed the Clyde with fry, (hbuld not bf 
rendered toully ufelcft' I havo not heard of a fiiigle<fiilAon being^feen !n 
our river. for 1 8 yearsi whereas, in fotmer days, tbey .wet« fo plenty iafppiwb* 
in% time, that it was cullomary, thoogji unlawfui, for the country. lade to |;o 
out with torches made of the dreifings of Unt, ao<l with long fpears to kiU 
confiderable quantities of thefc foul fifli. 

Although fomctimes the water from the coal-waftes deftroys the trouta 
in the Glazert, yet as the glen and bums, at tb'e head of the paiii&, axe well 
fbocked, the river is quickly replcnifhcd. 

Our trout fecms to be of two difUiidlfpecIes ; th^ in^uir trout, with the 
black back, is a poor, lank, iniipid fifh ; the Kelvin trout is yellow in thtt 
ikin, and much plumper and richer in the fifh. There is only one loch in the 
pajifli, contalhxBg about 31 acrcs^ where there ii a coniTdcrable quantity «j( 


322 • Statijlical Account 

the rcfpcftire proprietors are bound by their Icafes to drive 
it to market. Although the ftrath of Campfie be remarkable 
for growing barren- timber, there is much lefs planting, cither 
^n belts or in hedge-rows, than might have been ezpefled : 
To fay that the fpirit for planting is only beginning in the end 
of the eighteenth century, in a country fo calculated by foi^ 
and (hclter to produce fine timber, is not faying much to the 
praife of our ihd^iftry. As to fruit trees, it may literaily^be 
affirmed, that there is not one orchard in the whole parifh ; 
therefore it cannot be faid, from recent experience, whe- 
ther it be a foil adapted for the produ6^ion of apples or not. 
Confiderable attention of late, however, hath been paid by the 
gentry to their kitchen gardens ; it is to be hoped; that the 
fpirit of gardeniiig, fo long dormant, will exert itfelf in the 
formation of orchards, and the laying out of plantations : In- 
deed, in a country where grazing is fo much pra£iifed, it is 
rather* matter of furprife to the proprietors themfelvcs, that 
felf-intereft long ere naw (hould not have led them to form 
{helter for their cattle in winter *. 

. Wild Beajlsy and Birds. — ^There are two fpecies of badger 
found among the loofe rocks of Campfie JFells, the one fomc 
what refembling a fow, the other a dog *, the firfl; is more arch- 
ed in the back, and is not fo nimble in turning itfelf; there 
has occafionally been hams made of it in this place. The 
fox too is a native of this parifh *, the huntfman fays, that the 


(* finall Tegetabljft produdioos, they are both exceedingly oumeroiis 
and varied : mod of the Scotch plants common to glent, woods, and rocks, 
are. to be found in this diftrtd. Our ingenious friend, Mr David Ure, declare^ 
' £hat l^e hath enjoyed confiderable pleafore in fearclfing for plants in our fc- 
^ueftered Vale ; and that his cuiiofity vas not a little gratified. Particvhflf 
^U^cdifiiarent fpecies of the licj^cn ii fouod h«e. 

#/ Camfi^e, 323 

Ibree different kinds peculiar to Britain are fbuncj^eir^ : The 
gray-hound*fox^ with the long bu(hy tail, White o\\ the top^ 
Ikulks on the Fells, and is particularly dcftruflive to the lambsi 
The other two fpccies lurk in woods and old wafte coal-pits ; 
khe one is low and tliick made, of a very dark brown \ the 
other very fnull^ of a lively red and a black tip on its tail ^ 
the laft arc the moft mifchievous to our poultry. There 
are likewifc weafleSi otters, polecats, hedgehogs^ wild cats } 
and, of latej feveral martins have been feen among the rocks. 
As to birds of prey, there are four fpecies of .hawks \ One 
pair of the gentil falcon breed regularly every year, in the . 
Craig of Campfie, a fpecies miich fought after by fportfrnen ; 
we have likewife the kiftril, that fpecies which we perceive 
ifo frequently in the air, fixed in one place, as it were fan- 
ning with its wings, and watching for its fport : The Gofs- 
hawk, which builds its ncil upon trees in fcqueftered placesj 
is likewife a native of this parifli ; it dalhes through the 
woods with v.til impctuofuy after its prey i and the fparrow"- 
hawk is fo common in the upper parts of the ftrath, that 
the children of the villagers amufe themfelves by taming 
item i both the fluggifli ina(£live buzzardj and the foaring 
glade or kite, are natives of this di(tri£t : So co/iimon is the 
glade with u<;, that its various modes of flight are confidered 
lis an almanack for the weather, and its note is a fvmbol of 
moral condu(fi ) we obferve, when it foars high in the air, it 
prognofticatcs good weather \ and every boy will tell yoii that . 
it is not for nothing that the glade whiftles ^ alluding to the 
note of that bird when it glides though the air, watching for 
its prey. The golden eagle ^^fed formerly^ to build in oiir 
rocks, though of late it has difcontimied the pra£lice ; bixt 
we have a vlfit of them annually for fome months in the fpring 
UDtd fcarly part of die fuinmer \ they are commonly known 

T c 2 among' 

^24 Statifikal Account 

among (be iWpherds/by the name of the eariii a vlfit of which 
amongfl the flock is dreaded as much as that of the fox. But 
of all the birds of prey amongft us, the hen-harriers, or white 
aboon-glade, as he is called^ is the mofl deftru£kiv6 to game, 
both partridges and muirfowl. They breed on the ground a- 
mongfl: rulhes in (he muirs, and fly low along the furface of 
the earth in fcarch of prey ; the corbie or raven, the hooded 
or carrion' crow, fooks, jackdaws, and the red legged crow, are 
natives of this di(ln£t. There are about fix pairs of ravens^ 
which breed annually in the rocks, and are excee'ding deftruc- 
tive to young hmbs in a bad fpring. I have feen, again and 
again, a raven attack a lamb, beat with its wings about iti 
head^ till the poor creature fell headlong over a precipice ; 
and "before the Oiepherd could climb to the fpot, die raven 
had picked out its eyes. The red legged crow is but fcaffce 
M^th us; we feldom meet with above a pair or two in the 
whole range of the Campfie Falls ; when, we do meet with 
them, it is amongft the jackdaws, of which there are a con- 
fiderable number which haunt eur rocks- A very curious fccne 
is frequently exhibited in our hills. If it (hould happen that 
a fox leaves his hole, and bafks himfdf in the fun, among the 
f ocks, immediately all the birds of prey within a mile of him 
will aflemble, and flutter, and fcream over the fpot where the 
tl)ief is lurking \ eagle and hawk, raven and kite, and jack- 
daw forget their animofities, feemingly combining in a mu- 
tual league to difturb die retreat of reynard, fo that the huntf* 
man confiders thefe birds as infallible guides to his fport. It 
may be obfervcd, that beafts of prey are every day becoming 
fcarccr. Till within thefe two years, we had a regular 
bred huntfman, who hunted this diftri£i \ his falary was paid 
by the tenants, at fo much per plough, which huntfman and - 
dogs were kept and fed by each te^nc in his turn. The father 


tfCampfie. 31 J 

andXon-in-law performed the office of public huntrixian,from 
the year 17 »5, till 1792, a period of fourfcore years: They 
w^re faid to poff^fb fame of the largeft fox hounds in the three 
kingdoms ; they were flow but remarkably {launch. — ^The 
cry ^ the hound^i and the antmating blaft of thelmglehomy 
re^choftd by every rock along the range of Campfie Fells^ 
will be long remembered by the native^ of this (Irath* 

Now there are fcarcely as many beafts of prey in the whole 
diftri^i as to afford amufement to the graziers in an idle win- 
ter day ; the only reafon which has been affignedi is^ the con- 
verting of (heep pafture into grazing for bbck cattle^ where-, 
by there is lefs food for fuch ravenous animals ; of couife^ 
the large fox has migrated to the high lands, where his food 
18 more abundant. In proportion as the beafts and birds of 
pney^ have left this diftridj the Tinging birds have increafed ; 
feveral fpecies have appeared of late, which were formerly 
unknown, particulaily the bulfinch and the wood-lark. It is 
perhaps ^t the Clachan of Camp(ic» which is fituated in the 
neighbourhood of copfewoods and retired glens, tliat a per- 
foH is enabled to comprehend the meaning of a proverbial 
expreflion in this county, the fcreich of day light ; — ^here and 
there, tlie lark begins the fong, which is foon heard and ac- 
companied by all the little feathered choirifters within reach 
of it8note.;-^The air fccms to vibrate witli the found.— . 
As to our migrating birds, the ftatement in the following 
table is founded on the obfervations of ten years : 



Stati/lical AecoutU 


tee Wbiie Brtafied Svml^ 

Uie CtuMo$i 

rthc fypod c^i. 

iSirajf Plovtr or Lopping. 
JVattr W^gtail^ 
Bitme Cbeiker, 



from the 7tK to the ^th of September 24th till Sep • 


temb^r i8th» 

a7th of April to the «d ol becomes lUeot about th^ 
May. end of June. , 

ftbout the 36th of Odober. abont the bcguminr' of 

about the s6th of March, about the end of Jalf. 
about the ift of April. about the iCt of Odober. 
:ibout the ifi of May. about the middle of An* 

tbottt the ift of March about the ift of Odobe^. 

In former times, particularly during a hard winter, it vrzi 
euftomary for wild ducksj wild geefe, and even fwans, to vifit 
the fwampd of this parifh ; thefe being n6w drained, fucfa 
fowls arc fcarcdy to be fcen. There are plenty of groirfc 
in the Campfie muirs ; at iht fame tinfic partridges hate of 
late become uncommonly fcarce ; many ^aufes have been acf^ 
figned for the f apid decay of this fpecies of game, fiich as 
the wet fummers, arid the pretended increafe of the birds 6f 
^rey, which is nbt faflt. 

Perhaps it ^iU be found, that this country at prefent is ra- 
diet in an unfavourable ftate for nurfihg patridges; the 
Broom, and furze, and Briers, being moftly grubbed out, an j 
the land formerly ^afte, put under culthration ; whereas ar- 
tSficial fhelterby belt$ of planting is riot yet prodiiced ; while 
the number of idle boys, belonging to the public works, let 
loofe tipori a Suridsiy, ftrolling about the fields with their tar- 
jier dogSi ferreting out the patridge nefts by the fmell, may be 
an additional caufe of the uncommon fcarcity of this game iti 
lihe parifli* ' 

Strata^ Minerals^ Lime and Coal. — ^The hiUs of which in part 
the parifh of Campfic i« compofedi are according to the diftinc- 


ofCampJie. / 317 

tion of natUTalfts, of two fpccies, ^r/m<iry and secondary; in 
the firftj it is faid that coal and lime arc nev^r to be found, 
■whereas the fccond abounds with both. 

The higheft ridge of the Campfie Fells, is about 1500 feet 
above t}>e level of the fea, apd about 1200 from its bafe^ 
where^ properly fpeaking, the mountain commences, the af- 
cent is very rapid } and from examining the glens, and gul* 
lys formed on its (ides, it feems to be compofed of the fol- 
lowing flrata: At*the.bafe of the hill, immediately after the 
coal is cut off, you meet with feveral layers of camftonc, (a^ 
it is termed- with us,) which is eafy burned into a heavy lime. 
Immediately above the camftone, you find at leaft a dozen 
ftrata of ironftone, of difierent thicknefs, with a foft flate 
interveening betwixt the layers ; it is faid by thofe .who have 
examined the ironftone, tKat it is of an excellent quality* 
Thefc different feams make up aoo feet of the bafe of the 
mountain. Then 15 ftrata of muirftone rife above each o« 
ther to the fummit of the Fells, where they jut out ; in the 
face of the braes, they go by the name of daffes or gerrocks. 
Betwi^ct thefe ftrata of muirftone, you meet with various co^ 
loured ftuff, fometimes of a copperi(h, fometimes of an iron* 
ftona colour ; and it is faid, there are appearances of copper 2 
but the working of it h^s not as yet been attempted. Lately, 
yrhen forming the new turnpike^road along the fide of the 
hills, feveral veins of fps^r and chryftal were found, not un* 
like thofe which accompany lead-mines ; and perfons whQ 
iiad wrought at the different lead-mines in Scotland, declar-» 
cd, that the appearances of that metal were both frequent and 
favourable : no attempt as yet hath been made to follow out 
thefe appearantes. In the whole range of the Campfie Fells, 
there is only one place where the rocks affume a bafaltic ap« 
pcarance ; and by thofe who admire fuch columnar appear* 


32S Sati/iical Account 

' 4 
ancesy they are laid to be very beauUfol, Here 2fA tliere, 
there were dug out|. when forming the turnpike^road on the 
hills, feverai (Irata of mod excellent day mark^ both while 
and fpcckled -»r-it has not as yet become an,obje£b of atten- 
tion to the country people. Beautiful pebbles I^avc been 
found among the rocks,, of which a gentleman lately procur- 
ed as many as, when poli(hed,.fumiflied a fct of elegant but- 
tons for-a coat. About the middle of the ftrath^ you meet 
with excellent quarries of free ftone, qakulatcd for all the 
purpofes of the builder ; but the minerals of which we have 
the greatell rcafon to boafl^ are the incihauft^ble fcams of 
lime and coal, which merit a particular defcription. The 
coal and lime in this pariQi are generally found in the fame 
field : The coal> throughout the whole parifti, pofTefies a cak- 
ing quality \ at the fame time it is Yery foul and fulpburous, 
kayingi when burned, an uncommon quantity of nifty colour- 
ed aflics, whicl^make excellentniianure for certain fort&df land. 
The coal on the North of the Glazert, takes on about a 
mile £aft from the Claclian of Cajnpfie, and continues wiih- 
,out much interruption to the eaftern extremity of theparifb \ 
\% runs parallel to the Fells, and feldom exceeds a quarter of 
a mile in breadth : The field on the South Cde of the river, 
which forms a belt around the South braes> is conCderaUy 
broader, and is of much fuperior quality to the other. The coal 
is (bund of di Jcreut depths from the furface ; on the North 
Ede, from feven to fifteen fathoms ; on the South, from fif- 
teen to twenty two ; the feam throughout the whole pariflij 
t5» at an average, from forty two inches to four feet inthick- 
nefs> with two fmall bands, of an inch and aa inch aod^half, 
running through itt The ftrata above the coal is found uni- 
. fomily in.the following manner •• After the foil there 1$ found 
3 fpecics of tilli int^jrfperfed with ftpne^.;. after ujuchr comes 
a blaze> as it is termed, and which continues to a confidera- 

)At (tepth ; then (late, vhich^ at ame^lninlj'is ffora fcrcn to 
eigM fcct in tWckn^fs \ rfrer which, th<rc is oniforaily^ Itnvc- 
ftonc, being a fcai-n of four feet ; then a flatty' alMl then the 
coal : .Such is the • regular ftrata in Campfie ih ftikiang ft>t 
coal ;*wlth this (liffcrericc, however, that the flAte in the North 
of Glaztrt, betwixt the lime and coal, is fifteen feet in thick- 
ticfs -, on the South, k is fcirccly four ; below- the coal,thctc 
is eighteen inches of a fiulF, which the workmen term daA \ 
tlicn the white lime, of an inferior quality to the other, and 
as yet but feidom wrou^t. 

The Coal in this -dHtfiftis fall of • rtreg«laritio«,'ftifcd.By 
the worlihen tcupsy and hsktyes^ and ^kes ; the truth is> the 
conl part-rkes a good deal of the ittegUlatity of the groimd 

• above, which is very tmcven. If one was \a fpeak in gencr- 
n}term§ of the- whole coal in the pari(h, as one fiigld) it mt^t 
be ftid, that die depth ^vis to the Sctath Eaft, and the rife 
to the North' Wert ; fuch re»lly being the afcent and dechvi- 
ty of the kinds in this diftnfV ;— but as thers iH?e a nanU>cr 
of gentle fwells in the (Irath; it will happen, that ftceordiii;:; 
Its the f>it is put down on this fide of the fwell, o? upon the ' 

' Khcr fidf , the dip a*ld rife of the coal will appear favoatabfe* 
or the donfary* — The 4ip is fometimes fo fudden as ta be 
one foot in tliree, irt other places, only one in tu^enty* .Bcfi- 
cles thefc coups and hitches, which arc found where the ftra- 
tA above and below the coal fuddenly approach, or re tucat 
from each other, by this^hicans coupiiag the coal out of its 
tegular'bcd, there are complete breaks in the ftrata, termed 
dykes, which cuti^iFthe coal entirely in various direflbns \ 
thefe dykes are fometimes obferved upon the furfacc of the 
earth, from which thef fink down to an unfathomable 
depth i— There arc two of thefe dykes in this diftrid, which 
are remarkable, and fccm to be uniform tfarov^hout : Fiifi^ 
There is a coup-dyke, which runs from Weft toEad^ Nonh 
Vol. XV. U » 

33^ Swiftical Account 

of this coup^dyke, the coal dips about fiftiKn feet, and thtd 
they may work about three hundred yards into the hil^ where 
they feem to be Cut oflP entirely by a whinllone dyke ; fa 
there are two great barriers which intercept the }y of the 
coal upon the North of the Glasfiert \ the coal t>n the South 
of the coup-dyke, takes on almoft within fix feet of the fur- 
face, and is not above fix inches thick, with fomething like 
a clay roof. 

Manner of Worting.-^Thtrt is reafon to bcHcirc that eoal 
has been wrough in this diftri^ for feveral centuries ^ but the 
working of it feems to have been carried in a very aukH»^rd 
irregular manner, taking advantage of the ly of the groiind i 
They ufed to make large excavations upon the** f office, 
whif:h they termed creeping heughs ; from thefe excdvaf iMs, 
they drove a road into the coal heads, and -by this means 
brought the coals to the hill, dragging them on their iiaall 
fledges up the declivity, which was n6t very gf ekt, as Ike ex^ 
cavation was always made as much to the dip fide <f thirhill 
as poIEble : It is evident, that in this manner the^ couM on- 
ly work the crop of the coal, where the water created ftthS'dif- 
quiet ; a method, however, highly prejudicial both to thftf land« 
. lord and the public ; the next ftage of woiling was bf fink- 
ing perpendicular pits, ftiled windlafs heughs. Otfth^ North 
of the river Glazert, thefe pits were in depth from fixty to nine- 
ty feet i but they fo contrived it, that thefe pits ttriere placed 
near fome gully or burn, where, by running a level from a 
certain part of the bum, all the coal round the pit bottom be-^ 
came drained ; and in the finking of every new jMt, they rimft 
always do it with a retrofpe£i to their former level ; ftill, 
however, the coal upon the dip fide might be lying under 
water i for although the declivity in the ground favoured 


^Camphe 331 

greatlf thefe imperfefk fliort levels, there were many fields 
of coal M^iich could not thus be drained but at a moft enor^ 
mou$ eacpence, in driying fubterraneous mines ^ In this ftage 
of carrying on the work, there were employed at lead two 
me0 at the windlafs, putting up the coals in Ikiffies, termed 
hutches \ and it is more than probabk that they had likewife 
to pully up the water for a conGderable time every morning, 
before the workmen had got the coals raifed ; the coal buG* 
nefs in this diftrid was carried on in this floveniy manner 
during this century ; The country was ill fupplied ; the land- 
lords complained that tliey never made a (hilKng of their 
Coal> while every perfon Mras furprifed, that a diilri£l, poflef- 
fing fuch natural advantages, (hould nvike fo little good ufe 
of ^em. About two years ago, qoal becoming, exceedkig- 
ly fcarce> and the price rifing fuddenly, there became an lab- 
ibl^te nece^ity of working it in a be«cr ftylc •, accordingly, 
Mf pmunore of Ballindalbch, a gentleman to whofe adlivi- 
ty^andf atriotifm thb part of Scotbnd is much indebted, be- 
tfoqting the lefler of feveral works in the pariOi, he imme- 
diately eredled gins, driven by horfes, for pulling up the coals ;^ 
which improvement is anfwerin'g the purpofe, and is either 
already^ or will be quickly foUowcd by the other proprietors ; 
fo that now we have every probability of this iieceflary arti-i 
cle of life being wrought in. a ftyle far fuperior and more ex>> 
peditioua than hithcfto experienced. 

AU die coalliers in this parUh now work with the pick and 
wedge : this, however, is only a late improvement \ they pool 
in the middle of the feam, where a fmall band of (tone, about 
an inch of thicknefs, lye8,.caUed the pooling band, and then 
0)e«r down what is above, ftiled the roof coal, and drive up the 
foal coals with wedges \ they carry on their drifts orroomseight 
Icctb;^ fourteen, leaving ftoops eight fpctby twelve-, but this 

U u 2 varies 

33^ Statiftical Account 

v&ri$$. according as.the coal is foft or hard ; every coalUer may 
be f»kl to be.his own drawer \ fcldoni or ever h^s he any,pcK|bn 
to aflid him \ they commonly go to their wo^k aX four in the 
tQornin^ and continue until two in the afternoon j formerly 
the coak were put out by the dui% confifting of (V^^pty ei^jht 
hutches, for which dark the coallier received one {IiilUi)g^ud 
eight pence, and the proprietors had for lordfliip one Ihilling. 
and ten pence y an afitive workman could very cafily put out 
two of thefe darks per day, m<iking three flnllings and four 
pence ; thefe hutches becoming more^nd more uncertain aa to 
the quantity contained in tliem, boiL the landlord and public 
being impofed upon, it became adopt fomc new 
regnlations relative to th^ meafure ; which has been done 
accordingly \ (b that now we compute by loads \ .each load 
oontains 2184 cubic inches, equal to cwenty one Scotch pints 
and a half, water meafure ; fix of thefe loads make an. exceed* 
ing good cart» which (hould weigh betwixt twelve and thir« 
teen hundred weight ; the pricej at the pit mouth, being eigh-* 
toen pence per cart, or threepence per load ; a tolerable vit)rk« 
man can put out twenty four loads per day, for which he ha& 
three {hillings \ and the landlord the other tliree (hillings. In 
order to afcertain the quantity of co^ls raifed at the difitrrent 
pitS) of which there are no lefs than fixty going.this month of . 
December 1 793, we ftiall calculate the average out-gut of the 
coaliers : There are, in all the different pits, forty {\% c^ioiUersi 
allowing three carts and a half per itHitccisone 
hutxired and fixtyone carts per day, fuppo(aig' theioi oiiijir to 
work five days in the week ; the out-put per Mxek will be eight 
hundred and five carts \ rickooing the coalliers weeks ui the 
year only to be fifty, the ottt*put in the. year will be forty 
thoufand two hundred and fifty carts } fuppofing that the 
meafurCf at a medium ^ do^s not exceed eleven hundred weight 


ofCampJie. 333 

pcrcaitf the out-put in tbe y«ar will be 22 1 3 5 tons and a-haU ; 
the price at the hill is fomewhat better than 2s. 6d. per ton \ 
the total value is 2750L Sterlingt of which the coalliers re* 
cdve 1 375I ; the remainder goes for lordflwp, and to fopport 
the hiUs^mea and^in-boySy along with the tear and wear of 
the woik. 

According to the calculation of men ikilled in coal-mines, 
thc£e 20,000 tons will at leaft exhauft three acres of 
nuaHy, a wafte, which, great as it may appear, we are able 
to fupport for 150 years to come ; but in reality we are raif- 
iog this feafon, at leaft, double of what was raifed former- 
ly, nay, 10 times morp^an what was put out about 20 years 
ago $ 4l»a great quantity of coal ie ufed in the foHowteg vskTXL^ 
ner: The two printfields confume annually 3;$oo tons s ^ 
bove 2100 tons is ufcd in burning lime; and the remainder 
in fnpplying the pariihes of Campficj Fintray, Balfrone, Ki-. 
laivn,' Stfatkblane, Balderooek, and partly Kitkintillock and 
Kilfyek^ It is <feabtfttl if tiven yet* the coal iti this dtftriA 
be wrought to advantage; in reality, we are as yet but 
working the crop of the coal ; it being abfolutely neccflary . 
that tlKey fiiould either drive their levels,- or cre^ their fteam 
engines upon the dip fide, fo that they might work to the 
rife.' Mlmy great fields at this moment ly buried under wa- 
ter, owing to this defe£k % 


f N# nMp being «UMk of thde fobterraneoui WM^aad no docnmcntf 
being in the pofldfion of the propriecor% to point out when and how foch a 
field of cool was wrooght, it it only by fome vague tradidon, handed down 
Stom 'OUt generation of coallicrf to another, that we pretend to judge whether 
the groopd be wafted or not f io that too often the pit ib put down upon a 
OMuIiIb; or itfaitB, to' the great detrinMOt of die adveatnrcr ; whiebaullake 
aright be ealily veAified* by each proprietor getiiiig an aceunrte chart made out 
afthifkUaiwkisotBWiiki^ forte benefit of pofterity; befidet many Uvea 


334 Statijtical Account 

It has been obfervcd that limcftone is always found In the 
fame field with the coal \ it is in general a fearo from thre^ 
feet to five in thicknefs, and is wrought in the foHowing man* 
ner : They take off the earth from xht furface, called tirring, 
^hich is from lo to 30 feet ; feldom or never have they as 
yet wrought the Ume-^ftone by mining. The probability tSx 
however, that they will foon be compelled to it \ the work- 
men take tirring at 3d. the fquare yard ; they put otft the 
lime fkone at fo much per chalder, and by experience 'they 
know what number of fc^uare yards of broken {lone, makes a 

^ diafder 

n|^t be fiived, wUch are imfoitiioateTy loft bf die «6rkB)e0 ilriWiig Ar^oglit . 
vpon old wafte ; is was tb4 caiic Fcbroarf 1789^ when five c^a^i^i!^ were kil- 

. led in the Newk coal-pit ^of Campiie. I confider the wa^es of the coallien, 
a« by no meant in proportion to th« wages of other labourers in tlie parllh ; 
the laboarcr ha^og only fizteen pence per day : AUo«^g the ecklfieti third 
ihore on account of the daitget and diTagneahle nalvfc Of the wark^ tiCAwow 
fliim^gst then chcM would be nmt third oCthetwugK^^Aiicb Ije rqpfives i^ 
|Fcf«ac» iavcd to the pob^ic* . , 

Coal, in cyery inland diftri^ In Scotlaad, (bouI4 not be coofidered as ai^ 

' article of comxuerce, which the landlord as a merchant, may fpecuhte upon 
for his own advantage : It Ihonld be confidered as an article of the firft lie- 
ccffity } Proprietors of bnd flionld recolledl, that e^ery drcunftance whid^ 
incrcaies population, ultimately benefiu their eftates ; wherever water is pkn-^ 
ty and firing cheapi there the manufadurer ^ labourer wiU always refort., 
Campfie, at prcfcnt, i» confpicuoufly biefled with both ; and it will difcover 
the folly of the landlords, if ever they permit coals to become nattK^h dearer} 
it is not the richnefs of the foil which always brings the higheft rent to tho^ 
ptoprietor ; ibrne particufaur local adwuitage adb in his favQur \ and peiliapa. 
there is none to furpals the advantage of cheap fuel 

A fmall farmer (Inch as we have in this diftiid) coniders good oat ncal 
•ad a good fire as great luxuries ; and while the cenaau poflela thefe> they will 
Biake a conflderaUe Ihift to pay their dear rc«tSb 

It is with pleafurc that we take notice of the^f^blic fpiriicdattcaipttmado 
hyftveralg^ttemen hft ycir,lopfVfCi^ the coals from fifing in thts^liftriAi 
nnd they have fiilly fiicceeded ; They hate perjbapa fnak t littk inpncft but 
their tenanu and dependants have reaped the benefit, and the public hath ^4 
t^ every ref(«ft which an elcrated nu»d on 4cSrc* 

fhaUer of Ikne \ die lime is burnt cliieflf in fmall kilns^ hol4- 
inf from lo to 15 chalders, the ftone being more complete-* 
ly burnt, than in thofe of a larger fize \ the layers of ftone 
and coal are made alternately in the following prop9rtion8 1 
lft» Six inches of coal, then 20 inches of lime-ftonet broken 
lo tlbie fiee of a two-penny-loaf- Two firlots (wheat mea- 
fure) of burnt ftpnc make four firlots of flacked lime ; of 
CQurfe, 32 fidots make a chalder of Ikmt^ fold, till within 
thefe two years, at ^L Soots« at the quarry, no^ 8s. the rea* 
dy. money price ; formerly it was fold with at leaft 6 months 
credit. It is doubtful if the ftate of the country as yet will 
permit this alteration, fmall as it is -, it requires 6 or 7 loads 
of cosd to burn the chalder of lime* There were employed 
this fummer (1793) 40 woikmen in the difierent lime quar- 
ries in the parifli, who raifed at leaft 3^00 chalders of 
flacked lime \ the Campfic lime is reckoned of ah exctf^ding 
-rich quality, much fought after by pbifterers ; in common 
building, to every boll of lime one b<dl of fand is required, 
tx> make proper mortar. The great fa£ts reladve to our coal 
and lime work^ arc ftated in the following table : 

Wages, 35 per day, or X375I. pet 

per annum, at i8d. per cart, 
per annum. 

per cart^ confifting of fix loads, 
bundr^ weight* 
per fquare yard, ttrring. 
the puttmg out* 

per Chalder, when burnt at the 
Sd. pet ditto for fetting and (eUing 


No. of CoALLI£RS 46 

— — Cam 


-^— Tons 












336 Stat$ical Account 

Coal - 35^^ Tons confumcd'by the prititfietcrj* 

-_—- * ^2 1 CO confiimed in tfec burning of lir/ie. 

— — • 16,465 ' confumcd by this, and neighbour-* 

ingparfftcs* .- • • 

VALtE L* 2750 of out-pit this ycir 1793* 

Li:&E ^ 30O0 Chaldrons burned and fold in tic 

year. 6 Loads of coal, to the 
burning of 1 chaldcr of limd : 
fo that' every chaldcr,' befid^s 
'tirring, cods the tackiiniftn in 
'expcnce of putting out, in fcft- 
ing, iiM m COtds, 3s. (fd*. before 
he can bring ff to market. 
'Me^ •» "'40' cmpldyed in working Time. 

State rf Pr»perty,^^T[m fsA(h cm^ 
oae pk>i:^gal3eff of kpd, 72 of which aiie poflefikd by tight 
. -great proprietors ; die other 28 ploughs fre pofieiFed by 37 
Sniars,^ portidncrs,hDldifig charter and: feifin; dievaltia* 
lion of the whole patiih, being 6429I.. 4900I. iapofTdTed by 
the eight great proprietors, in the following proportions : 

WilKarm Lennox of -lAToodhood * ^m 

John Lennox of An^rmony, ... - -8^8 

• Sir Johii*Stirring of Glorat, - * - Eoo 

Sir Andiibald Edrmfton of Durltreath, - 6t6 

John Macfarlane.oPKirkton * "537 

John Buchanan of Carbeth, - • - • 403 

John'Kincaid of-Kincaid, • • 417 

John Stirling of Craigbarnet, - * 300 

They all' refide in the parifli, except Sir Archibalfl Edmi- 
fton, who pofTeiTes large eftates in the parilhes pf Kilfythj 


(ffCampfie. 337 

BtrathUane^ Kil{)atrick, and Dumbarton : Mr Buchanan of 
Catbeth)^ Mir Stirling of Craigbarnet> and Sir John Stirling of 
Glorat, pofiefS} each of them, likewife landed property in 
other parifbes ; of this property there are 2260 pounds Scots 
entailed^ and in all probability ^Iiere will be more added by 
the prefetit proprietors. The fmall proprietors are fetiera of 
the families Of Montrofe> Keers Glorati and Bardowie, and 
beame fo at the following periods : 

Feuere of Moiitrofe 1632) feuersofKeer 1714; feiiers 
of Glorat 1742 } feuers of Bardowie f7i3v Landed proper- 
ly in this di(lri£l hath changed its mafters as feldom as in 
moft* parts of Scotland ^ whether this be an advantage to the 
country 9 or not| is a queftion upon which fpeculative men 
have differed ; but this at leaft is certain, that the foUowiug 
.families; viz. Kincaid of Kincaid, Stirling of Craigbamet, 
Stirling of Glorat, Lennox of Woodhead, and Edmifton of 
Dontrath, were, in the year 1470, proprietors of the fame 
lands which they pofieis at this day ; the eflate of Auchin- 
reoch fell by fucceflioni in the beginning of this century^ to 
the Buchanans of Carbeth, an ancient family in the parifli of 
))lillern : Macfarlane of Kirton, a cadet of the family of Mac* 
farlane, became proprietor of KirtOn in the year 1624 ; the 
ellate of Antermony is the purchafe of Captain John Len- 
nox of AntermoAy, a younger fon\)f the ancient family of 
Woodhcad. Perhaps this circumftance, which may pleafc 
the pride of family, is one g|[eat reafon why the improvement;, 
of land is fo very backward in this diftricS \ wherever fami- 
lies refidcd long upon an cftate in Scotland, the objeft of our 
Scotch ambition was to poffcft a numerous tenantry, live as 
-they may. The laird fought other means of bettering his 
^tuation, than by the flow returns of agriculture ; whereas, 
Tql.XV. 2^x ' if, 

338 Staiijiical Account 

if an eftate often changed its mafter, it became in reality 
an objeft of commerce, and every new proprietor made it 
fomewhat belter for his own intereft. 

It is curious to obferve the progreffiye rife of the land rent 
in this pariihy (ince the year 1641 j the rent of the plough- 
gate in th6fe (Jays, - was about one hundred merks^ bcfides 
feu fervices : and there is reafon to believe, that the valua- 
tion in Cromwel's time, in this didri£^y was made as high as 
the land could really afford in rent ; during the firft years of 
the Reftoration, land feenis to have rifcn, (as appears from 
fome old tacks:) From the 1680, till the year 1715, it 
appears that the rife was but trifling ; after this period it 
Tofe confiderably •, ?ind, in the year 1748, was about 1500 L 
Sterling ; the next rife was in the year 1763 ; and, confideri- 
ing the value of the land in the natural poiTcflion of the fmall 
proprietors to keep pace with the tenantry, it rofe to about 
3000 1. Sterling. The land-rent this prefent year, is betwixt 
feven and eight thoufand per annumy upon leafes, or in the 
natural poffeffion of the fmall proprietors. 













By this ftatement, it is evident, that land gives fourteen 
times more rent in money than it did 150 years ago ; allow- 
ing for the fervices and other preftations payed by the ten- 
ants in thofe days, perhaps we ought not to reckon fo high- 
ly ; whether this rife, however, is to be afcribed to the gra- 
dual improvement of landed property, or the depreciation of 
money, becomes another queftion ; and perhaps the land- 
holders will not have fo much reafon to boaft of their advan- 
ced rents, if the enquiry be fairly made ; in this rental, that 
f f cot-houfes is not comprehended, which is at lead five hun-' 


ofCdmpJie. 339 

dirci per atinum 5 thefc houfes have iricreafed their rfenti four 
Umes the fum of what they were in 1745 } even fo late as 
1 760, four pounds Scots was the rent of a cottage with a fmall 
yard annexed to it ; fuch houfes rent now at twenty {hillings ) 
but, firom the improvement made on cot-houfes, the rent o£ 
a room and kitchen, or what in the language of the place is 
ftiled a hut and a hen^ gives at lead two pounds Sterling \ fo 
that the fame clafs df people pay for lodging fix times more 
than they did thirty years ago \ this increafe arifes chiefly from 
die introdu£lion of manufactures ; now, if the rent of the coal 
land lime, together with that of the cot-houfes, be added to 
the land, the total rent of the parifli may be dated to be eight 
thoufand four hundred pounds Sterling pet annum. 

Prefent State of Agriculture, — It iS ilot poflible to fay ex- 
a£Uy what number of acres there are arable, and what not^ 
as theie is no map of the pari(h> nor has the whole ever been 
accurately meafured t If the pariih contains fifteen thoufand 
acres, it will be found that five thoufand of thefe are arable ; 
of the other ten thoufand, confiding of brae, of muir, and paf- 
ture land, three thoufand more may be made arable : — Of 
courfe, it is about fifty acres of arable land to each plough* 

There are ninety-fix heads of families, who live on this 
property, either as tenants or feucrs ; and whofc employment 
is either grazing or agriculture ; but it is to be obferved, that 
there are eighteen heads of families in this lift, who do not- 
make agriculture their chief employment ; pofTefiing only a 
few acres of Imd, and who principally employ themfclves as 
mafons, or carriers, or road makers j there is another diftinc- 
tion to be made of thefe heads of families, who employ them- 
fclves in agriculture ; 2& of them are fcuers, who farm their 
^ X 2 own 

34^ Statifiicai Actouni 

own lands, the remainder are tenantry ; feven of tiie& U^ 
make grazing their chief empioyment. 

The following is a table of the rents paid by die differ- 
ent graziery and farmers in this diftriAy ia 1793. 

No. I L«6oo No. I L 400 

I 167 I 100 

comprehending the feuers who farm their own land. The 
rents of others run betwist twenty and feventy poundsi ex« 
cepting npon the forfeited eftate of Bancloich, where fome 
tenants pay as low as five pounds ^^f^irnvmi they having got 
Icafes of three nineteen years in 1748. 

The labour of thefe hundred plough gates of land was per- 
formed in 1793} by feventy plough9> drawn by izi horfc% 
yoked fe the following manner : 

ao ploughs drawn 4 horfes.xach. 

24 ditto drawn by 2 horfes. 

26 ditto drawTi by 3 hor&s. 

The following table exhibits the manner in which the five' 
thoufand acres of arable land was cropped in the year 1793^ 

2000 acres in tillage and' fown graf^, of which were, 

aoo acres in barley. 

1 CO acres in potatoes* 
30 acres in lint, 

200 in fown grafs. 

1500 in oats ; of which, we may dedu£t 20 for peafe antf 
beans •, the remaining 3000 acres in ley pafture for milk cows, 
and young beafts. 

There were not ten acres fallow, in the whole parifh \ nei- 
ther were there above four acres in wheat or turnip. Per- 
haps tliere is no country in Sc . thnd more calculated for rai(^ 



fifCavipJif. 34« 

In^ turnip tb^n Campde ; ^t the fame timc> I rather think 
th^y do not ft^nd the winter w^W in this di(tri£l ^ I h^ive faid 
29 Acres fpr peafe and beans, the w^t climate rendering thefe 
a very unproiitable crop with us^ growing all to the ftraw^ 
without any pdds : The produce per acre, at an average, is 
about fix bolis ; — fmall as this may appear, it is at lead one 
third more (ban it wae thirty years ago : If a (Iranger was 
to View our crop at Lammas, when growing, or eren in th& 
fhock, he would be apt to conclude the produft to be a great 
deal niore ; the truth is, our moid climate produces much 
draw and little corn \ I believe, it may Cafely be affirmecl, 
. that at an average there is not above fifteen pecks of meal 
out of the boll j the barley produces better, the foil bein^ 
adapted for that grain ; and it is faid to malt remarkably 
well } .but the fault lies more in the ftyle of farming, than in 
<he ground itfjjf J fo late as the year 1763, the farms w?re 
pofleiTed in rUn rigg (--^^here Was fcarcely any incl(^mg ; the 
moment that the crop was feparated from the ground, tha 
Cattle of the neighBouring tenants grazed in common, till 
Dcxt Whitfunday \ the diftinc^ion betwixt out»field and in- 
field, was kept up with the mod fcrupulous exa£^nefs') tber^ 
was no rye-gfafs and clover fown^ for making hay ; and the 
bulk of the farmers ploughed their land ^iih what is diled 
the broad plough, the four horfes yoked abread : Thefe pe» 
^uliari(ie« are now worn out ; at the fame time, farming, 
both as to fcience and praflice, is yet but in its infancy in 
this parifli. ♦ 


* It is true, that the climate is not good, but the foil is excellent ; ttiil at 
(he crops mij^ht be adapted to the climate, there are great hopes entertained, 
that we ihall one day excel in farming : The following defedks in our nio4« 
Item to be moft flagnnt : ifty The land being full of fprings guihing out, 
wherever any chants of th« foil takes place io the farms j— of C9iirf<9 noth* 


34^ Stati/lical Account 

Tack$ in this parifii are commonly let for nineteen yearSj 
^ith a claufe that the tenant (hall bear the public burdens^ 
which, confidering the land tax, the ftatute labour, and fome^ 
times the mihiftec*s (tlpend, at leaft the vicarage^ and fchool- 


%g but onderdralaiDg cm clear the foil of fucli a nuifance ; and yet tinfortu. 
natdy it is bat little pra6Lifed : idly. Our indofures are little better than rieUe 
4ykeft, builN of ftones, gathered from the land, without any mortar ;— K>f 
courfc, totally incapable of meliorating the foil by keeping it warm ; which 
would be the caife, if the inclofures were made with of qaick-fet hedges, 
ind behs of planting, for which the parilh is fo remarkably calculated; thefe 
dykes give the parifh a cold and uncomforubk look, ^d^, A great propor- 
tion of our arable landls laid doWn in the moft miferable maonfcr without 
Ibwn grafs, and impoveriihed by three fuccecding crops of oats ; by this 
management, it is in a moft wretched condition, indeed, when broken up to 
dergo anew the fame rotation of crops of oats- 4/£(y, Our Und, from being ia 
l^eneral a light foil, and lituated in a moift climate, is much addicted to weeds ; 
it is foul even to ranknefs ;~^f courfe, as the corns gtow much to idraw^ 
the (lalk of corn is kept conftantly wet at the root by the weeds ; it foon rota» 
and the lead blaft of wind in Auguft, lodges the com on the croft-lands be- 
fore they are ripe ; whereas, if fummer fallowing was pradifed, there can* 
aot be the fmalleft doubt, but our crops would be dean and much earlier; 
yet fummer fallowing is fcarcely ever pradifed in this parilh : Along with 
thcfc defers, I mud mention two other caufes, which have not a little con- 
tributcd to retard our progrefs in agriculture : In thtfrft place, an over at- 
tachment to grazing; which hath led the farmers to ftudy more the raifing 
of fodder, than the raifing of grain ; by tills means, the early. feed oats hare 
ftever received much countenance in this diftri^ ; but, if we confider the 
moiftnefa of the climate, there is no pariib which requires them more; and 
from the experiments we have had of fowing early oats, upon land well 
cleaned from weeds by fummer fallowing, there iir every encouragenient to 
proceed ;~the grain was fully ripe and early houfed. idly, I am not fur« 
but the proprietors themfelvcs have, in fome meafure, contributed to 
the little progrefk which agriculture hath made in this diflrid. From an 
opinion that land was always upon the increafe, it has not been their 
obje<5l to grant fuch long leafes, as to encourage the farmer to fink money 
i^ improving the land : The opinion cbpt has gone abroad amongft land«- 


af Campfie. 343 

mafter^s falary ; the poor man's rent is conGderably aqgmen<p 
ted by fuch items. — ^Thcfe things I don't mention as griev- 
?nces, for the tenant fubfcribes to them with open eyes ; nor 
can the landlord be called an oppreObr, becaufe he receives 
them ; they are alt prcftations of a fair contrail \ and of 
courfcy if the proprietor did not cxadl them, he would be 
entitled to more rent : I fimply (late them as defe£ls in our 
Diode of hufbandry ; and which it would be the intereft 
both of landlord and tenant to have removed — Let the ten- 
ant know determinately what he is to pay, and let him have 
the complete ufe of his time, and the complete management V 

of the ptodu£l of his farm. As ti a regular rotation of crops^ 
it is but little known in this di(lri£l. The old mode of al- 
lowing the land to ly ley for three years, and then liming it^ 
and taking three crops of oats, is, indeed, fail wearing out ; 
but no tegular fyftem is as yet introduced in its (lead. 

The rent of the arable land per acf e, is (lated in the fol- 
lowing table : 


Iord«, that the raiiing the rents of their lands forced the tenants to Le more 
aAave, might be produdive of fonie good effed ; providing chat indolence 
was the only impediment to a flouri(bing flate of agriculture in this partlh : 
Compulfion is but a bad argument, when the ohjed of that compuUion 
has not ftrength to obey : 1 could wiih that fuch an idea was exploded ; for 
It is DO longer the intereft of this country to confider the tenantry upon an 
Cftate, M part of that eftate. 

In England, thingjt feem to be better managed. There are flill feyeral 
lerritudes remaining in this pariih, annexed to the leafes of lands, fuph as 
kain hens, and the driving of the lairds coals ; thefe are indeed but fmall to 
frhat took place about 30 years ago ; but, even thefe are fetters ^pon the in- 
dttftry of the tenants ;— of more hurt to them than of benefit to the landlord ; 
and it is to be hoped, from the many inftances of an enlightened mind which 
the prefent proprietors have fliowD, that all fuch cafualities will be aboliihed 
ya the^firft opportunity. 

a44 StaHJlical AccounU 

Fdt p6tdfoes from 4I. to 7I. per acre. A flylhg crop; 

For lint - i\it6 ditto ditto 

For good arable a guinea and a half. en leafe. 

Ordinary arable il. per acre, - ditto 

Inhere is fcarccly any land in the ftrath of the parifli Jet 
belo# 1 1, per acre* Th<f brae farms, and the pafturc land, 
^xt let by flump ; it is impofiibk to fay what they tent per 

It may be proper here to take notice, that limci though in 
fuch great abundance in this pariih, was made but little ufe 
of as a manure till very lately ; the inhabitants pretended e- 
ven to fay that it fpoiled the ground by raifing lirceds : the 
truth is, the objcQion lay in their injudicious management ; 
there is not the fmallcft doubt, where ground is foul, as is 
the cafe in the foil and moifl; climate of Campfie, that lime 
puts the weeds in vegetation ; but if the land had been fal- 
lowed, or even permitted to He long in ley, till the ground 
was properly fwarded, there is no country in Scotland, wher6 
liming produces a better e£Fe£t, than in this diftrifl : As fomo 
recent experiments have (hewn, we now lime at the rate of 
from iix to eight chalders per acre. Sueh bebg the ftate of 
agriculture in this parifh, it rpay be faid^ withotit dtfparage* 
nient, that it is, as yet, but in its infancy ; and yet it wtbttt d9^ 
ing jultice, botli to the proprietors and tenants, to oWcfvC,^ 
that the improvements are going on with gircat fpirit and fuc- 

Gracing. — ^Thcre is confiderable attention paid in this 
dlftria to the management of bhck cattle, both for the pur- 
pofcs of the dairy, and likewifc for that of the biitchcf. The 
following table exhibits the number of cattle and (heep kept 
in the parilh in 1793. 


MSkcows, - - • 749 

Fat cows and young beaj^s for the F^l^rk market^ and 
thebut<;hcr, - . - . 917 

Winterers^ being (QoiUy graced next fummer for the 
butcher - r 30P 

Sheep, being moftly brood ewes, «• I0oo 

Thefe 749 milk-cows a^c kept by 177 pcogle \ there are ten 
principal dairies, which confift of betwixt 14 to 20 milk 
cows ; the remainder are fplit down in fmall dairies, contain- 
ing from 4 to 10 cows. It is not eafy to fay what milk at an 
average is given per day by the cows of this diftrift ; I Ihould 
think froni 7 to 1 1 Scotch pints \ below 7 they are not thought 
worth keeping for the dairy : above 1 1 they are confidered 
as remarkable. 

About 60 of thofe perfons who have cows, may be confi- 
dered as tradefmen and manufa£turers \ it may be doubt- 
ed, whether }t be* of any ufe to fuch a perfon to ke^p a 
CQW or not \ fome are apt to imagine that it is calculated 
tp inftiU hiibits pf idleneft into the mind« of their children, 
who (nay be efnployed i^ herding them by the dykes-fide ; 
no dpubt, it will be confidered as an ^ye-fore by the far- 
mers, tp jiUov^ the childreri of tradefn>en to feed their cows 
on the xo^A'^Aty to the prejudice of his turnips and peafe \ pn 
the other hand, it is of the utmoft importance to the ilate at 
large, that the children of tradefmen a|i4 fedentary people 
(hould fee healthy : I know of nothing more calculated to 
promote that end |han plenty of frejh milk- Our milk cows, 
within thefe 30 years, have iucrcafcd confidcrably in bulk ; 
9t anstverage, if fattcped, they would weigh 20 ftones, Tron 
weight. Jp general, they aure the breed of Highland bulls ; 
hence they haire a tendency to take pn flc(h| more t]ian to 

Vo^i. XV, Y y give 

34^ Statijlical Account » 

give large quantities of milk ; at the fame time it muft be 
owned, that the milk is remarkably rich ; it being very com- 
mon f6r a cow, which only gives 8 Scotch pints per day, to 
produce nearly a pound of butter from that milk per day. 
Campfie has been long remarkable for making excellent but- 
ter : Till of late, it was only ikimm'd milk cheefe which they 
made, of courfe it was not very rich : Now, however, there 
are leveral dairies, which inake cheefe equal to any from 
Dunlop ; and from the price which they receive for fuch 
cheefe, they confider this plan as more profiiable than to 
make butter. 

There are aboi|t i6co muir^ewes k^pt in the parifh, whofc 
lambs are fold to the Glafgow butcher in the feafon, from 
68. ^o 8s. per head ; they are commonly taken away by the 
hutcher during the month of June, and the firft two weeks 
pi July. Perhaps we have the beft flock of black faced ewes 
that are to be i;net with in Scotland ; they are completely 
muir ewes, and yet they weigh twelve Tron pounds per quar- 
ter, twenty two ounces and a half to the pound : They are fold 
at a guinea per head when fat \ the dock which I allude to 
belongs to Mr David Dun, grazier, and they are paftured up- 
on the muir-lands of the eftate of Kirkton, belonging to John 
Macfarlane, Efq; In former times, there were at lead 4000 
flieep in the parifh ; they were of two forts : the black faced 
iheep, with coarfe wool, bought at the market of Kilbi^de 
and Linton j and the fmall country (heep, with white and 
yellow faces, and remarkable fine wodl. From what the 
writer of this account rccollefts, the country fheep mull in 
a great meafure have refembled the Shetland breed :— they 
were the common breed of the country ; it being wedder- 
^ogs and Dinmonts alone, which were bought at Kilbrydc 
and Linton market. By fome ftrange fatality, this Southland | 

breed hath crept in^ though the creature is lefs hardy and 


of Campjie. 347 

courfer in the lArool ; at this moment there is not the frhalleft 
▼eftige of our country breed remaining, all the (lock ewes in 
the parilh being black faced and coarfe wooled : Two caufes 
have been afligned for the total negled of the native breed : 
iA» Since the rife of the fieflwmeat took place, it hath been 
the oh]t€t of the graziers to pay more attention to the bulk 
of the carcafe than to the finenefs of the wool, adly, About 
the year 1763, a neW mode of grazing was introduced ; the 
face of the hills being appropriated to the feeding of black 
cattle, it was found that our native breed of fiieep were not 
fond of the courfe grafs in the muir, conftantly foeking after 
the (hort bite on the Campfie Fells, it became abfolutely ne-« 
cciTary, therefore, if we were to follow this fyftem of gra- 
zing, to procure fuch a breed of iheep as were fitted for the 
muir ground. 

At prefent, the wool in this pariQi I believe to be as good 
as any wool of the fweedfrnuir breed of iheep \ when fmear- 
ed with tar and butter, it fells betwixt fix and fcven (hillings 
per (lone ; — ^white, as it is termed, fells at ten (hillings per 
(lone \ we expe£l eight pounds of clean wafhed wool out of 
the (tone of that which was fmeared ; and twelve pounds 
from the white wool. It is chiefly fold to the country peo- 
ple in the neighbourhood. The grazing of black cattle upoa 
brae ground, is perhaps as well underftood in this parifh, as 
in mod places of Scotland ; above 900 are fed annually ia 
this diftrift, either for the butcher, or the Falkirk market $ 
perhaps 300 of thefe maybe wintered \ the remainder bought 
in at the Whitfunday markets. .- 

The winterers graze in the open fields^ during the whole 
winter feafon, and are fed once or twice a day with coarfd 
hay, made of fprats and £r^fs, — gathered in autumn amongfl: 
the cows feet in their failure -, the graziers commonly begiri 

34^ Satijlical Account 

to fodder, as they term itj about Chrifttttifs, (Tt is tOti^A»t^ 
ed as a fevere wnntef, SVhfen they are forced to begin before 
Chriftmas,) anA comtinne till ibotrt the beginning oJF A(>rily 
\irhett the cattle ¥efuft it. There ^fe feV ciittlc grated with 
OS b<it Highlanders,^ and we prefer tbof« from Argylefliire, 
aiid the rOes : Nc>tth country ckttle ire tejefted,^ as ihey are 
confidered by thit gtaiiers as fctof and diftc«iit to feed : graz- 
ing of Highland tattte \ipon bra««groattd in this dJftrifll, 6Wcs^ 
iftuch of tht perf^£Boh to ^ich it has been brought, to Mr 
David Dun, a native dfthis parilK— He has Q)tnt the bfetlfet 
of his life ift thd ptdfefflon of a fhejAcrd, grazier, and breed- 
er of cattle J and his countrymen acknowledge, with pleafure, 
flic obligations they are under to hirtr\ for his fltill and atten- 
tion in thefc particulars^. — ^He haS) i^rith fotne prepriety, befen 
fiyled the Scotch Bake well ; for fcvcral y^ars, he giirc 1 400 !.• 
per annum for ^fe«lands, and at tJiat time did not fo mttch 
as ^to^ a cabbage plant ; at pi^cnt> he pays about 800 l.j^^ 
annum dn current leafes \ he has bech known, again and a- 
gain, to fell cattle of the Higlihnd breed, of his own f fcaring, 
^t twelve and fourteen pounds Sterling j)/r head, to the but- 
chers \' — ^hc has brought hts breed of hiuir rwcs to fuch per- 
fe^ion, as often to fell his tup-hogs at a guinea p& head, to 
the Highland Ihcphei^ds for brood rams: "^ He has fold forty 
Or fifty at this rate, in a feafon. Befides the uncommon (kill» 
which, from long experience, he muft have acquired in the 
" judging of cattle iand fliecp ; there arc certain uniform prin- 
ciples which he goes upon in grazing, which may be projJer 
to mention : In the ifi place, never tb ftock his laild fo hea- 
vily as his neighbotirs, or even perhaps as the land could bear y 
by thi^ tocans, his rattle havfe iiW^y^ the choice 6f graft, and 
he is ehaMed to ^ther enough amonjgft their feet to fod- 
der them in wiritcr. Tke ciittle by this rneans are fully fed, 
tirhich gives him the option of nlcrchants. ^dlyf By having 


(yfCampfie. J49 

larrtis of different complexions,, he has it in his power to fort 
his cattle in fuch a manner, as to fuit each farm*. — ^He has it 
in his power to vary their food, and to change them front 
farm to farm, as he perceives them healthy, taking on fiefii^ 
or the contrary, '^dly^ In the manner of buying his cattle 
from the Highland dealers, he is very particular : he muft 
have the word and oldeft, draughted again and again from 
the drove, before he will purchafe it ; by this means, he ac- 
quires none hut healthy cattle ; peihaps they may coft him a 
few fliiUings mote per IrefKl, but it is foon rcipaid.— -Scarcely 
ever any of his cattle die \ and they are fo evenly, that it i# 
hardly in the power of the butcher ^o challenge a bad beafl: \ 
by this managemeitt, his profits are uniform over the whole 
head ; whereas, when cattle are {hot, as it is termed, tbe pixH 
^t$ ^re greately diminifhed. $ 

We are not to imagine that the profits of graziers in our 
brae lands are very great ; when the cattle aite bought in at 
Mattinrtias, and kept for one year in the paftore, twa 
guineas per head is expefted as grafs-mail ; when bought at 
the Whitfunday market and kept till Martinmas, one guinea 
is expe£):ed per head y when thefe profits are deficient, it is^ 
eonfidcred as a bad year by tlic grazier % and when they ex- 
ceed, it is confidered as good times. * 

' Rodis. 

$ Titls gentleman hath been unfortunately killed by accident, iincB writ- 
ing this account. It happened on the %'jtii of May 1794, as he was attending 
on ihecp /hearing: — Leading a iheep acrofs a wooden bridge, the rail of xht 
bridge gave way; and he wa« thrown into the river ; falling upon a (lone, he 
\vat killed on the ^poe. 

* Notwtthfianding the diflrid of Campfie £eems to be fo WeD adapted for 
the glazing of cattle, perhaps there are fome defe&s attending their plan, 
which it nuy be proper to mention : i/?. It feemi to be the misfortune of the 
Scotch in geatraly and particularly of the people of this diihift, that when 


1 3j3 Staiijlical Account 

Roads, — Great attention and (kill have been fliown in this 
article \ the parlfti is interfered by two great roads, the one 
a turnpike, leading from the military road at Kippin to Glaf- 
gow, the other from Eaft to Weft, joining the great Edinburgh 


they obferve their neighbours thriving in any profeflion, they immediately 
run into it, without confidering whether they have tndoftry or talents to fuc- 
ceed ; fuch has, of late, been too much the cafe in the grazing line ; fo that 
now, the utmod iaduflry and talents can fcarcely enable them (o lire. The 
country banks afforded abundance of credit to every adventurer ; from facb 
a competition amoogft thefe tiwiU-ie^grazurt, the grais-farma are too 
high rented ; the cattle are dear bought from their rearers ; and the refalt 
has been, that notwithftanding the cry of the goodnefs of the times, very lit- 
tle profit has been made by the people cmbatked in this profeflion ; for thefe 
ten years paft, many bankrupcies have taken place among that clafs of men; 
It indulges the adventurous fpirit of the people, and therefore will always be 
A favourite profeflion, let the profits be what they will. 2J!y, The rage for 
Highland cattle is too great, more fo than thefe cattle deferve ; it is true, 
where ground is high and much ezpofed, fuch cattle is more adapted for the 
paffcurc, than the cattle which ihe low country produces; but perhaps it 
would be the interell of the grazier, to turn all our brae ground in fheep paf- 
ture, and the' grounds of the valley into grals farms, for lowland cattle, 
where, if once winter food were produced, and thp land either proteded by 
planting, or fhades built where they might be fed with turnip in the open 
air ; the prof^eds of greater profits upon the fattening of beafts would be 
procured, than by the imperfed mode of buying either winterers at the Down 
markets, or lean cattle at Belting, and felling them at Martinmas, ^dly. 
There is another dcfcd which attends the prefent fyftem of gtazing in thit 
country, and which tends to render the beef of Highland cattle too dear to 
the confumer ; there being no Icfs than three different claflcs of people who 
muft have their profits within the year : There is the drover, who collets 
thefe cattle in fmall parcels from the rearer, and fclU them at fairs, at an ad- 
vanced price to the graziers ; the grazier, again, very often fdb his cattle to 
the lou^er, who runs them at fairs to the confumer, and fometimes cxadls a 
profit almoft equal to that of the grazier : In (hoit, there is too much of the 
fpirit of adventure in this profcifiofl, whereby both the graskr and cocfum* 
CI ore lofers. 


tfCampfie. 351 

road at Auchinreach hocife on the Eaftj and the turnpilce 
road by Strathblane to Glafgow, on the the Weft ; befidcs 
thcfc two great lines, the turnpike road from Edinburgh to 
Glafgow by Falkirk, palTes through Campfie for two miles ; 
and there are two crofs branches which ftrike off to Kirkin- 
tilloch ; fo that there are in all 20 Englifh miles of road in 
this diftrifl, 10 of which are kept up by the converted fta- 
tute labour : It will be eafily believed that there are few dif- 
tri£ls more complicably interfered, and, it may be added, 
fewer ftill where the roads are better kept in order. The 
roads in this diftrifl, before the a£k for converting the ftatutc 
labour took place, were miferable indeed ; for although the 
labour of 101 plough-gates, according to the mode of three 
days of a man and horfe in fpring, and as much in autumn 
for each plough, might appear adequate to the purpofe ; ftill, 
from the awkward and carelefs manner in which they 
wrought, the roads were hardly paflable in winter 5 at the 
fame time, I am convinced, that this was as much owing to 
the want of fkill in the overfeers as to the want of dexterity 
in the labourers. As to any pofitive advantage gained to the 
public, from the converfion a£t, 12s. per annum is by no 
means equal to the labour of fix days of a man and a horfe. 
The fum levied in this parifti varied exceedingly of late years, 
owing to the increafe of inhabitants ; every cotter or houfe- 
holder paying as. per annum, it hath amounted to 70I. per 
annum, 50 of which is paid by the farmers and landholders, 
and' the other 20I. by the cottars. Till within thefe 3 years, 
this fum was expended in making and repairing, and keep- 
ing up 1 8 out of the 20 miles of road the parifti contains : 
Now, by one great line of road being made a turnpike, the 
whole money will be expended in future, in improving and 
keeping up 10 miles^ and in making fuch crofs-cuts to the 


352 Statijlical Jccomt 

great branches^ as the farther iinpxovement of the diftrlAi 
jfhall fuggeft ; OJie of which improvements is evident to the 
xnoit carekfs obfervcr ; viz. in cutting a line of road from 
Campfie kirk to the Crow roadi the defiance is not mu^ 
more than 6oiO yardst apd yet to the ^ople who travel to 
Stirling from this part of the ceuntyj it muft {lv)rtw the 
roa4 fully 3 mile«. 

ConGder4ng that t^ie roads were made upon no determine 
ed plan, but fome times altering and mending the old lin^s, 
2^ circumftancea Occurred, it is wonderful^ that in 7^ diftri^ 
where the ground is (q uneveni and particularly wheu it if 
<:onridered that one of the roads crofies part of a mountain 
800 feet high, that there (hould be fo few pulls in it \ feldodi 
or ever is the rife more (uddex) thau that of one foot in ao||« 


y A« fometimc? it hath b^cq propofed to carry a turnpike road from 
Kilfyth to the military road near Bochanan houfc, the feat' of the Duke of 
Montrofe, through the ftraths of CampGe, Strathblane, and KiHeak-n; and if a 
bridge was thrown over the Leren, at the boat of BaUach, there cannot be 
.the fmalleft doubt, that the great line of travelling from the Weil Highlands 
to Edinburgh, muft be thnuigh the valley of Catnplle^ it being much nearer 
than eithor by Glafgow or Stirlmg : (fince writing this account, a bill hat 
pafied, qualifying the heritors of Stirlingfhire to carry this Eaft and Weft di- 
rcAion through the valley of Fintray, to the North of Cainpfie hills, and 
throBgh the valley on the river Bko«. It may aot be inpreper to obferve 
here, that the people whogmmble moft in paying aooey inft^ad of tl^ ft^ute 
labour, are the cottara and tradefmen ;'and yet thpy are the greatefi gaioeri : 
I'hey don't recollc(a,tbat wherever good roads cxift, raw materials afc fafily 
imported, and manufaAured articles have ready accefs to the market : fuch 
local advantages, along with the cxrcumftance of cheap frel, have been the 
f leat reafoBs of encouraging manofadurers to fettle amoagft ns : the VT^xh 
is, the public, or the truftees for the public, may be laid . to h^ve fBa4e a 
bad bargain when they agreed (as the at^ of Parliament e^pi:ciref) to 
fcccive two fiiiliingti from a cottar in lien of four days labour^ although 


ifCampjte. 353 

ttpon the difFerent lines of roads, there are nb lefs thai! 
ip ftone bridges, 4 of which are a-crofs the Kelvin. It may 
be obferved, that there aire feveral old cauf<^ays in the pa- 
rtfh, oh the line of road leading to the parifli church, which^ 
tradition fays, were made by offenders in ancient times, by 
Way of penance ; particularly the caufeways made by the fe- 
vcn brothers of the name of M*Donald ; thefe fliew the ftile 
IB which roads were formed in thofe early days \ as far ad 
can be perceived, they confiftcd of one targe whinftone in 
the middle, $irith fmaller ones on each fide in rows, the 
breadth of the rbad being about fix feet. There is one radi- 
cal defe£t attending the roads of this diftrid ; the foil being 
gravelly, when a fuddcil thaw comes aftet a fetere froft in 
winter, the ground becomes fo fpungy, as to be almoft im- 
paflable, which can only be rcftified by making a layer of 
beat whinftone below the water gravel, a pradlicc feldom 
followed. The following table exhibits the ftatc of out 
rbads, and the prices levied at the toll-bar : 

J. . *- , ' 

Miles. £. /. di 

Total line of road : 


Turnpike road 


Country road - 


Money levied per annum in the parifli 

70 b d 

From the ploughgates 

50 6 

From the cottars 

20 09 

.Price of cattle at the toll-bar 


Horfe and cart 


Single horfe 


The fcore of cows, flicep, lambs, &c. 


, Vol. XV. ^ Z z 


the %St ezpreffes, ihat all thofe receivin^^ public charity fluU be exempted ; 
perhaps it might be an improTement, if women and men; after a c^tain age; 
ihouldbe excufed from paying porilh burdens; it would picafc them, and tbe 
public would not be great lofcn by fucb mitigation. 

354 Statijiical Account 

Atanu/a^uns.r^At prefent the leading feature of this pt^ 
riA is i^s manufa&ures : Two v^erf exteafive priatfieldf 
have been erefted within thefe nine y^ars ; the one in the 
17859 at the French miiU, Ailed the Kincaid printfield> the 
firnty Henderfon, Semple and Company, upon a farm wluch 
they have' rented from the laird of Kincaidi at three pooild 
' per acre ^ They have conftru£ted not only the moft elegant 
machinery for the calico prtntfieJd ; but have likewife oonw 
pteteid a fet of works for the manufaAuring all forts of grain ; 
the fall at this printiield 16 22 feet; the grounds are laid 
Out with gVeat tade ; and in order tp obtain foft purs water, 
they have dug a re&rvofa' of 120 yards in length, and farcn?' 
ty in bteadthj with a fmall ifland ia the middki planted 
with Arubs. 

The other was <r^£ted in the year 1 766, c6ntaiaing a farm 
annexed to it of about thiity acres ; likewilc at dircc pound 
per acre, where works uncommonlf commodious hav« been 
creded ; The firm of thi^ fecond, is lindfi^, Swalh and 
Company ; bofh fields are upon a leafe of 99 years. 

Both thcfe works have been carried on with fpiric,'and| it 
is believed, with confiderable fuccefs. Two circumftances 
induced the manufadurers to fettle in this pariffa -, viz. plen- 
ty of pit- coal, and the uncommon fupply of water in all fca- 
fons; perhaps the circumftances bf being fituated in the neigh- 
bourhood of Glafgow, and of the Canal, might not a little 
contribute to fix their choice. There are about 306 perfons, 
young and old, employed at each field ; each employs 37 
tables for block printing, and 1 7 copperplate prefTes \ they 
in general bleach their own cloth for printing. 

At the Lennox mill print-fidd^ there is another field laid out 
for bleaching lawns, which there is every reafon to believe will - 
fuccced perfectly well. The work people at the Wcfler 


itfCampJie, 355 

field, are conunodioufly lodged at, the new village of Lenox« 
town ; and at the Kincaid, or Eafter Field, fevcral of the print- 
ers have feued (leadings on the grounds ) foihat there is eve^ 
ry probability of a tteat village belrtg built, for the conve-r 
nience of its fervants : At firft, (as Was td be etpe£led in 
all new works,) the operative people were a little turbulent \ 
and conGdcring that they were a coUediion from all the difr 
ferent eorners of the country, enjoying high wages, and car« 
ried away by the licentioufnefs of the times, their jurbulcnce 
was not to be wondered at ; but that is now all over ; and 
there are fcarce any works in the country, where th^ people 
behave more circumfpefUy towards their employers, and are 
more regular in their deportment. 

Thefe public works employ each of them two Excife of- 
ficers s and they pay of revenoe to Government about four 
thoufand pounds each per annum. 

It may be proper to notice^ that although tlie wages of ca- 
lico printers feem to be the higheft of any in the country ; 
no 4oubta when the long apprenticefl^ip is confidered, along 
with the unwholefome nature of the work^ the wages per- 
haps fliould be greater than of moil other operative people ; 
at the fame time, when it is confidered, that the higheft wa- 
ges do not always make the wealthieft tradcfman \ perhaps, 
if feme method could be fallen upon to reduce the prices, 
both the tradefoian and the public would be gainers. 

The following table exhibits the prefent fituation of one 
field, as far ay is known to the public. There being nearly 
<be fame workmen at both, the fame table may apply to each. 

? 2 ^ ; Dc^ONji349:f. 

35^ Statiftical Account 



Block Printers . . 36 


i8t. to ars. per wcclu 

Coppei plates iUtto . %% 


17s. to lis. ditto. 

Ppociilers . . . i6d 


4S, to 6s. dhta 

Tearing Boy» ... 34 

If. ditto. 

Bleachers ... . %6 

Ss. ditto. 

Engravers ... . x& 


iSs. to a2«. ditto. 

MilnWrrghtf ... a 


I as. ditto. 

Labourers • • > 6 

7s. ditto. 

Furnace Men ... % 

7s. ditto. 

Excifc Officers . . 2 


per annum. 

Revenue to Government, 


per annum. 

It may be obfervcd, that as the greateft number of b!ocH 
printers at each field are apprentices, fo, of courfe, their usa- 
ges are fmall in proportion : Their tnafters are pnly bound, 
by their indentures, to allow them 3s. pet week, for the firfl 
four years, and 4s. per week, the lad three years ; but, oaring 
to the brifknefs of trade for fome years by gone, it was cuf- 
tomary to allow the apprentices to work for as much as they 
could make, giving them the half of the journeyman's prices ; 
at prefent, the wages of the calico printers in this diftrift arc 
fomcwhat fallen, owing to the great number of tum-ovcrs (a^ 
they arc termed,) from thofe fields which have flopped pay- 
ment. Whether this depreflion of their wages ihall continue or 
not, the ebbs and flows of the trade muff determine. Thefc 
two printfields pay annually about nine thoufand pounds Stcr- 
ling in wages. This parifh may now be faid to poflefs a 
fpirit for carrying on manufaftures of different forts ; there 
being no lefs than 105 operative weavers in it j 9 of which 
are employed by private families •, the remainder weave to the 
niinufaftures in Glafgow, and, as far as can be well afcer- 


ofCamffie. 337 

tainediearn^atanaverage^frdini twenty pence to twQ (hiU 

lings per day. f 

^ . > Population, 

f It will not be improper^ to take notice of a fpecies of manufaAure whidi 
)i3s czifted in this parifh for fome agea : We know that it was manafadliir. 
cd, to a confiderable extent, as early as t^ie reign of James ^he 6th, which 
goes by the name of the Camplle gray ; and was then confidered as the fta- 
ple of the couxktry. It may b« -proper to defcribeit : It was fjiiun about the 
grift of nine cuts out of the pound of wool, each cot coh&fting oi fixty thrcadi, 
fix quarters long ; it was dyed a blue colour in the wool, and. wove for a pen« 
ny farthing the ell, in a ten porter or two hundred reed ; they fcldom mAdc 
it broiider than half an ell and a nail of dr'efTcd cloth; and they fold the 
double cU from half a crown to three Ibillings ; fo that the weaver had for the 
^ngle yard little moie than fifteen pence? It wasfpnn by the women in 
private families during the famracr; it being cuftomary for each family to* 
have two of thcfe webbs, one of which was got drcfTed againft Marti(ima«, 
and fold to pay the maftcr*8 rent ; the other againft New-years-day; the pro- 
fits of whi^ werit ta fupply the demands of the family. The fairs of Kil- 
fyxh were the great -markets fiat the dlfpofal of thefe gray webs ; the f<^rvaiit 
lads ufod to coUedl from all the neighbouring paiiihs, in order to fupply them- 
felves with fuits of Campfic Gray ; which they would eadly do, at the mo- 
derate expence of nine pounds Scots ; and perhaps, few countries ever fupply- 
ed a more cheap, decent, and profitable ctoathing for working people ^Xt 
WM all ipon, ai it ta termed, upon the muckU wheel ; and a woman ufcd to eafia 
three pence per day befides her vi&uals ; It would be improper to pafa over 
the breaking of the gray web, a fcene of joy and gaiety, which will not 
ibon be forgot in thisi part of the country : If a private family was to have 
their wool prepared for fpinning, a number of country lafics were invited in 
order to card it; they generally afi*embled in the barn; during the day, a 
large piece of eheefe was cat from the kebbock, and wrapt up in a white 
cloth, and hid by one of the damfels ; at the gloming, the young lads ufed ta 
aficmblei in order to fearch for this eheefe, and peculiarly fortunate was that 
young man confidered to be, who (having received a watch weird from fome 
of his fair friends,) found out the eheefe, and had the opportunity of dividing 
it aroongfi the fimpering damfels. Both the manufadures and days of inno- 
cent amufement are gone ; nor has the manners introduced by ptiblic works 
repaired the lofs; it muft bex>wned, however, that fince manufaduret were 
introduced, therevis an uncommon degree of adivity which pervades tbisdif- 
trid, and which accompanies the people in all their opeiations ; and perhaps, 
indeed, I would rather be difpofed to pronounce the charadler of the people 
fp this phce inclined to merchandife and adventure. 

35^ Statifikal Account 

Pifuiaihfi.^^Ttas {nrefent year, 1 793^ vhen th« numtoitioti 
was made, there were 25 1 7 fouls. The p pulitioD of this p^ 
riih has increafed 900, fince December 1 783, the number then 
being 1627. In Dr Webfter*d aCCOuitt it h given tip tt 1400. 
From feV^t^ fids in the pofleflioh bt the writer of tliis ac« 
count, the population of this parifli feems fomewhat to hare 
deeclinedfrom the Revolution till the year 1763^ The ehief 
Cauft which has been affigitcd for this drcumftance, was the 
throwing feretal fmall tenements together, making one large 
farm, whereby a number of families were thrown out of bread, 
and obliged to emigrate jto large towns for their daily fiib- 
fiftence. The numbet tf houfdiolders dr reeks, previous Co 
*h€ '7^3> I cannot matk pofitlvely ; in that year there were 
317; population then being fomewhat better than five to a - 
family i in the prefent year, there are 609 houfehoMers, or 
people who keep reeks, fo that the number of fouls have n^t 
kiereafed in the fame proportion as that of houfeholders : the 
^eafoh is obvious : fevetal young people, printers and pencil* 
lers, at the different printfields, keep houfe, either fingly, or 
perhaps, though married, have not as yet more tfaaB*ene 
child ; fo that the populatioti in this parifii, even fuppofilig 
At houfeholders not to increafe, is not cottic to its juft level. 
To fliew the proportions from the Revolution to the year 
i7<$3i ^ have fubjoined the following table ; each ftatcmeat 
containing the average of baptlfms for five years : 


Tdirc. B^ptifinl. Ararsge. Y^kru feftptifiaBfl. ATtrage. 





















4« — 3« 

tifCamfdU, 350 




Yetra, • 























- X7?3 





















— . 

34 ♦ 
















It may be i)bfeivcd d^t the regifter of marriages feem« to 
confirm the fame opinion, that the population had decreafed 
from tiie Revolution to the year 1763 f : 

























It k not fo eafy to afcertain the average of deaths, as no 
regiiRer feems to have been kept, previous to the year 179O9 
but for thefe laft four years it ftands thus : 


* This period feemt t0 have been the lowcft, at is Ukewife evident from 
the regifter of marriages. % 

f It appears, as far as the regifter of marriages is entire^ that the niuil^ 
W decreaied to about za ; it Is noir about %% uaauStf^ as appe%n freih tlw 

^6o IStatiJ^ical Account 
















Allowing our rcgiftcrs to have been accurately kept, which 
I believe to be as much the cafe as in mod country parilhet i 
it is evident that they are regulated by no general rule : The 
fudden influx of inhabitants have varied thefe regifters ex- 
ceedingly. The following table exhibits all the fa£ls rda« 
tive to the prefent ftate of population : 


61 the three laft years of burials, the 



difeafes ftand thus : 

"inhabitants* • • 


Died of fevers, • 





Females, ; i 




Below xo yean. 



Born in the parifls. 


Afthma, • 


1 190 





Bo^elhivc, (vulgarly ttilcd.) 






Child-bed, . : 

Above ninety, 

Still-born, * 

AboTe eighty, • 



Above fevcnty, 


Old age, : 


What is now ftiled confuiAption, feems to have been un- 
known in this diftri^l about 60 years ago ; and I believe ge-^ 
nerally unknown in Scotland : Many caufes have been af- 
figned for this fafi, by medical men. Where people were 
cloathed in plaiding^ which fomewhat refembles flannelj as 
was the cafe till very lately in this di{tri£t, and where they 
fekiom were confined to work in warm houfes^ as is now the 
cafe, great colds, the forerunners of confumption, would not 
cafily afie£l them. 





tit ^s paptiI:ttion we hare fobjolned the following tiUe^ 
{hewing hoW they were employed fprin^ 1792 

Of the 88i below ten ycar« of age, Block-pnntert 
tiirt-te t*ere, At thfe tour drfcrcnt Stockin^-tfiikerl . ' 

ftK66li M thift ^al-iffi, • soo CwpperfUit frtU-jpt'mtett 

The fctnimtng were iofanu in the&r 
parents houfcf, capable of no em- 
ploymenty . . 681 

'the remaining 8co males ab<7ve Wn 

Tearing b#y» . » 

Coalllers . • 


H^I-men at the di^erent pltl 

years of xgc, are eiiiployed in tile Ct^iers and Carriert 

following tfiatitiet : 
Centlemea who life on their renti 8 
Mlnider of the Eaabli(hoient I 

MInlder of a Relief meeting Kou^e I 
Surgeon . . i 

Parnierv and g^iieN f6 

Weavert . i 105 

Tailors . . S. 

Hoafe-carpcntert • zi 

A'liln-wrights . . 6 

^lack-fmithf m four fhopi . 9 
Shoe-makers • • 5 

Bzcife-officers who fefide in the pa- 

riHi ... 9 

liabourcrs • . • 

HouXe fcrvants to tJie gentry 

Farmers and graziers ferrantt 



^tudefiti * 


Millers i • 

Lint-dreffers and glovers 

Shop-keepers and chandlqfs 


t)ytn i 'i 













A TAbU, 
Shelving h(nv the ^co females are efnptoyed ia t79fj« 

Wives to the diifercDt houfchold- 

' ers . . 410 

daughters', rcfiding in their pa- 
rents familiei . 170 
Sevatitrio gentlemen's families 26 
Menial fcrtf ants to the farmers and 
different houfcholdcrs in the pa- 
rilh . • no 
'As fempftrefles and maixtna ma* 
- kers . 1%. 

Vol. XV. 3 . 

Mldwives • • ^ 

The rcTT.ainlng fcventy-onc are ei- 
ther widows or nnthafried wd. 
meri, who rtfide in cot-honles yt 
Of the married women and young 
perfons, refiding in their parent! 
houfe^, there maybe about one hun- 
dred and fisty Tfrho pencil calico ta 
the print-fields. 

^ Pwr, 

3^2 Statijlical Account 

Poor. — ^Evcry attempt hath been made by the heritors s&id 
felEon to difcourage begging ; as yet their efibrts have proved 
abortive ; and although ac this moment there is not a fidgle 
perfon in this parifh underftood to be a common beggar, we 
are ftill peftered with vagrants. The poor which we coun- 
tenance as fuchj generally relide along with their childrenj 
or fome near delation \ they receive their allowance on the 
firft Monday of each month ; 6%» per month is the higheft 
fum given ; none receive lefs than three \ at an average there 
are^2o conftantly upon our lift. The funds from which they 
are paid are the colleftions at the church door, the mort- 
cloth fees and proclamation money, together with the inter- 
eft of 570I. of which 500I. is fecured on heritable property 
at 5 per cent intereft, payable twice ia the year : The other 
70I. is lodged in bank^ payable on demand in cafe of an e* 
mergency j from thofc funds we have been able as yet to fup* 
fupply the wants of our poor- The coUedions at the facra- 
ment, including the preparation and the thankfgiving daysj are 
applied to the relief of thofe indigent houfeholders^ wbofe fi- 
fituation is not fo prefGng as to make them objeds of the or* 
dinary charity. Although it is believed that the law allows 
kirk feffions to take pofleflion of the effects belonging to the 
paupers, fo foon as they grant them fupply \ we have an^iouf- 
ly avoided being too ftricfi in this particular \ for, callous as 
the relations of the pauper may be, it is ftill an indncemen^ 
for them to afllll a little \ whereas, if they had no profpe^ of 
fucceeding to the trumpery, fmall as it is, the whole care of 
their relation would be tlirown upon the parifli \ and it is 
welt known that iSd. per week is not adequate to all the ne** 
ceffities of lodging, clothing, and feeding a pauper. The 
EngliHi fyftem is to fupport the poor, the Scotch to aflifl« 



of Campfie. 363 

The fefion in this parifli has hitherto taken the complete 
maiKigefiient of fupplying the poor % the heritors meet once 
in the yvar, or two yeats, as it fuits them, to examine and 
pafs their accoonta ; and it may be faid here, as in every pa- 
rifli in Scotland, diat it is the cheapeft and bed managed pu- 
blic fund in Great Britain ; the only expence incurred with 
us IS of one guinea per annum allowed to the feflion-clerk, 
for keepsngthe books, ^efides the public parochial chanty, 
there arc two other charitable inftitutions, which have lately 
been founded in. the parifli, the one known by the name of 
the CampGe Benevolent Society, inftituted in the year 178(5, 
and whofe capital already amounts to 1 1 oL which Society 
allows 3s. to its members per week if bed-rid, atid 2s. per 
week if merely incapable of work 5 the other inftitution is 
connefted with the Lennox -Kilwinning mafon lodge ; its ca- 
pital is 7el. s it likewife allows liberally to its indigent mem* 

Tlie annual difl)urfement8 by the feflion are between 60 
and 70I. Sterling per annum. This parifli, confidering its 
' riches^ and its population, .could aflbrd its poor a great deal 
more, providing an aiTefTtnent took place ; the mode of pro- 
vifion by colIe£lions at the churchdoors, has been confider- 
ably hurt by a Relief meeting-houfe, which hath lately been 
ereded in the parifli ; the colle£lions made at thefe houfes. 
being either employed to pay their minifters, or to pay the 
debts incurred in building their chapels, nofke is given to fup- 
port the regular poor \ fuch houfes, therefore, upon their pre- 
fent footing, are extremely prejudicial to the Scotch mode of 
providing for the indigent ||. 

3 A 2 

I From the opportunity that the writer o£ this account has had, aJ a na- 
tive of this pariihy of attending to the ftate of the poor in tliis diflridl he can- 
not help taking notice of a remarkable trait of the degeneracy of the prefect 


3^4 Stati/lual jfccouni 

Of the Church — Campfie ms a paffbrngc ; ^ parfon of 
Campfie w^s the SaK^nft^n of (bp Q^tMlk of Gl9%pw ; of 
cpurfe, hp ipiift hart been one of tbe refidftntary C9|iofi$ ; hf 
had a houfe in the Rattexirtov of iCilafgow, fiod to be ftUl in 
f xiftence \ and was accui^omed to ferve the cure at Campfic 
by % vicar. As this parifhy in Ronaan Catholic timds, isontained 
above 150 plough*f;atP8 of land) from which th^ parfondrcw 
tithes \ the probability is, that the living vaa confideiable. 


fgc. About 35 yuan ago, it ^voold have been confidcrcd as^tfgvfiecliiU^ chU«, 
drcn to have allowed their parents to be fupported by the fefllon, or even the 
more diftant relations of brethren or nephews, to have heard of theif fiftcrs ot 
liDclcs cail upon the box, ai they termed k; it is now gftonilhing with wlUft 
l^reedineis people receive pi|blic char^y ; they fomeiyhft ^oi^lider it p ^ p^« 
iion, to which they are entitled. It ts not uncoi^imoq to perceiyt cjii^rcfl 
fnjoying high wages, and indulging ^n many of the gaieties of life, negleji^iog 
their aged parents : fuch unnatural condud was nqt congenial once with 
Scottiih Independence, and that dignified pridd, which charaAerized our fore- 
f^theti, in duir more yirtuou9 days. Mieii a pauper ditf»,'{t \% cuftomary 
for the fefiion to provide the (oifin and ^ioding^li^et, a«^ fi^f^clf^f giattfi 
And if there (hall be no relation of t^e dcceafed iq the parifli^ fp c^t^ibm^ (of 
the little entertainment necefl^ry at the funeral, which felJoqi happens, ji. 
Is allowed for foch ^rpence. As it might tend to throw more light upon the 
poUtical fituatioD of a country, to ennhe at what age, and what are<hc dafs 
pi people of which the paupers of p P*riAi are copi^e^, I hfvf ^^inted the 
following Ublc, compre|iendipg the difepeiu pewif fif »i^ifGfva, and t^ 
fums given. 

No. of paupers on our lift, • • ' • %l 

Of thefe there are Ujxis^ .' , • %h 

Males, . • ! r 9 

Above fixty years of age, ^ . • • 19 

The average of the years of their receiving chafity, -f 

0f this number of paupers, there are &o lefs jdian five facile in their mind, % 
The higheft fum giircii is per month, . . 6«, 

It would appear that h is only the hun4redth part of the whole iQ}u|bi> 

tants who require public charity, 
Of thcfc twenty five paupers, fight arf unmarried wpflic^. 

Aa^9&)g to &)t di^^QP of biQipps churches; and inenf4 
4^iireht3> U M^u OQ^ of the hifl^opd phurchea gifted hf 
DM4ld» £arl af Lena^i:, tp ih^ $ee of Gbfgpw* in ^c y/ear 
.I970* Thofe who dtlight in magnifying the riches of the 
church of Roroe^ take particular pleafurc in pointing out the 
yard where the parfon of Campfic's cor^j-ftacks were arrange 
^, ^pd th^ .file of tbp P{iil which wae cQpfiUntly c|ppjpy?4 
in grinding his grain. Tl^era 16 re^&m to believe^ th^t he was 
not the }eaft wealthy heritor of his pariih. Previous to the 
Reformation, we know that ^^mberton and Beaton were 
parfpns of Campfie^ :^nd afterwards both pf tliern biQipps of 
gt. J^sJsa^sm^ rn^^t who niadc fome figure in their da jr.*. . 


"* Oince the Reformation, the names of the clergf who filled that charge, 
and the daces of their admlflion, have been preft^rved hi the presbytery re- 
cords of GIa%ow ; and they fumifli in with a pretty good fpedmen of the 
fpirit of the times. There is reafbn to helieve, that the clergyman of this 
]^ih epBtiniiod Roman Catholic, and a'ccafionaUy performed this facred 
fuifUoQ ua the parifb, tiU the year I572 ; he i« fiiid to have been a branch of 
the family of Mare : about that time, we find a Mr William Erikine, a re- 
Jatipn Jikewife of the MAa% family, parfon of CampOe; he was afterwards 
titular Arcfabiihop of Glalgow ; he is fatd never to have been in holy orders : 
How ^acng he contioued parfon of Campfie, we know not ; but we find, 

I^, Mr pcoddart^presbyurian mini&er of Campfie, on the 3d of November 

2«/, Mr Jamei Suwart is fettied aiJifliMit »n4 fucceiTor the 35th of March 

3i, Mr John Crifbtop w»s admiued the %%^ of A}Vil 9693 : He vrasdepc 
fedlfor what wa^ called corrupt jdoi^iup : There is a tradition in the parifli, 
that he was fuch a remarkable il^ut, well breathed piao, that he could ^ajyi^ 
In forty minutes to thf top of the Campfi^ Fells, eating a peafe bannock, to 
a fpot which, tp this day, goes by tbp name of Crichtoo*s Cairn. 

^h^ Mr Alexander Forbes was admitted tbe z6th of December 1629 ; 
and was depofed for not cooforouBg to the Synod pf Q^fgoW« 00 the third 

366 Statijlkal AccounU 

The progrefs of the ftipends of this pariib, \ have not been 
able to afcertaln accurately priOT to the year 1618: It is then 
decbred to be two chalders of meal and 600 merks : In the 

• year 


$th^ Mr Joho Collins was admitted the id of November 1641 ; he was mur- 
dered in returning from the prcBbytCTy about Martinmas 164S; the fufpi- 
ctoQ &U upon the bird of Balglaf«» a fmiU heritor in thte pirifh, who was ob- 
liged 10 fly the countr J to avoid puniflimeot| 

tiUy Mr Archibald PenniAon Tvas ordained the jcth of March 1(^49 : He 
was depofed by the protellers in 1 65 5, about which depofition Principal Bail* 
lie, in his lettrrf, makes the following remark : He was reftored in the year 
766t, and died 1679; there is a traditionary anecdote mentioned of him, 
which fomewhat marks the charaAer of the man.^->In the year 1655 he had 
be^tin a difcourfe on a text, and half Qnifhed the firft head.-*-in the year l66r^ 
when reflored, he took up the fecond, prefacing his difcourfe, by £iyiiig,tbai 
the times were altered, but that the dodrioei of the gofpei al-e always the 

Principal Baillie, in his letters, fpeaking of Mr Denniflon lays, <* he was 
" dcpofed by the proteflcrs in i6j5 ; for his part, he faw nothing evil of the 
<* man. The proteflers, fays he, put in his room a Af r John Law, a/Mr hut^ 
*< Ur callartj who had but lately left his trade, and hardly knew hisgraoupafi: 
•« bnt they faid he ^z&giftd^^ 

7f4, Mr John Law was ordained by the protcfterg in 1656 ; He was ejec- 
ted i66r, and was reftored x688 ; he never officiated again in Campfie. 

8/A, Mr George Miln was iBfiituted a4t|i June 1681 : He,was tamed ool 
at the Revolution, and was exceedingly ill uGed; ttie worthVds partof'tfac 
parifh having rifen in a mob and broke his furniture, and threatesed hispfii>» 
fon ; this gentleman, however, h'^ way of retaliation, carried away the re- 
cords of the pariih. 

9/^ Mr John Govan, whp had been imprifoned in the Bafs, in James the 
7th'» time, was ordained minifter of Campfie on the 5 th of December 16S8 ; 
he died a hatcheler the 17th of Septetnbcr 1749. 

io/£, He was fuccecdcd by his nephew Mr John Forrcflcr, a brother of 
Forreflcr's of Dinovan ; be died in September I731, at the age of 15. 

Wthy He was foceeeded by Mr John Warden, a fen of the miniflcr of 
Gargwmock ; he was ordaibed the 3d of April 173a ; which gentleman was 
tranflat^d to Perth^ a»d afterwards to tbe Canongate of Edinbrn-gh. He was 
fucceeded by ^Ir Wiliam BeU« a natfvc of EcJcsfcchan, DumfrieslhiFe ; who 

ofGampJlc. 367 

year 1649^ an augmentktion of a chalder of ineal, and one 
hondred pounds Scots, was granted ; and in the 1985, a new 
augmentiotai . was granted ; fo that the ftipend now is 3o i. 
Sterling in money, two chalders of meal, and one chalder of 
barley : It would appear, that very foon after the a£): pa& 
fed, ordaining glebes to the reformed clergy, that four acres 
and a half of arable land was allocated to the minifter of 
Campfie : In the year 1646, when a disjundion and annexa- 
tion took place, three acres and a half more were allocated 
for pafture ; but, owin'g to the turbulence of the times which 
followed, the minifler never feems to have been in poflaffion 
of them -, fo that at pre&nt the glebe of Campfie is deficient 
in pafture ; the heritors, about 30 years ago, bought an acre of 
land, adding it to the four acres and half, without fpecifying 
whether it was in part of pafture or not. Till lately, it was cuf- 
tomary for the minifter to ufe fome overt aQ to prevent pre- 
fcription running againft him, anent the three acres and a 
half which had been -allocated for pafture. For fome time af- 
ter the Reformation, it would appear that the clergyman had 
lived in the vicar's houfe. In 1^27) a houfe was built aien- 
arly for the purpofe of lodging the minifter ; it was a fmali 
houfe of two ftories, thatched with ftraw : In 1727, a new 
houfe was built on the fame fite ; which houfe, along with the 
ocffieft, was repaired in the year 1785, at the very moderate 
expence of one hundred and twenty nine pounds* The church 


wu ordiined the a4th of S«peeml>er 1747, and died the 8th of May 1783. 

\^thy He waj fuccecded by the piefcnt incumbent. Thirteen clergymen 
have therefore officiated in this parifh ilnce the Reformation, at leaft fince the 
year 1582 ; whieh, at an average, it nearly x6 years to each idctimbent ; but 
what is very aftonifliing, out of that number no le& than five were eje^ed on 
account of the turbulence of the times, and one laid to have been murdered ; 
lads, vrhich ihould lead ui to vaJue the peaceable and happy timet in uhLh 
wc live. 

^68 Statiftical Accoutd 

tdfififted briglnally of three parts : i/, Whatt they called fioA 
Urk ) a^, (be quire ; and, 3^, the Ttftry $ which correfpooded 
to the ufes required in the Roman CadioHc times 3 it was 
repaired in the yedr 177I : At ptcfent it would be by fa* too 
fmall for the parlfh^ if a rdief meeting-honfe had not beeil 
€te£ted. The kirk of CampTie, like mod df the chitfches in 
popifh times, i^ fttaated it the ehd Of the ^^rifli j whedier 
this was from accident^ or from choke of the clctgyj toiix it 
xn the mofk dcfircable fp<rt,' is hot ea(y to determine. Ifj boW^ 
ever, the population of this cKftri£t continues to increafr^ 
there irtll be an ibfoldte necefflty of bttilding a more cOta* 
modioos church in a morfe centriciil fpot, for the better ac^ • 
commodation ' of the inhabitants. I obferted, that in the 
1649 there was a disjiinftioa and an annexatbtt cff-confi* 
derable portions of this pariOi to Ktlfyth and Baldernocit') it 
appears, howevet, by a difpute whieh lately t6ok place be^ 
twixt the miniftcr of Baldcmock and the heritors of Camp* 
fic, anent the atgmentation of ilie ftipetid of BiU^rnock^ 
that the part disj6ined was only Annexed quwi faclra ; and 
the probability isi that the propofrtion aniiexed to Ktliyth is 
in the fame predicament. Ail the lahds in the parifh are 
now vahied^ aiid the free utipropriated tithe is belter, thail 
600 1. Sterling annually, as the fand from lAiA the €lri^4 
men may have future augmentations. MrCampbdlofShiw* 
field is titular, in virtue of his being the pdrchafer of the 
eftate of Kilfjth, from the creditors of the York-biillding 
There is an opinion entertained by fome people, that if an 
aft of Parliament does not tenJer all minifters (lipendianC^i 
tl>at on account of certain peculiar circumftanccSj'the mlni^ 
ftcr of Campfie is (till titular of the tithes. 

The duties of this parifti confiil in vifiting and regularly 
examining the congregation once in the ycarj befides pi^fii^h-* 
ing three difcdutfcs e^xry furrday, from the icth of April tllf 


ofCampJu. 369 

die loth of Odober ; and in winter, two dUcourfes, one of 
them always a ledure : The facrament 18 given once in the 
year \ three difcourfes on the faft day, two on Sunday, two 
on Mondiy : The a£tion fermon in the church, and the eren- 
ing fermon \ beCdes preaching at the tent. People haire 
complained, tbat the tent preaching was prejudicial : I am. 
inclined to believe the contrary from experience : i^. On ac- 
count of its bringing a confiderable coUedion for the poor $ 
and, idljy it accuftoms a number of people to meet together 
in a decent, cheerful, and refpe£table manner.^I have never 
heard either the fober, or the ferious, or the induftrious, com- 
plain \ and confidering the fimplicity of our fenrice, in mofl: 
other refpefls; I have all along been accuftomed to confider 
thefe public religious meetings as beneficial to the manners 
of the country. The eclefiaftical difcipUne of this parifli is 
ftill kept up. As for difcipUne againil fornicators, two days 
d(Hng public penance in the church, are required, befides a 
fine of a crown, for each guilty perfon, to the poor. There 
has been an opinion entertained^ that this public penance has 
been produ£live df very bad efie^b in fociety ; fo far has an 
idea gone forth of this fort, that^ for this reafon, fome writer^ 
have pretended to fay, that fo long as doing public penance 
was permitted, no perfon fliould be put to death for child 
murder : 1 am inclined to believe, that it would be mudt 
more the intereft of the community, in a political light, that 
the laws of difcipUne ihouM be more rigidly adhered to \ M 
if once the vulgar of any country, confider ihcontinency as a 
venial fault, they are almoft ready for the cOmmi(&on oi any 
crime ; and as I can eafily fee, that the (hame ctf doing penance 
operates to deter others ; in this pomt of view, it is to b^ 
confidered as anfwering the ends of edification. Pid>li(i 
l>aptifm is regularly adhered to; parents requiring pri- 
VoL. XV. . 3 B 

3*o Sati/lical Account 

vate baptifm for their children^ pay half a crown to the 

Stf/5oc/j.-— There arc in this parlfl} tDi'O efiabliflied fchoolf. 
The pariQi fchool was ereScd in the year*i66i, according 
to the form therein required^ under the patronage of John> 
i\rchbi(liop of Glafgow ; the legal falary wa« fixed at too 
pounds Scots : It is remarkable, that ixx the deed of ereAion, 
there is ai> eipre£> claufe^ declaring, that the fchoolqiaflcr, in 
all time coming, ihouM teaeh Latin ; and that the fchool (fiould 
be condantly lield at' the Clacban of Campfie. There ^ wa$ 
another (cItooI cre£led in I7?7f on a mprtification of iifty 
pounds, left by one Young, a pedlar in GlocederQiire : It 
is fituated at the diflance pf four Engliih miles from the o- 
ther< The heritors of Campfie haye, fomehow or other, per- 
mitted the half of the falary belonging to the parifli fchool- 
znafter, to be added to the furtfier cinolHmeQt of this fchool, 
of the eaftem diftri£l.— It is to be expe£ledj in a little time» 
tW miilake will be re£lified^ and that the parifli fchoolmaf- 
tcr will receive his legal falary ; and, at (he fame time, the 
other fchoobnafter be fuificiently provided. Besides thefe 
two fchook, there was a third erefted lately at the new yil- 
liage of Caipplic;, for the benefit of the inhabitants ; t^e t^^cV 
cr has no falary : at the fame time, they have always fcpnd 
teachers ready to accept the office upop the bare emodupent 
of the fchod wages ; In the fumtner f^^ibn^ in tl^e Sputh 
<iu;^rter of the parifh, there is commonly a fipurth . (chool 
taught by fome young man from Gla^ow, wlio firnls it con« 
yenicnt to keep fchool during the .ya(;?t|on of the College; fo 
that at, an average^ there are fomewhat above ^pq children 
educated annuaiiy in the parifh : There jare .at leaft one 
fifth pa];t at fchool of ^ofe who are bjelow twelve years of 
age. The inhabitants of this parifh are, upon the whole, 


o/Campfie. 37 ^ 

rather difpofed to give their children a good education ; at the 
time this account was wrote, there were thirteen Latin fcho* 
lars at the two parifli fchools •, the other children are certain 
of being taught to read Englifh, write and caft accompts ; 
the common ftyle of education is carried on in the follow- 
ing manner : They learn the founds of the letters, and the u- 
nion of fyllablcs, in the fmall fpelling book ; then ihey receive 
the large fpelling book ; dien they get the New Teftament, 
arid the Bible, in which they commonly read fomc time ; and 
then the Colleftion : they geta qacftion in the common cate- 
chifm to repeat every morning: there h a public repetition 
on Saturday, with a pfalm on Monday. '1 here being feve- 
lal public works in the pari(h, the night-fchool is confidcra- 
ble, being wholly 'made up of grown pcrfons, who attend for 
tbepurpofes of writing and arithmetic, &c. The wages are 
fixed for tlie parifli fchools by the heritors and feflion, at i s. 
6d. per quaiter for children, half-a-crown for \vtiting and a- 
rithmetic, and 3s. for Latin per quartet, befidcs what they 
Toluntarily give as a new-yeai's-gift. It is evident that tKe 
encouragement is too Ibw ; perhaps it ^ould be the interelfc 
of Government that they Qiould have fome little addition of 
falary given to them \ let the wages remain as low as pof-* 
Cble, to uiduce the people to fend their children to fchool i 
from this circumftance of the want of encouragement, and 
likewife from being in the neighbourhood of an Univerfityi 
from whence ftudents come to be our fchoolmai^ers, who 
have farther profpeAs, th^re have been no lefs than tliirteei^ 
fchool-mafters in the parifli fchool, fince the year i759« 
Upon the whole, I would ftyle the common education of 
iScbtlahd, partly religious, and partly pliiiofophical ; It would 
not* be our intereft to fee it violently broken in upon \ it is 
' this fbode of education which givesihe Scotch nation fuch an 
attachhient to fpeculation in religion ; it is only following 
aut what they have been taught in the early period of their 

3 B 2 livcs^ 

37^ Statijikal Accmni 

lives. There are in this parifli, three ftiidenU of dmnity^ 
one preacher and two gown ftudents *• 

Charafter^ Morals^ Gcniusy l^c. — ^The inhabitants of this 
diftri£t| during the laft, and early part of this century, were 
fomewhat conf^cuous for drinking and fighting with their 
neighbours : If any perfon in this pariih, however mean his 
(ituation, had received an injury or affront from an inhabi- 
tant of another pariih ; his neighbours confidercd themfelves 
bound to fupport him, and to avenge his quarrel : fuch con- 
duftj however, feems to have proceeded more from pride 


* The peculiar ctiftoms of thw pirifli are fiid wearing oat. It was cm . 
ternary, till within thefe few years, when any head of a family died, to invite 
the whole pariih : They were ierred on boards in the barn, where a prayer 
was pronounced before and after the fervice, which duty was moft religiouf- 
ly obfertcd : The entertainment confifted of the following parts : Firji^ there 
there was a drink of ale, then a dram, then a piece of {bort bread, then ano. 
thcr dram of fome other fpccies of liquor, then a piece of currant-bread, and 
a third dram, either of fpirits or wine, which was followed by loares and 
dieefe, pipes and tobacco : This was the old funeral entettaioment in the pa- 
rifh of Gampfie, and was ftiled their fervice ; and fometimes this was repeated, 
and was then ftiled a double ferTice ; and it was fure of being repeated at the 
dredgy. A funeral coft, at leaft, a hundted pounds Scots, to any family who 
ioHowrd the old conrfe. The moft adlive young man was pointed out to the 
office of ferTcr ; and in thofe days, while the nunners were fimple, and at the 
fame tune feriout, it was no iinall honour to be a ferrer at a buriaL How- 
ever diftant any part of the pariih was from the place of interment, it was 
cuftomary for the attendants to carry the corpfe on hand fpokes. The mode 
of invitstion to the entertainment, was by feme fppcial mefKcnger ; which 
was ftiled bidding to the burial, the form being nearly in the following 
words : You are defired to come to fnch a one's burial to morrow, agatnft ten 
hours. No perfon was invited by letter : and though invited againft ten of 
the clock, the corpfe was never interred till the evening ; time not being fo 
much valued in thofe days. It was cuftomary for them to have at leafl t«ro 
lyke-wakcs (the corpfe being k^two nights before the interment) where the 
young neighbour; watched the corpfe, being merry or forrowful, according to 
the fitaatigD or rank of the dcccafed. 

^f Campjie. 373 

and ruftic gallantry) than froit % fettled maleTolence of dlf- 
poGtion. The more improved nlannersy and a more general 
intercourfe with focietyi have» in a great meafurey done away 
this turbulent difporuion \ dill the natives of Campfie may be 
conGdered as a keen tempered people^ by no means averfe to 
expofe themfelves to bodily danger at any time : the young 
people have no objection to a military life, being fond of no*- 
velty and adventure s during the prefent war, no lefs than 28 
have enlifted in the land fervicei and feven have entered on 
board the navy ; thefe remarks chiefly apply to the lower clafs 
of people. The gentry, for at lead thefe 40 years, have been 
remarkable for their fobriety, decent behaviour, and oeconoi- 
mical habits ; of courfe, they are all in profperous circum- 
ftances ; rigid ceconomy was not the virtue of their fofefa-^ 


* About ten years ago, the fudden tranfition from ftrid to loofe nuDDera 
was felt very remarkaUj in this parifh ; a number of wandering people, from 
different parts of the kingdom, having fettled amongfl us at the different 
printfields :-~peopIe, to (ay no worfe of them, not over attentive to regulari- 
ty of condvd ; thefe perfons, however, have now for the moft part, left the 
phce. The more fober and induftrious have been retained ; the youog er pare 
•f the workmen being now natives of the pariih« and more immediately un* 
der the eye of their parents and relatione— I confider therefore the morals o£ 
the manufaduting part of the community, as more regular than they were e* 
wn five years ago. 

The people of Campflc cannct be faid to be of a litigiout dl^poCtion : It is 
true, from their appareqt keenncfs, yon would be apt to ioMgfne that thef 
ihouldbe conftantly engaged in lawfuits.— The reverfe is the cafe : The high, 
er bom and better informed clafs of people, (ludioufly avoid litigation. A. 
mongft the other defcription of the inhabitants, much threatening, and a few 
hafty words, generally terminate the difpute. Neither writer nor meffenger 
at arms rcfide in the parifli ; at the fismethne, conGdering the number of the 
tranfadions which muft inevitably take place in a rich and populous diibid, 
(even though no law-fuit intervenes) a great deal of bofinels is ai!brded to 
both profeilions. Although 1 could not take upon mc to fay that the inhabi. 


374 StatlfUcal Account 

EminefU ilf>«.-— This pari(h has produced no eminent men 
whofe hiftory hath arrefted the attention of world, except 
Mr Bell of Antermony, a gentleman well known to the learn- 
cd| on account of his travels to China and Perfia ; this gen- 
tleman poflefled an uncommon faculty for fpeaking the mo- 
dem languages of Europe \ nor was he lefs remarkable for an 
amiable fimplicity of manners, in private life, and the mod 
facred regard to truth in all he faid or did. He was a na- 
tive of Campfie, having inherited a confiderable paternal e- 
^ate : he died in the 1780, at the venerable age of 89. 

Prices of Provifions and X./iJ0ur.-— ProviPions of every fort 
in this pari(h are regulated by the. Glafgow prices ; the 
common people have fuch an inveterate cuftom of carrying 
their eggs> poultry, and butter, to town, that we could of- 
ten buy thefe articles cheaper at the crofs of Glafgow than 
in the parifh of Campfie. I have fubjoined a uble of the 
f riQCs of provifions and of labour, for the year 1 794* 

L. 8. d. 

Pucks per panr^ •« -.030 

Hens per pair - - - 034 

]fggs per dozen, for four months 8d \ for eight 

months, 6d. « - 006 

Chickens per pair, ready for the fpit • 014 

Butter per Trcm lb. pd ; during two. months i id. o o 9 
Butter-milk per Scotch pint - ^ "^ 00^ 

Potatocsper peck, corn, mcafurc - - o o 4I 



t^ts of this diftri6t are food of literal 7 porfuits, it wvtild be'^iag them 
;»iojufiicc,^ i did not (ay they were people of capacity and {cniut ; at the 
ii^me tioifv the tendency of Ihcir mind ii rather towards an a^Te tho^ a coa. 
lein^tiv^ liff. 

bfCam$fie. 375 

^ L> s. d. 

Bed beef per lb. Tron weight, at an average 006 

Ditto ditto in the fpring months from 7d. to 8d* 

Lamb per quarter, at an average in the fcafon 018 

Fed veal no fixed price 

Oat meal, per peck, at an averiage thefe two years 012^ 

Barley at an average per boll - - - o 18 <f 

Straw per thtavq for thatching - - 036 

Cheefe of (kimmed milk per ftone - 646 

Tarry- wool per ftone • - - 070 

White-wool per ftone - * - o 10 • 

Milk new milked per mutchkin ^, and fkimmed, at \ per 


It will appear^ that living of all forts is equally dear with 

any of the great towns in the kingdom ; and, I believe, from 

the following table, that labour will appear equally high. 

L. s. d* 

Wages of a man fervant per half year with boards 

&c. 5 o' o 

Wages of a woman per half year, including ditto, 210 • 

A common labourer per day, i s. 4d. in fummer ; 

in winter is. ad. — average, 013 

Taylor, befides bpard per day» - . o o if 

Servants at the printficlds per day, during the whok 

year - 7 - - o i .0 

Miln-wrighr, - - . - 018 

Mafon, per day, - 01 i> 

Horfe and cart per day, « ^ i\f 

Digging ground, building dykes and ditching, is done 

at fo much per piece, equally high with any part 

of Scotland^ 

Women fpin wool per day, with yifkuals, • 0.4 

Linen yam fpun out of the houfe per fpindle, q t 6 

^ Si gluing potatoes per peck, corn meafure^ • o oi 


37 5 Statijiical Account 

L. &• d. 

Bark' peelers per day, - o o lo 

The hire of women per day \% regulated by the pri- 
ces given at the printfield. 

Appearance ff the InhahiianU^ and Difiafa.^'-^Vht inhdbi* 
taints of this diftri£l may be confidered as uncommonly 
healthy ; they are a clean limbed, well made people, rather 
lean of flefli, in general from five feet feven to fix feet high ; 
one half of the young men being above five feet ten, fcarcely 
any abo««e fix feet : There are a few who live to a very great 
age ; although, in general, the heads of families live to the age 
of feventy ; which circumftance would induce me to ftyle 
the place more healdiy than if we found extraordinary in- 
ftances of lot^evity t there is one circumftance to be taken 
notice of, which is, the uncommon number of accidental 
deaths, being fomewhat more than two per annum ; during 
the laft tenyevs there were no fewer than twenty three, f 

A Table, pointing out the manner of their deaths. 

t Killed in a coal pit by the cboak dsmp, July 1^%Z* • • 3 

Killed in a coal pit February 1785, by damp, ... 5 

Xilled by falling down a coal pit, . . . . ^ 
Killed by the firoke of a horfe, «... .1 

Killedby tlie machinery ef the difimmniiUMii . • $ 

Killed in a quary, . • «... I 

Killed by ^ falling of a tree when cut down, . . • i 

Killed by a the fall from a bridge, . , ' . . x 

Killed by the ftorma when travelling through Campfie Fellf, . % 

Drowned, . , . , 3 

Of courfe^ one dghteenth part, of tlie deaths in this parifh 
may be ftyled accidental ; and if we were to carry back the 
calcolatfon for thirty yeaurs» there would be found the fame 

. ^ ^i^itiHi 

ofCampJie. 377 

AmlquHies. — ^There are few in thb cliftri£l which merit 
defcription, except two Caledonian Forts ; and even thefc 
fcarcely arreft the attention, unlefs fo far as they prove that 
the Caledonians chofe to occupy places of ftrength direftly 
oppofitc to the Roman wall, no doubt with the defign of 
watching the motions of the legionaries. — ^fhefe mounds 
are perfe£lly circular, with regular fofles ; the one is ffyled 
the Meiclie Relve^ in the language of the countty, and is a- 
bout a hundred yards in diameter : The other is ftyled the 
Maiden Cajlle^ about twenty yards diameter : They are both 
fituated at the foot of the Campfie Fells, to which the na- 
tives could eafily fly, if attacked ; and ly due Nortli, at the 
diftance of two computed miles, from the peel of Rirkintil- 
)och|.faid be be one of the chief Roman ftations on the wall, 

There have been feveral urns found in the parifli, contain- 
ing afhes and burnt bones ; the urns were about five inches 
in depth, and fifteen in diameter ; made of courfe clay, ap- 
'parently balked in the fun •, a fpccies of freize work encircles 
the lower edge 5 they have been found in cairns, generally 
placed between two flags, 

It may not be improper to mention, that Campfie, (before 
the disjun£iion and annexation took place,) extended for 
eleven Englifh miles along the Roman wall ; and, of courfe, 
many Ikirmifhes muft have taken place in this {Irath, betwixt 
the legionaries and Caledoniaqs : after a particular exami- 
nation of the country, 1 have not the fmalleft doubt, but that 
the fecurity of this Roman barrier, depended mpre upon the 
almoft impafiable fwamp formed on the North fide, than on 
the ftrength of its forts ; even at this day, it would be no dif- 
ficult matter to lay the whole valley under water from Bon- 
ny, to BalmuUy bridge, where Graham's dyke crofles the ri- 
ver Kelvin : And the names of the different farms in Camp- 

YoL-XV. ^ 3C fie, 

37? Statijtieal Account 

fie, fuch as Inchwood, Inchterfi Inchbrcak, and Inchbelt]r» 
evidently point out, that they were once furroundcd by wa- 
ter : Inch, it is faid in the Gaelic language, fignifies an 
ifland : thus, the Caledonians would find it impoflible to ap- 
proach the wall on foot ; and it is prefumcd, that themorafs was 
not fufficiently covered by water, to permit them to crofb it in 
boats. Many people, unaquainted with the fituation of the 
country, have exprefled furprife that the Caledonians were fo 
ignorant of tlie art of war, as to be unable, for fo long a time, 
to penetriate through Antoninus's wall •, the truth is, it could 
not be attacked, but at the extremities. • The natives found 
it eafier to pafs over the Friths of Forth and Clyde, than to 
get acrofe the almoft impaffable fwamp oppofite to Graham's 
Dyke ; fo that when any incurfions were made into the Ro- 
man province, it is fcarcely poffible to conceive that thefe in- 
roads could take place from that quarter which is now known 
by the name of the parilh of Campfie ; from the top of the 
Barrhill, where there was a conGdcrable Roman Fort, any 
perfon at this day, taking a view of the country, will concur 
in the above opinion^ 

About five years ago, a confiderable quantity of filver coin, 
chiefly of the coinage of Elizabeth, James and Charles I, mixt 
with a number of Danifti and Dutch pieces, were found by 
one of the portioners of the lands of Birdfton, when digging 
a ditch through a morafs ; they were fuppofed to have been 
hid in the morafs, about the time when the battle of Kilfyth 
was fought betwixt Montrofe and the Covenanters *, the ma- 
rauding parties of Montrofe*s army having ftretched as far , 
Weft as Birdfton, the inhabitants, flying from their depreda- 
tions, muft have hid this treafure, and hayp forgpt where it 
was dcpofited, when they came afterwards to fearch for it, 


ofCampfie. 3^5 

Miscdldneous Observations, — It may be here proper to mcn- 
Vion a remarkable faft, which marks very much the turbu- 
lence of the tirnesy and the impotence o£ the laws» fo late as 
they ear 1 744. The father of the prefent minifter of Camp- 
fie paid hiach mail to M^Grigor of Glcngyle, in order to 
prevent deprcdntion3 being made upon his property ; M*Gri- 
gor engaging, upon his part, to fccurc him from fufFering 
by any hardjhip, as it was termed ; and he faithfully fulfilled 
the contraft ; engaging to pay for all flicep which were car- 
Wed away, if abone the number feven, which he ftyled lifting ; 
if below feven, he only confidered it as a piking ; and for the 
honour of this warden of the Highland march, Mr John Lap- 
flie having got fifteen fheep lifted in the commencement of 
the year 1 745, Mr M^Grigor aftually had taken meafures to 
have their value reftored, when the rebellion broke out, and 
put an end to any further payment of black mail, and like* 
wife to Mr M*Grigor's fclf created wardenftiip of the High- 
land borders. 

The laft inftance in this diftrift of a Baron of Regality 
cxercifing the jurifdiftion of pit and gallows over his depen- 
dents, is faid to have been eftercifea by the Vifcount of Kil- 
fyth, in the 1793 ; having condemned one of his own fervants 
to be hanged for ftealing filver plate from the houfe of Ban- 
cloich ': the fellow was executed upon a hill on the barony 
of Bancloich, ftyled the Gallow-hill j a part of the gibbet 
tvas lately found lying in a fwamp, adjoining to this field of 

Lunardi, an Italian, the celebrated aeronaut, alighted from 
one of his aerial excurfions in Campfie ; having afcended in 
a balloon from St Andrew's church yard, in the city of Glaf- 
gow, upon the 5th of December 1 785. At two o'clock in the 
afternoon, he defcended in this paiifti, at twenty minutes 

3C2 pad 

380 Statijlical Account 

paft two, die di (lance being about ten miles ; the fpot whcrf 
the baloon firfl touched the ground was upon the property 
of Sir Archibald Edmonfton, Baronet, of Duntreath, on the 
farm of'Eafter Muckcroft- 

Although this parilh has been always confpicuous for its 
attachment to its fovcreign ; whether of the Stewart fami- 
ly, as in the Lft eentury, or of the Hanoverian family, as in 
the prefent century \ having raifed a militia both in the ycarft 
1715 and i745> — ftiU I cannot help taking notice, in this 
Statiftical Account of a remarkable fa£l relative to the con- 
du£l of fome of the inhabitants of this diftri£l:, which one 
would almoft fay cohtradifts the opinion of their loyalty. 
In the midft of the mofl profound peace, and, I may fay, of* 
the moft unparalelled profperity ; all at once, as it were by 
inchantment, the operative part of this community conceiv- 
ed themfelved to be groaning under the moft abje£l ffavery. 
They immediately aflbciated* themfelves under the appella- 
tion of the Friends of tlie People : Tlie firft foclcty was con- 
ftituted at the Milton of Campfie, I think, upon Thurfday 
the 8th of November 1792 \ the fecond was conftituted at 
Kew Birbiilon of Campfie, the Saturday thereafter : Two o- 
ther focieties were attempted to be fwrned in other parts of 
the pariih : I believe, however, they did not fucceed : The 
two former met often, kept books, fiibfcribed fmall fums of 
money for purchafmg political pamphlets, and fent delegates 
to the different Conventions met at Edinburgh. Concerning 
the Impropriety of fuch focieties, the laws of our country hath 
already given ample teftimony. It may not be improper, 
however, in the Statiftical Account of this parifli, to give 
fome defcription of the people which compofed tliefe focie- 
ties: They were chiefly formed from amongft the journey- 
men and apprentices at the different print-fields, and a few 
operative weavers in the village of New Birbifton, moftly 


©/ Campfie. 38 1 

lads front 17 years of age to 30 : There might be amongft. 
them a few half educated people, whofe vanity confified in, 
raifing the aftoniftiment of their more ignorant companions^ 
by a detail of political grievances, which had never entered 
into the hearts of the other to conceive ; various caufes corO- 
perated to render Campfie a proper hot-bed for fuch folly. 

In the firjt place, a conflderable degree of licenttoufntfs 
had begun to prevail in this diftriA, owing to high wages i 
and as the influx of fuch weahh had been rather fuddeH, due 
fubordination of rank was almoft totally forgot. In the 
fecond place, a Relief mectirig, about 10 years ago, being e- 
re£ted in this parifli, which had drawn off a confiderable num- 
ber of people from the £{labli(hment, and rendered theni, in 
£bme nieafure, hofiile to the the powers that be^ and I am 
doubtful but the fpirit of innovation was encouraged in a 
certain degree, by their public teachers, with a view to- in- 
creafe the adherents to their own tabernacle. In tlie third 
place, Mr Muir, advocate, the unfortunate gentleman who 
was tried for fedition, having fonie connexions, and being 
well acquainted in the place, was naturally induced to try the 
pOvfrtx of his eloquence upon the inhabitants ; and he fucceed- 
ed. If to thefe caufes we add the particular circumftance of 
the character of young people at the different printfields ; 
TiitiXy who have abundance of time in the evenings to cabal 
together; men, too, from their profeffron,Vatber given to wan- 
^erilTg, and fond of novelty, and fomewhat naturally addic« 
ted to form affociations againft their mafter's authority ; we: 
will not be furprifed that Campfie fliould be fo often men- 
lioned as friendly to thefe Jacobin focieties. 

Neverthelefs, I am entitled to fay, that the farxhers and the 
inhabitants in general^ (there being no fewer than 252/ 
people in the parifh,) were remarkable for their loyalty, and 
attatchment to Government : They very early formed thcm- 


3 S 2 ^ Statijlkal Account 

felvcs into conftitutional focicties, for the defence of Govehii 
ment| and publilhed refolutions. Notwithftanding all the 
buftle which was occafioncd by their fbliy, the different Ja- 
cobin foceities in this parifli altogether, never contained a^* 
bovc fixty perfons. 

Relative Situation of the Parijh. — If wc compare the fitua- 
tion of the inhabitants this year with certain periods, either 
in the beginning or middle of this century, it will appear re- 
markably improved. \ have fubjoined a table, containing the 
mod remarkable fa£ls, relative to parifh deconomicSy taken 
^t four different periods : The two firfi I cannot fpeak of 
from my own obfetvations ^ at the fame time, froxiil .the op« 
portunities I have had of being made acquainted with them, 
ds a native of this parifli, 1 can affirm that die fa£ts are fair-^ 

ly dated. 

Year 17 14. 

7^, Only three cows faid to have been killed for winter 
beef in the whole parifh, the gentry excepted. 

li^ The wages of a manfervant for half-a-y^ar, 9L Stots \ 
fome of the bed get lal* Scots \ a woman-fervant, 61. Scots 
for half-a-year. 

3(/, No wheaten bread eat in the parifh. 

4/^, No inclofure whatever in the parifh, except about gen« 
tlemen's gardens or woods. 

5/^, No cart or chaife ; the gentry rodeto church on horfe^ 

6/j&, All broad ploughs, the horfes yoked abiread. 

"Ith^ The men wore bonnets and plaids, and plaiding waid* 
coats, and plaiding hofe; no Englifh cloth whalteverwas 
worn by the inhabitants, the gentry excepted* 


ofCan^Jie. 383 

Tear 1744. 

ijly The better fort of farmers joined and got a cow for a 
winter nfiart, betwixt two of them ; the price then being 
thirty five or forty (hillings only fpr a fat cow- 

2^/> No cliaife was as yet kept in the p^rifh \ fome few cartSy 
but thefe were only ufed to carry out manure in the fpring ; 
the wheels were not (hod with iron j and the moment the 
manure Mras carried out, thefe timber wheels were taken 
down till next fpring. 

3 J, Perhaps about five or fix inclofures were made in the 
parifli 2 it muft be owned, though few, they were moft fub* 
ftantially built ; they remain entire and firm to this day, 

4/A, No wheaten bread, no Englifli cloth ufed by the in- 

5M, A man fervant*s wages were from thirty (hillings to 
two pounds per half year ; a woman's, from nine pound Scots 
to one pound Sterling ; fcrvants in this period uniformly got; 
a pair pf hofe and (hoes befides their fee. 

6tb^ No potatoes, carrots, or turnips, &c. were ufed by the 
inhabitants, only a few kail M'ere planted in their yards, for 
the pot. 

Year 1759. 

1^1 Carts were become more jiumerous, there being then 
about twenty in the pari(h, their wheels (hod with iron. 

2dj The broad plough ftill continued in many placed^ 
though, in general, the horfes were now yoked, two and two ; 
ftiU there were no fanners for the milns or bams, the farmers 
being obliged to winnow the corn in the fields. 

3^, A man^fervant came now to receive fifty (hillings and 
three pounds Sterling per half year ; and a wohian twenty 
five or thirty (hillings only per half year. 

4/A, There were now two wheeled chai(cs in the pari(h ; 
and Engli(h cloth began to be worn occafionally by the bet- 

584 Statijlical Account 

ter fort of people, along with worfled (lockings, and bucldcj 
'in their (hoes. ' 

5/^, Potatoes dill were only cultivated in lazy beds. 

6ihy Very decent farmers thought it neccfTiry to have fomc 
part of a fat cow or a few (heep falted up for winter (lore. 

7/A, By the leafes granted by the proprietors of land at this 
time, the tenants were taken bound to inclofe fomc part of 
the farm ; (lifl there was no fown grafs in the parifh, and the 
cattle grazed promifcoufly in the winter feafon. 

8/A, There were no clocks in the parifh, except in the houfcs 
of the gentry and principal inhabitants^ 

Year 1794. 

iy7, There arc nearly two hundred carts In the pari(h, pcr«» 
fcftly equipped for any draught. 

2dy There are four poft-chaifes, and three coaches, and one 
two wheeled chaife, kept by (he gentry, in the proper ftyle. 

3 J, The wages of a man-fervant is betwixt five pounds and 
fix pounds per half year *, and a woman^s from two to three 
pounds ditto. 

4/A, Potatoes is now unlverfally ufed by all ranks of pco* 
pie, for at lead fix months in the year. 

5/A, Wheatcn bread is now univerfally ufed by every dc- 
fcription of people ; there being no lefs than two bakers da« 
tionary in the pariih, befides (bme hundred pounds value of 
wheaten bread brought annually from Kirkintilloch and GIa£> 

6th There have been near three hundred fat cows killed 
annually about the Martinmafs time for winter provifion ; 
^fides the mutton, beef, and lamb, killed through the feafon^ 
jby two butchers refiding in the pariQi. 


ofCampJh. 3*> 

'jthy Erery lad now dreflcs in EBglifli cloaths and &ncy veRs, 
with thread or cotton (lockings } and every girl in cotton ftuflf^ 
black filk cloaks and £ancy bonnets. 

Zthy The quantity of liquor drunk in the fcven^e^n pub- 
lic houfea in this pariih mult be very great indeed ; as, I 
have been told that four and five pounds, at a recloning^ have 
been coIle£ted from a company of journeymen and apprenti- 
ces on a pay night. ^ 

9/A, The houfes of every decent inhabitant.of this pari(h» 
confift at leaft of a kitchen and one room, generally two 
rooms, ceiled above, and often laid with deal floors, with ele- 
gant glafs windows ; and I believe, few of the tradefmen fit 
down to dinner without fiefli meat on the table, and malt li- 
quor to drink : Such is the relative (ituation of a parifti in 
the year 1 794, when fome dcGgning peopte ufed every ef- 
fort to convince thern^ that they wefe poor, and miferable, 
9nd enjlavedf. 

Advantages and Disadvantages. — ^The advantages of this 
parifli have been confidered as of a very fuperior kind : The 
foil is naturally dry \ the dreams of water for bleaching and 
driving machinery are numerous \ the quantity of coal and 
lime is inexhauftible \ it is completely interfe£led by excellent 
roads ; and, it is believed, that it is able to fupply itfelf with 
all the neceflaries of life *, and, confidering the number of 
firangera which takp up ^heir refidence amongft us, we are led 
to believe, that few places are more comfortable to the inferior 
clafs of people ; Glafgow affording a ready market for the 
produce both of their farms and their induftry. 

On the other hand, it may be confidered as one of the dear- 
eft places in Scotland for all forts of living, and particularly 
fo for thofe who live upon fixed incomes \ and I am likewife 

Vol. Xy. 3 D inclined 

386 StatlUkal Account 

inclined to believe, from the turn that the young people have 
taken to manufa£bure8| that farmers have rather found it dif- 
ficult to procure fervants and labourers for the purpofes of 
cultivating the land : Perhaps it wi)l be the intered both of the 
landlords and the farmers, to fall upon fome mode of mana- 
gement which may counteract this growing eyi|. 


'tf Stroajhy land Eday, ^if 



l^pRBSBTtEliT dF North IsLfis, StNoD of OasMftT, G>okz 


By the Aev. Mr John Anderson; Mihijier. 

Extent and Situatiom . 

X HE Illand of Stronfay is five computed miles long, andal- 
tnoff as broad from Eaft to Weft, fo indented with bays, that 
there is no part of the illand above one mile from the fea. 
This, with the iinall ifland of Papa, the extent of which^ 
round the fliores, is about three miles ; and with the Holms* 
br paftur^ iflands, comprehends what is now termed the pa- 
riih of Stronfay. Th^ ifland of Eday, which is about the 
tentre of the North ifles of Orkney, has rapid tides,' whidh 
wa(h the Eaft and Weft fides of it ; thcfe occafion eddies 
bxl the North and South ends, to which citcumftance^ it prcH 

3 D a babiy 

388 Siatijiical Account 

bablj dwes fts name. It is computed to be five miles \otigf , 
and nearly a mile and a half broad f * 

Sea Coa/f^ Harbours^ isfc. — ^The ifland of Stronfay has fix 
principal nefles ; viz- Huipsnefs, Gricenefs, Odnefsy. Lam- 
nefS) Tomcfsy and LinksneCk The refemblance in found 
which two of thcfe, Torncfs and Odnefs, have to Thor and 
Woden, the Teutonic Deities> leaves room to conjefture their 

There are two promontories, Borrowhead on the South 
£all, and Rotheshoim ( Ronfum) head on the South Weft; 
this was of old called Rodneip or Rodnumhead. 

The other parts of fea coaft or (hores about this ifland, con- 
fift partly of three fandy bays ; one on the Eaft, the Miln« 
bay ; one on the South, the bay of Holland ; and one oa 
Weft, the bay of Ertgarth or Weft Wick. The fandy beaches 
of the two firft mentioned, extend each a mile in length ; 
that of the iaft not (b much, except at low water of {jpring 
tides 5 and confift partly of fkerries, (flat rocks, over which 
the fea flows and ebbs which, with the (hores of the nefies, 


f This, with the Ifle of Falray, which is about one mile long, tnd lefiithaa 
half a mile broad, and with the HoSniec, comprehends the parifli of Bdaj. 
To the parjih of Srronfay, the four holms called Auikerry, Mukle Lioga or 
Holm of Midgarth, Little Linga and Holm of Huip, do belong ; and to the 
parifli of Eday five; viz, Calf ol Eday, Mukle Green Holm, Little Greea 
Holm, Holm of Fairay and Rcdholm. .So the number of iflands, great, 
and fmall, in this diflrid, amounts to no lefs than thirteen. This ^StnA hat 
- the ifland of Sanday on the North, the Fair file on the North Eaft ; (at the 
jnanfe, ficuatcd on the N. E. fide of Stronfay, this ifle may be diAin^Iy ken, 
when the iky is dear and wtn4 cafterly, although about thirty fix miles dif. 
tant ;) the Gcrn^an Ocean «n the Eaft, the united pariflies of Decrnefs and 
St. Andf ews on the South ; the parilh of Shapinflcay on the South Wefl ; 
the united parifhes of Rcnfay and Eglifbay on the Weft; and the united pa- 
tiihes af Weftray and Papa Weftray, on the North >^eft. 

of Stronfay and Eday. 3S9 

and South Weft promontory above mentioned, produce* 
great quantities of tang, or fisa-weed, fit for the kelp manu« 

On the Eaft fide of the ifland, little kelp can be made, as 
few flterries ly there to produce tang. The water is dt*cp 
nigh the (hore, and the rocks abrupt, o^ing perhaps to their 
having no (helter from the German Ocean. 

The ridge or rifing ground, which runs almoft the length 
t>f the iiland from North to South, hath its furface covered 
with fliort heath, where it has not been cut up lately for turf 
or feuel ; the foil is a dry, friable, blackifh earth -, the bottom 
clay, mixed with fmall ftones, and in many places gravelly 
and fiiallow. The expcnce of cultivating fuch a fubjeA, 
might perhaps nearly equal its value when improved. It is 
the common pafture or out-freedom of ail the &rms and 
lioufes adjacent to it. The MilUdim divides this from the 
common pafture of the farms on the Eaft fide of the ifland, 
which t:ommon is covered with grafe of a mean quality; but 
as it has greater deepnefs of foil than the other common, and 
a bottom of tough clay, it might probably recompence more 
liberally theJabour and expence of the improver :|:4 


t Of old, the corn fields, and fudi grafs as was efleemed valuable, qp tlut 
ifland, wcce feparated from the commons, now defcribedjby hill-dykes, (as they 
%Tt ufually tenned,) hnilt of feal or carf, which are kept up through Ork- 
. tiey aa general to this day. A confiderable proportion of the hill.dykes of thii 
iilasd were fullered to fall into difrepair, about thirty years ago, by the ad- 
vice of Thomas Balfour, of Huip, an'herltor in this iiland, who died about 
ievcn years ago. He was of opinion, that the expcnce of keeping up thcfo 
4ykes, was^eater than the advantage derived from them 9 but this opinio0 
is not univerfally acquiefced in by the inhabitants. 

AU the Qcites above mentioned, except Linkfnefs, (of which under the ar- 
Ajcle ftate of agriculture, &c.) are appropriated for (beep padure, on the ref. 
f^Aive iilhiuiiir<8 of which nefles, hiU*dyk«s are iUll kept in repair, to prevent 


S^i Siati/lical Account 

The fmall iflsind of Papa Stronfay^ lying flat with corit 
ficldsi which have been ftimulatcd by plenty of ware, toraifc 
luxuriant crops of grain, lyes on the North Eaft Gde of 
Stronfay, is feparated from it by ^ narrow fdudd; over which 
^wo men can row a fmali boat in five minutes, and adds a 
tarigatcd beauty to the profpcft On that fide. 

Thelfland of £day» confiding chiefly of hills of a mode^ 
rate height, and pretty extenfive, had been much ufedof oldt 
for pafture, as appears from ailcient rentals, (1598 and pfe^ 
ceedirig,) in whichj a great proportion of its rent is charged 
in butter and flefli. Three fourths of it, at lead, confift of 
out-freedom, or common pafture, to this day ; this common 
Is cbircred moftly with heathel*, which, in fome places, though 
not in general, is pretty long, and is divided from the graft 
and corn fields, by hill-dykes, as in the days of yore. On 
this common, a confiderable number of ihcep, befides hdrfes, 


the fliccp from ftraying over the ifland in fummcr and hanreft ; (the neis 
ibeep have no herds ;) but, during the winter, and more than half the fprin^« 
ihey have full freedom to graze at large over the ifland. Borrowhead, and 
kotheaholm are alfo flieep walks ; the latter of which, being of great extent, 
cort^rehcnds the whole peat mofs in the ifland of Stronfay, from which mofs 
the inhabitants have, for time immemorial, been in ufe to cafl peats or turf 
for firing, on paying a fmall acknowledgement in money or fervices, to the 
tenant or pofieflbr of the farm of Rothesholm. 

The commons, and flieep paflure above defcribcd, are reckoned to be near- 
ly two thirds of the whole i^and. The other third forms the Ikirts or bor- 
ders of it ; where Nature's fimple variety hath hitherto beeh but little eil* 
croachcd on by the regular uniformity of art. Com fields, of diflerent Ihapet 
and llzes, Which fields, no man living ever (aw in pailnre, interfperfed witih 
a proportional extent of grafs of different qualities, grafs which bears no 
traces of hailing ever been in tiHage ; thefe exhibit a fcene not iinpleafknt, 
in the months of fummer &nd harveft. 

The fields too, of natural grafs, even in winter, retain a degree of lively 
verdure, fuperior to thofe in many of the interior parts of Scotland. It is ob-' 
fcrvable, that the flatter any of thofe iflands are found to be, <he better, ufil^ 
iby, is the quality of their gtafs, and the mgre lively tbcit Verdure. 

9fStronfay and Eday. 3^1 

black cattle, &c. graze at large. Their number, it is fup-? 
pofed, might be greatly incrcafed, and the breed improved, 
were proper (hepherds to take charge of them. The corn 
and grafs fields which lie along the (kirts of die ifland, are 
interrupted by the common pafture, which, in fome places^ 
runs a great way along the fhores *. 

There are two commodious harbours or road-ftcads, in 
the ifland of Stronfay, fafe for (hipping at all feafons, and 
in all weathers } viz. ifty Ling, a found on the Weft (ide 
IDvell (heltercd by Mukle Ling, or holm of Midgarth from 
wefterly winds, and from all otlier winds by the ifland itfelf. 
This harbour has two entries, a South Weft and a North 
Weft entry ; through the South Weft one, which is the 
widcft, large veflfels may cafily pafe, with the affiftance of a 
pilot» and can ride on four fathoms water, a//, Papa found, 
on the North Eaft fide of Stronfay, (hcltered by the fmall 
ifland of Papa Stronfay \ there ar^ two entries, on^ from the 


* The fea coall is y^riout, f^ndy, ftonry, gravelly, aod, in fome places, o« 
the South Weft and North fides, hold, from 40 to ten fathoms. Tlie water, 
though not very deep, wafhes the feet of thefe precipices. The remaining 
parts of fea coaft are low rocks or ikerrica, covered with tang, of which a 
coofiderable quantity of kelp is nianufaAured annually. £day lies Weft fron\ 
Stroniay. The fouod which feparates thefe iflands is about three miles over 
at the Ferry. 

Fairay lies Weft from Enay, at the diftance of a mile and half, the Weft 
iide of which is expofed to the Atlantic Ocean, which ruHies with great ra* 
pidity through Weftray Firth : This iplet of fea feparates the iilands ^l Wcfl- 
lay on the North, and Roufay on the South : From this caiife, the ifland of 
]Fairay is much expofed to have its crops of grain damaged by the fpray of 
the fea. This ifland, and two holms apperuiniug to it, are well adapted for 
the pal^e of cattle or flieep; and tang grows on fome of iu Ihores, for the 
^naottfiidure of kelp, 

The three holmes which belong to the ifland of £day ; and the four which 
belong to the ifland of Stronfay, do all produce excellent pafture for flieep, 
for fome fmaU horfes and for black cattle^ which the tenants tranfport by 
boat, from the inhabited iflands, in the beginning of Jooej and carry back 
\j the fapie cosveyancc about the cod of September. 

39^ Stati/iical Account 

North Weft, which is the wideft and fafcft ; and the othct^ 
from the Eaft j a ftrangcr, however, would require a pilot, as 
the Weft entry is intricate, .and the Eaft one narrow and 
dangerous. Small veflels can ride here fafely at all feafons. 
There are bays alio on the Eaft, South, Weft, and Nortk 
Weft fides, in which veflels may drop anchor, and ride fafe- 
ly, if the wind do not blow ftrong on fliore. There are two 
good harbours' or road fteads in the ifland of Eday ; Fairf- 
xiefs Sound, on the Weft fide, fheltcred by the fmall ifle of 
Fairay, and Calf Sound, on the North end, (licltered by the 
Calf of Eday. Veflels of great burden may ride at anchor 
fafely in thefe road-fteads, each of which has the advantage 
of two entries. There is alfo a bay on the South end of E- 
day, where veflels may ride fafely, if the wind do not blow 
ftrong on (hore. 

State of Property, — ^The iflands of Orkney anciently belong- 
ed to the King of Denmark and Norway ; but on the mar- 
riage of Margaret, the princefs royal, about the year 14(^8, to 
the King of Scotland, with whom he was to receive 50,000 
florins of the Rhine ; the iflands of Orkney and Shetland 
were mortgaged for that fum, and afterwards annexed to the 
Crown of Scotland. It was ftipulated, that the laws and pri-. 
vileges of the inhabitants ftiould remain inviolable. 

That fome traces of the manners, cuftoms, language, and 
laws of the Norwegians, are ftill to be found in thefe iflandst, 
may be naturally cxpefted *, owing to which, improveroenls. 
in farming, and other arts, have been fcverely checked or 
much retarded •, and the ftate of property, of courfe, influen-* 
ccd in no fmall degree, even to this day. ' 

Heritable property in. Orkney may bo confidercA as divid- 
ed into Kings lands, kirk lands, and udal lands. The whole 
i[ents of the flrft mentioned, being demefne land s^ were an- 


"^ of Strortfay and Eday. 39 j 

cicntly paid to tlic fovercign : Thcfe, in procefs of time, were 
feued by the Crown or its donators, in parcels to the tenants, 
or others who had intereft to procure them ; which feus they 
in genera] obtained for payment of tlie old rental. In fome 
inftances, for a fmall augmentation of the rental 5 and in o- 
thers, with a deduftion therefrom : the reafon affigned for 
which laft, is, the lands Xverc dear, and like to ly ley for 
want of tenants. 

The kirk lands were in (imilar ctrcumftances, and were 
feued in like manner of old, by ecclefraftics or church- men, 
for the old rental or thereby. Some of the udal lands pay 
a fmall proportion of yearly rent to the King, and to the 
kirk ; and fome of them do not pay any thing to one or to the 
ther. Ill fiances of all thefe fpecialities are to be found in 
this diilrid*. 

Vol. XV. 3E The 

• The trnth of thefc obfcrvations will appear, by examining a complete 
rental book, of the whole lands in Orkney and Shetland, made up in 159S; 
by James Law, bifliop of Orkney, which was entered and rented in £zch&> 
quer, on the i8th November 16 17, and is ftill extant in the Regiller Office. 
More than 10 years after faid Mental was made up, namely, in the year 1621, 
Orkney heritors were denominated, in their public records, to be " mean 
«• men, and farmourers, and payers of the riggs of the rental." They had con- 
tinued, it feems, to polTefs the farms, or parcels of lands, which they and their 
forefathers had feued, or had let them to their principal fervants, or depen- 
,dents, with the fleel-bow ; that is, the ftocking of the farms, fuch as horfei, 
black cattle, iheep, labouring inftruments, and eTen houfehold furnltnre. '¥ot 
which farms and Heel-bow, tenants of this dcfcriptioD become bound to pay 
the old rental, or feu-duty, and fuch additional rent as the hnd could bear. 
At this pcridd, and long after, the feuers lived in terms of ibcial interconriT^it 
and familiarity with their tenants; for maintaining and perpetuating of which, 
annual entertainmetitSy confiding of the befl Tiands' which the farms pro- 
duced, were chearfully given by the tenants to their landlords, during the" 
Chridmas holy days : Thefe entertainments, called bummacks, ftrengthened 
and confirmed the bonds of mutual confidence, attachment, and regard, 
Ti'hich ought to fubfi!!: between thofc ranks of men. As aii in^ance of 


394 Statijlical Account 

The praQicc adopted bjr many, of giving fliort leslfes of 
of farms, by otliers of giving no Icafes, and by all of giving 
very fcanty encouragement to meliorate the foil, on the part 
of the heritors *, and, on the part of the tenants, a pertinacious 
adherence to old cufloms, and to the method of farming ufed 
in 02;kuey, more than a hundred years ago, hav6 hitherto 
been found great obftrudions to improvements in Agricul- 

Many Orkney eftates arc of fmall extent : Parcels of land, 
belonging to one heritor, ly interfperfed, or run^rig with 
thofe belonging to other heritors, one or more. The udal 
tenures, by which many fmall portions of land are held, ren-* 
der their conveyance cheap and eafy, and fuch property, in 
fomerefpeds precarious i for who can deny, that the poor 
man's little ewe lamb is much expofed to be carried off with 
the large flocks of his wealtliy neighbours ; or, to be fecret- 
]y devoured by fome bead of prey> or ravenous bird || « 


^hich, on the part of the tenants, the following pra<9ice was inttoduced; 
The tenanu wives went regularly, about the term of Lammas, to the 
fevars wives, their landladies, with prefents of butter, cheefe, eggs, &c. 
faence called Lammas prefents. The Chriftmas bommacks are almoil uni- 
verfally difcontinued ; but, in fome inftanccs, the heritors have, in lieu of ac* 
cepting fuch entertainments, fubftituted a certain quantity of meal and malt 
to be paid to them annually by the tenants. The praiftice of giving annual 
prefents at Lammas is not univerfally kept up by the tenants wives ; bat 
there are not wanting inllances where it is ftill found to fubfift. 

Heritors and tenants arc now become more wealthy than their anceftors. 
The fteel*bow, or flocking on the farms, hath, in general, been purthafed by 
the tenants, and a recent influx of wealthy chiefly owing to the manufa^ure 
of kelp, hath occaijoned a very great change in this country, on the date of 
landed property, mode of living, and mannera of the inhabitants. 

I The ancient pra<iice of ereding feal or turf dykes, which require an. 
sual repirs, around their grafs and corn land, at the joint ezpencc of the pof- 


of Stronfay and Eday. 395 

Manufa&ure'ofKeip — ^This valuablcy and, as it may now 
be confidcred, ftaplc commodity of Orkney, (was fir ft of all 
in this county manufafturcd in the ifland of Stronfay, by 
James Fca, heritable proprietor of Whitehall,) and Wadfet*. 
ter of North Strynrie, in the year 1722. This was a gentle- 
man of an cnterprifing fpirit, who brought a nwn of thc'name 
of Meldrum, from Frafersburgh, to introduce kelp burning 
in Orkney ; Meldrum, taking the Orkney inhabitants to be an 
ignorant and fuperftitious race of men, pretended that the kelp 
a(hes would not acquire fuch a hard and folid confiftence as 
was requifite, unlefs a certain powder was thrown into the 
kelp kilne before it was raked, accompanied with certain myf- 
terious words, to the ufe of which powder arid myfterious 
words, he claimed an exclufire right in that ifland. 

He, however, foon found, that the inhabitants of Stronfay 

had more penetration and lefs fuperftition, than to be long 

hood- winked in this manner ; for they found, on trial, that the 

3E2 kelp 

fcffbrs, in order to keep off their own and their neighbour* horfc!», yield cat- 
tle, f^vme, &c. in fummer and harveft ; is ftill adhered to more or lefs, in 
moQ of the Orkney illanda. The general cuftom of allowing their com land 
to ly unmolefted, during the winter, and until the weather fets In fair in 
fpring, which it feldon does before March or April ; after which, their whole 
Agricultural labour mud be executed, before the kelp feafon begins, in the 
month of May, or be done afterwards in a very Aiperfidal manner ; fro»n 
which caufes, an extra number of fervants and horfct become neceffary, 
which tends greatly' to iacreafe the expellee of labour to the Orkney 
farmer. The confiderable heritors in Orkney, with very few exceptions, 
have either removed with their families, from their manCons in the country, 
to refide in Kirkwall, the only Royal Burgh in Orkney ; t>r have, with their 
families, left the county altogether ; and therefore, they find few opportimi- 
ties of attending to the proceedings or rewarding the meritorious exertions 
of their tenanUi From thefe circumllances, the prefent unimproved flate of 
the country in geocral, may be eafily accounted for. 

Inftead of improTing the foil, the heritors and tenants id Orkney, have 
for aftny years paft, dirc&ed their attention to tlic manufacture of kelp. 

396 Statistical Account 

kelp aflies, merely by the labour vfually adhibited pofterior 
to this mydical application, became equally folid and good 
in quality, without^ as with the aid of tlie magical words and 

This commodity fold for feveral years pofterior to the 
date before mentioned, to a bottlc*makcr at Newcaille, for 
3 1. Sterling per ton of 20 cwt. \ but the manufatSturers, 
pr their employers, delirous to make as much as pofUble by 
jthis new concern, began to adulterate the kelp aihes, by mix* 
ing fmall ftones or fand therewith ; which impofitlon being 
foon difcovered, the price was reduced to al. 10 s., and the 
ton fixed at 2 1 cwt*, which hath ever fince been held the 
the weight of a ton of kelp. The lall mentioned price con- 
tinued for about 20 years, to be the rate for which it fold, 
at an average \ during which period, the annual quantity did 
not exceed 400 tons. 

In the year 1744, kelp fell fo low, that Mr Thomas Bal- 
four, thAi a merchant, and afterwards heritor of the lands 
of Huip and others in Stronfay, bought a fmall cargo of it, 
at 20 8. and 20 s. 6d. per ton in Orkney, carried it to Ncw- 
caftle, and fold it tliere for the current prices ; and, on ba- 
lancing accompts, found, that he had loft 1 5^er cent by the 
adventure ; as the author hath often heard him declare. 
For nineteen years afterwards, the average quantity was a- 
bout 700 tons, price 2 1, 10 s. The heritors of this diftri£t 
had about one tenth of the whole quantity annually made in 
Orkney ; for each ton of which, the heritors drew about 208. 
the makers and purchafers the remainder* .. 

In 1763, and for 15 years followin|r, the average quantity 
made annually in Orkney, was 1 800 tons* Of which, the 
heritors in this diftrift have about 180. 

The heritors, in general, during this period, became mer- 
chants of their own kelp, or fold it on commiflion. The an- 


cf Stronfay and Eday. 397 

jiual average price at market was 4L 4 s. Sterling \ the price 
of making was raifeil to about 26 s. and freight 12 s. per 

The heritors and kelp proprietors of thb diftrift, drew an- 
nually about 350 1- Tlie tenants and makers about 230 1. The 
remainder went for freight and commiflion. 

In 1778, and for fourteen years after, the ayerage quanti- 
ty annually burnt in Orkney, was 3000 tons, at 6 ]. p^r ton. 
The heritors of this diftrift had about 300. The price of 
making was raifed to 1 1. 1 5 s. per ton, of which rife the 
tenants chiefly reaped the benefit. - The heritors and kelp 
proprietors of this diftrifl, drew annnally about 1050 1. The 
tenants 527 1. The remainder went for freight and com- 

In 1792, the extraordinary good feafon for the growth of 
fca weeds, of which kelp is made, and for the manufaftur- 
ing of it, produced in this diftrift, to the incumbent's- certain 
knowledge or bed information, no lefs a quantity than 400 
tons ; when, at the fame time, the whole Orkney iflands did 
not produce above 4,000 tons. It is in this ratio, therefore, 
that he has calculated the produce of this di(lri£l: from the 
year 1744, during the feveral fubfequent periods above 'fpe- 
cified, ^nd 60 tons, the average quantity annually produced 
preceding that date ; which, in the earlieft period, is a fome- 
what larger proportion, which Stronfay (where kelp was 
firft manufafhired in Orkney,) may reafonably be fuppofed 
to have produced* 

I^ *793> t^c feafon proved rainy and unfavourable for 
kelp. This diftri£t did not produce above 300 tons, price 
in OrCney 4 L per. ton. The heritors and kelp proprietors 
drew 775 1. ; the tenants and kelp makers, 525 1. Steriing, 
clear of all deduftions, being in the fame proportions as 
the year paeceding. 

• This 

39$ Statijlical Account 

Thisfcafon, 1794, being remarkably favourable for kelp 
bnming, promifcs an abundant crop in Orkneys which may 
equal, or perhaps exceed that of 1792. 

The quantities of kelp made, with the average prices at 
the diffejent periods above fpecified, are taken » in a great mea- 
fure, from the information given by the Orkney gentlemen 
in the year 1766 to Mr M* Tavifh, who was direfted by the 
Board of Truftees to procure information refpefting that 
and many other particulars*. 

Agriculture* " 

* By the above ftate it appears, that the heritors and parifiiionen of this 
diftridl, have drawn from kelp, fincc the manufadure of it was introduced 
by James Fea of Whitehall, in the year 1721, no Icfs a fum than 29,197 L 
30 s. during a period of 71 years ; being 41 years parchafe of the whole didrid 
at the prefent grofs rent. Thofe of the other iflands of Orkney have drawn 
nine times a» much money ; that i»^ 262,7.77 L 10 s., being ^6 years purchafe 
of thcfc iflands, at the prefent grofs rent ; both fams amount to 291,976 I. 
Sterling, which is more than 36 years purchafe of all the iflands of Orkney ; 
the grofs rent of which is only about 8,000 1. Sterling annnually. 

In thefe calcnlatioDs, the profits and advantages accruing to the traders and 
others in Orkney, by carrying this commodity to market, are not included. 
When,'however, it is coniidered, that the fliips belooging to Orkney have been 
almofl the only carriers of it for many years paft, the profits and other ad- 
vantages derived from this branch of trade in thefe iflands, mud not only 
have been great to them as individuals, but alfo of no fmall importance to 
the nation at large, by extending its commerce, increafing its wealth, and 
producing a nurfery of excellent feamen. 

On this fubjed, the following remark, to many readers, will* it is prefamcd, 
naturally occur : That James Fea of Whitehall, of the ifland of Stronlay, in 
Orkney, (that is the name and defignation of the man, who introduced f« 
finable a manufacture into his native country,) ought not only to be kept in 
remembrance, but that fome permanent teflimony of gratitude, from thofe 
who have reaped and ftiU do reap fuch important advantages from his fpirit- 
ed exertions, ought to be dcvifed, in honour to his memory, and for tbe 
encouragement of afpiring genius in fucceeding ages. Premuims of this na- 
ture, conferred by focieties, by diflriAs, or by the public, honourable as they 
tinqueflionably would be to the memory of thofe on t^hom they were con* 
iext£d^ would certainly b^ no lef« creditable to thof<! who beftowed them. 

tf Strmfay and Eday. ^ 399 

Agriculture — ^The vicinity of all the cultivated lands in 
this diftii£^ to the fea (horci induced of old and ftill induces 
the inhabitants to ufe fea-^weed as their chiefs and almofton-^ ^ 

ly manure. The great quantities of it thrown into their nu« 
merous bays, creeks, and about their nefles, enabled them 
to adopt a pra£lice which is ftill continued, of putting one • 
half of their laboured land to bear or bigg, [which half they 
put to oats the year following \ this fiiort rotation they have 
continued for time immemorial. They lay their houfe dung 
on the land defigned for bear, ufually before Chriftmas ; the 
field on which this is laid, they keep perpetually at bear, ex^ 
cept once in fix or feven years, when it becomes too rich 
and fpungy ; they then having kept back the manure, take 
a (ingle crop of oats, and go on as before with bear crops* 
The fide plough, with four horfes abreaft, or in broad band, 
is mod generally ufed. The plough-boy walks with a retro- 
gade motion, having his face towards the horfes faces. The 
extent of field which fuch a plough labours^ is about fifteea 
acres Scots meafure. 

The number of returns of oats is from three to four, and 
#f bear from five to fix feeds, at an average. Potatoes were 
not generally planted fifteen years ago, when the prefent in- 
cumbent was admitted minifterj and, where they were planted^ 
it was on the green fward, in the lazy bed way. Thefe are cul- / 

tivated more generally, and are ufually planted after the 
plough, in land which has been long in tillage. They thrive 
well, when kept clean from weeds. Few farmers have as yet 
been induced to plant them at fo great a diftance as to ad«« 
mit of their being horfe hoed or cleaned by the plough ; a 
fuccefsful example in this way, neverthelefs, hath more than 
once been exhibited to them. Clover apid rye-grafs feeds, 
during the period before mentioned, have been fown as a hay 



4C0 ' Statijlical Account 

crop and for pad are, and fu'cceeded very well ; but the farm« 
crsj in general, iiave not yet followed this ezample, chiefly 
for want of proper encouragement • . 


* Thomas Balfour, before mentioned, aftef purchailng the eftate of Huipi 
in the iflaDd of Stronfa^, began about thirty years ago, to make fome improVe* 
ments in agriculture, particularly on his lands of Linkncfs above dcfcribed, 
which had previoufly been ufed only as (beep pafture. He ereded a (leading 
of houfes there, with a view of turning it into a com fiirm, induced no doubt 
by the great quantities of ware or fea- weeds for manure thrown upon the 
fhores of it annually. The foil was (hallow and poor, for much of it had, b«* 
fore that period, been cut up for fuel or firing for cottars and fub-tcRanti. As 
it had a clay bottom, tolerable crops, when feafons were good, and manure 
plenty, were produced ; but a feries of bad feafotu having fucceeded the year 
1776, the heritor, after managing this new farm by fervants on hb own ac« 
count, for ten or twelve years, was plealed to let it to\ tenant, together with 
a much larger farm, of which it originally was a (heeppailuic-pendicle : But 
the farmer having found that Linkfnefs, by being kept in tillage, did not give 
leturns fufficient to indemnify him for the expence of labouring it, owing to 
a feries of bad feafons and other ncfavonrablc circumftances, thought proper 
to allow it to revert to its former iUte of natural grafs, not much mended 
as to quality ; in which flate it remains to this day. Mr Balfour, with a 
* view to improve other parts of his eftate in Stronfay, inclofed with earthen 
fences, to the extent of about 50 acres Scots meafure ; and, adjacent thereto, 
built a Heading of farm houfes : But as thefe acres lay at a much greater dif- 
tance from fea weeds than the farm of Linkfnefs, and moreover had no title' 
to fttch weeds for manure, but by favour of the fanners who had bnmcmori- 
ally pofTefled the privilege of carrying them off to lay on their corn fields, a 
different mode of fanning from that ufcd in the ifland of Stronfay behoved to 
be adopted, and carried on, under the dire&ion of a farmer or overfeer brought 
from a part of the country, where equal difadvantages fobflfted. This was 
done for a confiderable number of years; but this laudable attempt £iiled of 

Mr Balfour had fuch influence in this iil.ind, that, by his advice and exam- 
ple, he iiVduccd fome farmers on other eHates to indofc parcels of their paf. 
ture grounds in like manner as he had done ; thefe farmers, however, did not 
make any attempts to cultivate or improve tho grounds which they had thus 
Inclofed, prudently and patiently waiting the iifuc of Mr Balfour's experiments 
in this way. 


of Sir on/ay and Eddyk 40 1 

The family of Tankcrncfs, one of the moft ancient among 
the heritors of this diftri£t, began, about 40 feats ago, to giv<i 
a leafe of their lands in Eday, and pafture iflands, pertinents 
thereof, being the whole heritage they now pofTefs in this 
diftri£l, to tenants for die fpace of nineteen years ; viz. to a^ 
tenant named John Murray, and to his fott James^ who re- 
newed it for other nineteen years, which laft Icafc being 
nearly expired, he hath again renewed it for thirty years } on 
the condition of paying a fpecies of rent, which in other 
counties would be deemed fmgular ; namely^ a (certain quan<i 
tity, (30 or 35 tons) of kelp yearly. His prcfent landlord^ 
Robert Baikie of Tankemefs, is a poKte, well informed, hof- 
^itable country gentleman, who had the honour to be return- 
ed 'a member of the Houfe of Commons, to reprefent his na- 
tive county, at the laft general eleAion fave one. This ten- 
ant hath built hundreds of fathoms of ftone dykes for inclo^^ 
fures ; hath repaired the farm houfes at a great expence \ 
fome part of which, however^ hath been defrayed by his land- 
lord ; and he hath made improvements on this farm by rear- 
ing more cattle, and of a better fort than in former years ; h^ 
introducing the Scotch or two ftilted plough, in ftead 0/ 

Vol. XVi 3 F th^ 

kobcxt Laihg, another merchant in Kirkwall, did alTo piirchafe an efttte^ 
lyings partly in Stronfay and partly in Eday, about 24 years ago. 

He gave fome encouragemcnt^to hit tenant in North Strynsie, and Stron&yj 
to make imprdvementi ; this he did by engaging to pay part of the etpencc 
bf inclofing certain parcels of that farm with ftone dyke^ Thefe materiaU 
beuig more Valuable than tutf, and Che gronndi thus inclofed of a fuperiot 
Quality to fuch as were inclofed by Mr Balfour, rendeted tht benefit tbui 
arifing from inclofing grafs fields greater and more permanent. Thii tenant^ 
induced, in fome degree, perhapl,by the example and adtice of hiandghboBt 
(he minifter, began htely to inelofe a few acres of laboHKd land, which he 
ifatcndi to prepare^ withouc dchiy> for laying down with graft feeds, for ha/ 
and pafivre* 

4ot Statijlical AccduHt 

the Orkney fide-plough, but without laying the latter afc* 
together afide ; he hath made experiments by levelling and 
improving uneven grounds, fowing grafs feeds, &c. which 
might perhaps entitle him to be ranked among flciltul and 
Ipirited farmers in any part of Scotland. 

Tm'o other heritors of this diftri£^, merely by extending' 
their tenants Icafcs to twenty four years, without binding. 
themfelves to reimburfe to their tenants any expcncc laid out 
on improvements, and without taking their tenants bound to 
hy out fuch expcnce, have the fatisfii£iion to find a fpirit of 
cnterprife breaking the fetters of inveterate praclices, which 
have been long ago exploded from other parts of Scotland ; 
and gradually introducing the more pleafant and profitable 
ones of inclofingf fowing grafs feeds, making hay, feeding 
tattle, &c. and even of repairing, at the tenant's cxpence, the 
farm houfes, i:i a manner at once ttfeful and commodious to 
the tenant, eafy and advantageous to the heritor. Gilbert 
Mafon, merchant in Edinburgh, late proprietor of Rothes<^ 
holm, now of Mordum ; and Andrew Liddle merchant in, 
and one of the baillies of Kirkwall, now deceafed, defer?e 
to be mentioned with honour, as heritors who gave thefe 
leafes fome years ago to their tenants, and their tenants have 
exerted that vigour and induflry which long leafes encourage*. 


* To thefe indicarions of induftry and adive exertion among the farmers of 
this diftri^, the following ought not to be pafled over iu Ulence. A leafe of the 
farm of South Strynzie, for a period of only fifteen years, was given fomeiime 
9go, by Mr John ScoUay the proprietor, to Edward Chalmers the tenant, who 
has erc^ed an earthen fence to inclofe eight or nine acres o< ground, which 
was partly in tillage and partly in natural grafs. He has not only begun 
to fow grafs feeda, of which his farm ftands much in need for pallure, but he 
has removed the farm houfes to a much more convenient fituation than they 
occupied when he entered upon the poiTeilion An allowance was in- 
•deed made to him of a certain fum by the proprietor ; but this allowance 


ofStronfaY and Eday. 403 

. There arc in this diftrift one farm of 8q L rent, four of a- 
tout 60 1., eight of about 30 I. yearly rent : The reft arc each 
laboured by one plough, rent from 5 I. to 8 1. In fonie inftan- 
ces, two or more tenants join to make Oiie plough to labour 
their fmall farms ; and ther^ are many fmali pendicl^Si par- 
ticularly in the iiland of Eday, the pofTefTors of which, in- 
ftead of uGng a plough, delve the whole of their fmall farms 
with the fyade ; and even the harrow is frequently dragged 
by thefe tenants or by their wives or their children. 

The preceding narrative will fliow the infant ftate of im- 
provements in agriculture within this diftri£t, and that few 
and feeble attempts have hitbertp been made to improve the 

3 F 2 With 

did not exceed one third of the ezpcnce incurred by this removal of the farm 
houfes. The grais rent ii about 40 1. yearly. Thus hath this tenant, in a 
very fpiriud manner, during the currency of a fliort leafe, expended a conii* 
derable iiim for hit own interim accommodatioOi and for the permanent beoc* 
^t of the £ul^. 

* An enquiry into the caufes which contributed to fruftrate fome of thofe 
Mrhich were made, particularly by Mr Balfour, (from patriotic, it is believed, 
more than felfifh motive?,) might be interefting and ufeful, if the inquiry 
was made by one duly qualified for the tallc : but ss there 1% little probability, 
at prefent, that this will engage the attention offuch an one, unfkilled and 
unexperienced ae the writer may be held, he will prefume on the liberty to 
mention briefly fuch as appear to him to have operated in (his way : T^, Tlie 
fubje^s fcledled for improvement Were of a poor quality; fuch, it is appre- 
hended, require ikilful management, great experience, and no little ex« 
pence to render fuccefsful any attempts tp improve them to advantage. Mr 
Balfour was, indeed, an experienced merchant, an intelligent, pattiotic, and - 
moft hofpitable gentleman ; but, although, he had occafionally pafTed through 
many counties in Britain, and had been in other parts of Furope, yet it 
will be admitted, that he could not rank as a practical farmer. Bcfidcs, he 
lived in the town of Kirkwall, at about 15 miles diftancc by foa from the pla- 
ces in S(ronfay where his improvements were carried on. 2.//v, The labour- 

404 Statijlical Account 

With a view to guard againft difappointments in reference 
to agricultural improveinentS) to communicate the fuccefs 
of experiments, and to remedy certain inconveniences to 
which this diftrifb is liable by its local circumftances } the 
principal farmers in the ifland of Stronfay, moft chearfidly 
concurred to form thcmfelves into a fociety ; and they accor- 
dingly did form and conflitute the fociety of farnoers in Stron-> 
fay, about eighteen months ago, to which almoft all the far- 
mers in the ifland have thought ptoper to accede. Ifab fo- 
ciety agreed to fuch bye-laws as they judged neceflary for re- 
gulating their future procedure. They rcfolvcd, that fmall 
fums (hould be contributed annually by the members, who 
were ranked in four different clafies, according to the extent 


Ing inftniments which he adopted were different froith thofe ufed in this i- 
iland. The inhabiunts, like all others whe have little intercoorfe with itran* 
gersy were averfe to innovations, and dci|it(cd a mode of farming diifereDC ift 
fo;ne refpeds from that to which they and their progenitors had immemorially 
been inured. The general opinion of the inhabitants, it is natural to conjec- 
ture, had its weight with Mr Balfour*s fervancs, all of whom, being natives 
of Stronfay, except the grieves or overfeers, foon manifefted an averfion to 
vie implements of agriculture different from thofe with which they had been 
acquainted from their infancy. Accordingly, thelc improvements were not 
carried on with fuch a degree of induftry and perfeverance as could rcafona- 
bly be fupofed to fecure fuccels. 3^/y, The attempts made were merely to 
laifegrain, for which purpofe, the manure was found fcanty. Sea- weeds 
were the only manure a fed on Linksnefs. When the feafons, therefore, were 
unfavourable, or if but Uttie of this article happened to be caft alhore, the 
crops were nqt produAive. In other places, where little or no fea-weeds 
could be got, horfe dung, mixed with green fods or turf, was the only fubftl- 
tute. ' 

The fmall quantity of this manure which could be procured from a new 
farm, behoved greatly to retard the progrefs of improvement of a foil fn poor 
In quality as above difcribed. Another obftrudion to its melioration, was an 
ill judged anxiety to co'me as near as poffible to the general practice in Ork- 
ney, of keeping £om fields twdcr b«ar and oat crops alternately to equal pro* 
portioQi for cTcr, 

ofStronfay and Edaj^ 4o£ 

of the farm they poflefied, which conftituted four difierent 
rates. It is propofed, that thefe fums (hall raife and become 
a fund, for defraying the neceflary expences of ftated quar- 
terly meetings of the fociety ; and^ after ten years accumu- 
lation^ (hall be- a fund alfo for the relief of fuch widqws and 
orphans of the members as may be left in indigent circum« 
ftances ; and that in proportion to the fates contributed by 
their deceafed husbands or fathers refpeflively. The fociecy 
eftabliihed certain regulations with Tefpe£l to herding black 
cattle, (heep, fwine, &c. They took the ftate of the crop 
of the iiland under con£deration» afoertained the prices at 
which they judged the difierent forts of vi£hial ought to feU» 
during the quarter fubfequent to «ach of their meetings, ac- 
cording to their knowledge and the beft infcnrmation which 
they could procure \ and the members agreed to fell what 
they could fpare at lower rates in Orkney than they could 
obtain for it from other places in Scotland. The fuccefs of 
fuch experiments in agriculture as had been made by the 
members, was reported to tlie fociety, &c. This fociety can^ 
not entertain a doubt of their obtaining the apprc^ation of, 
and all fuitable encouragement from the public, and alfo from 
thofe of this diftrict, whofe patrimonial intereft may be e-> 
vehtually promoted by the attainment of the obje£ls which 
the fociety have in view. 

A few hints for promoting agricultural improvements in 
this diftriA, in conjun£lion with fome attempts lately made 
by the tenants, as above fpecified, fall now to be fubmitted to 
' the public eye \ and, it is humbly prefumed, that the comfort 
and emolument of all ranks in this diftrifl: would be promo- 
ted, and the intereft of the public mod eifedlually fecured, 
by adopting the following regulations : 


4o6 Statijtical Account 

\fl^ That the heritors be at the expence of putting the farm 
houfes in good repair, and that they give leafes of theii lands 
to their tenants, at reafonable rents, for three times ninete;en 
years, or for certain loug periods. 

idly^ That the tenants receive the farm houfes on valua- 
tion, and become bound to deliver them in like manner at 
the expiry of their leafes, on adequate payment made to them 
for melioration, or fimilar payment by them to the heritor^ 
in cafe of deterioration. 

3i//y, That inclofures, to a certain extent, on a plan an«> 
nually agreed to by the heritor and tenant, be buili by the 
tenant ; the value of which to be reimburfed by the heritor 
at the conclufion of the iirft period of nineteen years, fo that 
the tenant may be enabled to proceed with additional inclo> 
fures, or fuch other improvements as may have been fpecified 
in the leafe. 

J^thly^ That during the fecond period of nineteen years, a 
certain additional rent, about ten per cent, of the money fa 
advanced by the heritor, be paid annually by the tenant \ and 
that this incrcafe of rent be doubled during the ihird period* 
5/^/^, That no allowance be made by the heritor for any 
expence laid out by the tenant, in building inclofures, or other 
improvements, during the two laft periods of the leafe. 

6thly^ That a fpecific extent of arable and grafs grounds 
(hould be afcertained by fkiUful men, to be competent for 
maintaining, a fub-tenant's family, on the fuppoGtion that the 
fame is managed by him, without the afiiftance of the prin- 
cipal tenant ; and fuch extent alioted accordingly to all fa- 
miiies of this defcription. 

7/A/y, That one half, or thereby, of the before* mentioned 
extent of arable and grafs ground, fhould be alioted for a 
cottar's or a boll-man's family, each of whom may be con- 
fidered, for more than one half of the year, as a daily fcrvant 


bf Stronfay and Eday* 407 

It) tile principal tenant| by whofe ploughs thfiiis fmall farms 
fliould be laboured. 

8/A/y, That in all refpefts, except thofc above mentioned, 
the ftipulations be left to be mutually condefccndcd on by 
the principal tenants, and by their fubtenants and cottars, or 
boll-men, refpe£lively. 

gthly^ That heritors, who incline to encourage manufac- 
tures, and increafe the population of their country, may re- 
ferve in their own pofleflion fome fmall farm or parcel of 
ground on their eftates, bed adapted to the purpofe, to let in 
very long leafcs, or to feu out to be houfes . and gardens fot 
fliop-keepers, kelp*makers, mechanics, fi(hers, day-labourers, 
&c. Such families might thus furnifli a ready market for 
butcher meat or othdr provifions raifed by the neighbouring 
tenapts, or their dependents. 

By adhering to thefe regulations, the heritors, or their heirs, 
at the expiry of 57 years, would find their eftates in a high 
degree of cultivation ; would have an additional rent well 
paid ; a certain proportion thereof, one third or thereby, in«* 
clofed, and the beft fecurity afforded againft lofs by bank- 
rupt tenants, which is found to be a great dedu£^ion from 
the rental in many diftridts in Scotland,' with an increafed 
price for fuch articles of rent as might be ftipulated to be 
J>aid to the heritors in kind. 

All thefe advantages, without any expence to the heritorsj 
Would doubtlefs contribute, in a high degree, to the comfort 
of the tenants, and of their dependents \ and alfo to advance 
ihe interell of the community:!:. 


\ On this plan, as:nculcure, manufadures, and fiiherief, in their fcTeral de- 

fartmcnts, would mutually fupport and cherilh each other, to much greater 

^ adTaatage 

4IO Stutiftical Account 

Scots. Sterlitlg; 

L. 8. d. L s. d. 

The meil of oat meal of 

ditto weight, at - - 

4 <)r 6 S 

The J>arrel of butter, which . 

contains about €o pints. 


and weighs 200 weight. 

b valued at - • 

20 or f 13 4 

The lispund of butter, which 

is nearly 2 (lone weight. 

Is valued at - - 

200 or • 3 4^ 

The barrel of oil, which con- 


tains the fame quantity, 


and is the fame weight as 

a barell of butter, is valu- 

ed at 

16 e or I 6 % 

The lispund of oil is the 

fame weight as a lispund 

of butter, and valued at 

I 12 or 2 S 

The prefent grofs rental of Stronfay and Eday, compre- 
hending fnperiority, property, and ftipend, amounts to only 
746 1. 78. 3d. Sterling, a fmall part of which is paid by fti- 
pulation between fome of the heritors and their tenants, for 
liberty to the latter to burn kelp and to fell it on their own 

The advance of rent, in thefe united pariflies, during a pe- 
riod of no lefs than 140 years, appears inconfiderable, but 
this is accounted for by a very great proportion of the gro£i 
rental in 1653, being paid in kind ; fome part of which hath 
been converted into money by the heritors to the tenants, 
about 40 years ago, and fuch part as is (till paid in kind, cal- 
culated at the then felling prices of the country, which did 
not much exceed the valuation prices in 1^53. 


of Stronjhy and Edap 411 

There are, excla&re of Lord Dundas, thirteen h^itors, of 
whom fix have a large extent, and feven have a fmall extent 
of property lyinj; in this dtfttid. There are no refiding heri- 
tors except the heirs of Patrick Fea of Kerbufter, whofe pro- 
perty, at his deceafe, fell to be divided equally amongft his 
three daughter^. 

State of Population^ Parochial Rgcords^ isfc. — The ancient 
ftate of the parifli of Eday cannot now be afcertained Ivith 
exafbnefs, as records of an old date for that parifb are not to 
be found* Records for the parifli of Stronfay, from the year 
1673 and downwards, with chafms of feveral years at differr 
ent periods, in a decayed ftate, as may be. fuppoTed, are yqt 
in exiftence. 

From thefe it appears, thsft during a pi^aod of 20 years 
fubfequent to 1673, the number of baptifms in tlie parifli of 
Stronfay yfroA 382, of marriages 109, Tlyit during 20 yeais 
fubfequent to 1743, the number of baptifms was £oi, viz, of 
males 309, of females 292. 

In the united p^riflies of Stronlay and £day, during a pe-* 
Ifiod of 14 years fubfequent to X779» when ih^ prefect in- 
cumbent was admitted, the numbers of baptifms, marriages, 
andjbnriak, in the feparate year^.of that period ^'ere as, fol- 

jG 2 Table 


^tatf/IUai ^a^mi 



BaptlCiDi. Mafz:ia|;e». Buriaiig 



Burials. Grofs 

' M, F, 

Af. /■. 


1780 11 13 



8 14 


1781 18 10 



11 5 


X78» ■ ^3 13 



II • TO 


Jj;«J 5^ » . 



w s 


•J784 13 ?t 



. •-« 7 


I7«5 7 6 



9 9 

. 6 

3786 11 |8 



. 16 IX 

16 B. M. B. 

. __ ■ 

• - - ^ ■ _ 

■*^ J*'* /4' »«4 

1/87 7- i» 



8. 9, 


I7S8 11 8 



II 5 


:f789 X3 9 



17 14 


1790 7. i» 



7 " 


?79i 17 I* 



10 4 


179a 17 lb ' 



* 7 9- 

' 9- 


^79* XI »a 

4 • 

16 . 

8 9 '■ 



.. . 

_^ mT tn 9a£ 

*— ^^yi 7{^ 3QP 


amount 173 153 



143 "4 



h^». MIS Y »4 A3A 

*^~* 5VJ *y* 43t 

Nombcr erf houfes' and of Ibub, m the unttei parifhes of 
Stronfay and Eday, at different periods^ as under : 

In Stronsat f. 

Houfes. Souls. Maxried. 
i%6i 170 

177* X015 160 

1781 182 819 

1787 178 887 

In Edat. 

Houfes. Souls. 

143 675 
126 601 

f The number of houfes, fouls, an4 married in the parifli of Stronfaj, in 
the years 1761, and 1772, are ftated in the report of certain of the pariihion- 
ers ; but the numbers in X781, and J 787. were taken up by the clerks of the 
pariihes under the minifier'k infpedion. 

of Sirtrnfay and E'day. 41 ^ 

Of the above mentioned number of foub m the paiifli of 

Stronfay in 1 7 87, there were ; 


Year*. , 

From I to lo — 1*3 

— 10— ao — 10 1 

00 — 30— 57 

30 -^ 40 — — 105 

— 4^—50—— 97 
rr*— 50 — 60 ¥ 7$ 

— 60 — 70 — 8f 
71 — 80 37 

— 80 — 90 — — 9 

ToUlNiiali«r 887 As ibove (Uted. 

' O^rvflrfw.— Daring the period of feven years, preceding 
fhe prcfent year 1794^ the number of baptifms, marriages, 
dad burials^ in thefe united pari(hes, appear, by table (irft, to 
kave been nearly cqpal to the mifnbers refpedively during 
the Rke period of years, preceding 1787, fo that, had the 
emigrations (which are not few,) from thcfe parifhes to other 
iflands in Orkney, or to places more remote, been as few in 
the laft feven years^ as during the .preceding feven years, the 
populatien would be nearly the fame now, as it was feven 
years ago ; but, from certain regulations or pradices, lately 
introduced, unfavourable to the increafe of population, and 
to the inaprovement of the foil of thefe pariOies, there is 
ground; to apprehend^ that the population is decreafing, and 
will continue to decreafe, if fuitable remedies be ^t fpeediiy 
applied, particularly with refpe£l to fuel or peats ; and the 
partial increafe of fervants wages. 

Fue/y Servanii Wagei,. isl'c. — The inhabitants of thefe pa- 
fiflies have ufcd peats only, as their firings for time imme- 
morial ; 

414 Statistical Account 

inorial J in which necclTiry of life they have been grefltif re- 
ftricted by the proprietors of moflcs in both parifhes, as to 
quantity, during the laft period of fevcn years. Notwith- 
ftanding, there remains an inexhauftiblc fund of that article 
in this diftria ; at lead, conje£larc itfclf is at a lofs to af. 
certain the number of centuries which the moffes in the i-p 
Hands of Stronfay and Eday would fupply their inhabitantt 
with fuch annual quantities of peats as they were accliftom- 
cd to provide for their families, before fuch reftriftions were 
impofed §. 

§ The proprietors of peat tnofs id the Hland of Edsy have been pleafed^ 
for fome years laft pad, with a view to fave their mofTet, to prevent the 
ineaneft of the inhabitants, their own fmall tenants, fob-tenants, cottars, or 
del vers of their little fpots of ground, to boil certain quantities of what the)[ 
call fait, (of a mean quality, it mud be acknowledged,] over th^ only fire 
burnt in their cottages, wliich fire is ufed alfo for all culinary purpoA». Tlie 
whole quantities of peats to fupply which fires, are fo inconfiderable at to bs 
carried home by the indignent tenanu of thefe cottages, on their backs h| 
creels o£ cailes made with ilraw \ the extra quantity required for the faid pnr- 
poTe mud be fmall indeed ! This fait, fuch as It was, ufed to be carried ii^ 
fmall parcels by the makers of it ts other neighbouring illands, where they 
received from the pooreft of the inhabitants, who covld not afford to pnrchafe 
fait of a good quality, equal' quantities of meal for the ialt which they 
brought. By fuch traffic, the poor people of Eday procured, in a very labor 
riotts way, a fcanty fupply of meal for their familita in the winter feaion, 
when the ftormy weather did not permit their going a fiftiing, on which 
bufiDcfs many in this ifland depend chiefly for daily bread. This reftric- 
tion has induced fome, and, if not removed, or fome other reoiedy profvided^ 
will probably induce many more of thefe poor families to migrate to othcc 
•Ilan48, if not to other countries. 

The whole mofles in the ifland of Stronfay belong to the proprietor of 
RotheJioIm, from which mofles the whole inhabitants of this ifland, for 
time immemorial, have fupplied their families with peatt, upon making finall 
acknowledgements, in money or other articles, to the tenant of Rothesholffl* 
This prance continued to the mutual fatisfaAion of the inhabitanta, and c/ 


of Stronfay and Edny. 4 1 5 

HorfeSi Black Cattle^ t5fc. — ^Thc horfcs in this diftrid, and 
through Orkney in general, arc of a hardy nature and fmail 
fizc, the largeft are feldom above 14 hands high ; great num- 
bers of them, when only one year old, arc brought from the 


the tenant of faid lands, (without any interference of the proprietor,) nntil 
the laft general eledion of memben of Parliament, when the eledion for 
the county of Orkney happened, (unfortunately for a great number of the 
inhabitants of this ifland,) to be difputed ; for in confcquence thereof, fuck 
tenants of the fuccefsful candidate, as live in this ifland, and the tenants of 
his political friends, by the ezpreis order of th^ proprietor of Rothcbholm to 
his tenant, were ftridly prohibited from calling in, and leading peats from 
bis mofles on any terms whatever. Thefe tenants, when laid under this in- 
tolerable hardibip, coafcious that they had not done any thing to merit this 
gentleman's difpleafure, thought it exceedingly hard, and even unjufl, that they 
Ihould be fo fevcrely punilhed for offences of which they were not guilty ; 
did ventare, notwithftanding the forefaid order and prohibition, after pre- 
^rioufly haviog made offisr to the tenant of Rothesholm of the uTual acknow- 
geoientt, to perfift in their pofleifion of the faid mofles, by cafting, winning, 
and lea<fing peats for the nfe of their families, according to cuftoin, and an- 
cient pnidice. But this conduA of thefe tenants occafioned a law fnit before 
the Court of Seffion, which was lately decided in favours of the proprietor 
of the mofs, at whofe infUnce it had been ralfcd. 

This reftridion and deciiion, will foon be found a great caufe of diminifh- 
jBg the inhabitants of this ifland, as the tenants above mentioned, and their 
cottars, cannot live without fuch a neceifary article as file ; and their circum- 
ftanccs in general, are not fuch as to enable them to purchafe and carry coals 
from England or from the Frith of Forth, to fupply their families, and the 
femilies of their fub-tenants and cottars, with firing. 

Moreover, an improper pradice hath crept into this diflrl(d, of not only 
increafing the wages of unmarried men fervaots and boys, employed in farm 
work, to more than three times the amount of what they were fatibfied with 
about thirty years ago ; but certain portions of land have been given to many • 
•f them by their maflers, from which they have reaped crops of visual, 
which they have fold for feveral years paft, after defraying the cxpence of 
labour, at fuch foms, as, with other wages and pcrquintcs, received by them 
anntially frpai their mafters, hath arlfen to, and In fome Inilances exceeded 


4i6 iSiatiJliiul Account 

neighbouring county of Caidinefs, to the annual fair at Kirk- 
wall in Orkney^ in the month of Auguft, which lafU about 
ten days : To this fair^ not only horfes from Caithneb, but cat* 
tie, and all other faleaUe commodities, are brought from the 
diiFerent iflands in Orkneys the annual bufinefs of all ranks 
is fettled, horfes, and fuch otHer articles, as country people 
require, are purchafed and carried home with them to the 
iflands of their refpedive habitations. 

TTic beft of the Caithnefs ftaigs, or year old Jiorfes, have, 
for fevcral years paft, fold for, from 6\. to 7I. The beft work 
oxen of the Orkney breed, fot 41.^ milch cows at 3L, flieep 
at 6s., fwine at los.^ geeiie u. 3d., hens 6d. each, ail Ster- 
ling money, in the town of Kirkwall, which is the only mar- 
ket place to whicK butcher meat, and other vivers, can be 
brought from this diftri£t, and the other North ifles, and 
£a(t parts of Pomona, or the mainland of Orkney* 

Animals of inferior fize, of the forts abore mentioned, are 
fold at proportionably lower prices. There are in this dif- 
trifk to the number of about 

Horfei. Black Cattk. Sheep. Swiae. Gee£e. Titd-ox carts. BiMte. 
In Stronfay. icx) 900 3000 joo 700 7,j $$ 

In £d»y. Iio '. 300 2000 too xao i 34 

of (lock. 6m xooo 5000 400 8ao 3» 8y 

the amount of what a cottar or boUmao, and his wife can earn annuaUj for 
the fupport oi themfclves and family of young children. This injudicious 
pra Aice, if perMed in, cannot fall of being a mighty difcouragement of mar- 
riage and of population ; but it may be rediGcd, in a great meafure, by the 
united exertions of the tenants, or focicty of farmers in Stronfay, with the 
concurrence of the heritors, by adopting the plan explained under the 6th 

The before mentioned grievances, under which many of the parifliiancrs 
labour, are prejudicial to the general intereft of the diftrift ; and to the com- 
munity at large, it is prefumeable, therefore, that adequate remedies will be 
applied, as foon as circaaillances will permit the neceflary regulations to take 

of Stronfay and Eday. 4 1 7^ 

Miherals^-^h vein of lead was difcovered, many years ago, 
ion the cftate of Huip. (John Balfour, Efcj; prefent member 
of Parliament for Orkney, is landholder.) By order of Mr 
Thomas Balfour deceafed, the late proprietor, and uncle to * 
the forcfaid John Balfour, fpecimens of ore from this vein 
were dug up, and fent to be examined by people of Ikill ; but 
the report feems not to have been of a flattering nature, iat ' 
no attempts have hitherto been made to work it. 

A minerai Springs (or rather three adjacent fprings of Chaly* 
beate water, all of diffetent degrees of ftrength,) is to be 
found among the rocks, on the £aft coaft of the ifland o^ 
Stronfay. Hie water, clear as chryftal, not unpleafant, is 
full of fixed air, a^ may "be eafily difcovered by any who drink 
fome glafles of it ; for they will foon find themfelves afl[e£^ed 
in the fame way, as if they had drank fome fine brtfk bottled 
froall bear *. 

Vol. XV. 3 H Ecdefiajkal 

• This fpring \% called the Well of Kildioguie. Tradition fays, that it wai ^ 
iield in fuch high repute when the Orkney ifland.s belonged to the Crown of Den-^ 
mark, (above three hundred ycaisago,) that people of the fix il rank, camefrpm 
Denmark and Norway todrlnkthe waters. Towards the fouth eaft, at about two 
milcB diftanqe, the greateft part of the way confifts of a flat fand along the fea 
ihorc ; there is a place called Ouiyidn, on the rocks of which, that fpecics of fea* 
weed called dulfe, is to be found in abundance ; whick Weed, is confidered by 
many .to be a delicious and wholefome morfel. The drinking of thefc f)vaters,thd 
moderate exercife of walking over two miles of dry level ground, gathering and 
eating dnlfc on the rocks, they being expofed to a wholefome Iharp fc» 
breeze, from Whatever quarter the wind could blow ; this happy combination 
of circumftances was found fuch a fovercign remedy for the numberlefs com- 
plaints of thofe, who in ancient times rcforted to this famous watering place, 
that it gave rife to a proverb which is ftill retained in this ifl:ind, vii. « The 
well of Ktldinguie, and the dulfe of Guiyidn, can cure all maladies except' 
black death." — That is, can cure all maladies which are not abfolvtely incu- 


41 8 Statijlical Jccount 

Eccleftajlical State^ Ancient and Modern, — About the tiiftcfof 
the Reformation^ there were five parifh kirks in tliis diftrift* 
Three in the ifland of Stronfay, dedicated to the Virgin Ma- 
ry, to St* Peter and St. Nicholas ; the fonrth ]n the ifland 
of Eday, dedicated alfo to the Virgin Mary ; and the fifth 
in the ifle of Fairy, to what faint dedicated, tradition gives 
tio information. 
I There were alfo, in the ifland of Stronfay, at lead four 

I chapels, one of which is called St. Margaret's kirk ; two 

I chaples in the fmall ifle of Papa, dedicated to St. Nicholas 

and to St. Bride refpeflivcly. St. Nichola's chapel was a!- 
moft entire twelve years ago \ the dimenfions within walls 
15 feet by 12 v the quire, 7 feet by 9 ; this quire isTKrovered 
with a corhplete (lone arch, but the chapel liath'been lately 
demoUAied by the tenant, in order that he with the ftoncs 
of it might build a new barn. St. Bride's chapel and Quire, 
now in ruins, are nearly of the fame dimenfions as tkofe of 
St. Nicholas. About half way between thefe chapels, there 
is» on a rifing ground, called the Earl's-know, the appearance 
of old ruins and graves ; one of which graves, evidently 
defined by two ftones, one at the head, the other at the feet, 
ia eight feet and a half long ;. tills grave was dug up to the 
dccpnefs of about fix feet, in the month of July 1792 ; the 
ftones at the head and feet, which appeared afbout a foot 


This fpring is at tbcr diftance of about half a mile from the niinifter'« maiifr, 
in a pleafant healthy fituation. There is a large commodious houfe in the 
neighbourhood, built about forty yeari ago, for the accommodation of agent- 
lemao with a large family, one of the heritors, and at that time miniflcr of 
this f ariih ; but his heirs have removed from thii ifland. This houfe, there- 
fore, HHght be eafily 6tted up, an^ would be found very commodious for frtf- 
bathing or water drinking quartern, for thofe whofe ccnftitutxons or incUnzr 
tions require the application of fuch harmlcfs, fafe, and ufeful remedies. 

ofStronfay and Eday. 419 

ftbove the furfiacey reached to the bottom of the grave. Many 
human bones of an ordinary fize were found, and, moreover, 
fragments of a human (kull, and of a lower jaw bone, with 
the cafe of teeth, which were pcrfe£lly found, and fragments 
of thigh bones ; thefc were all of an enormous fize, and af- 
forded a convincing pro(tf that the body hurried there had 
required a gnive of the dimenfions above fpecified. There 
is an old chapel in ruins on the ifland of Ed:iy, and one in 
each of the pafturc iJles, called Linga,. Meikle, and Aulkerry \ 
in this laft, there are alfo ruins of what feems to have been 
a fmall houfe, which retains the appellation of the monfcer 
houfe, or monk's houfe ; fuch reclufes might no doubt have 
lived in this ifle, as there is plenty of freOi water in it ; th<; 
^iftancc, however, at which it lies from the iiland of Stron-. 
fay, is no lefs than three miles. Thus we find there . have 
been of del five parifh kirks, and at lead nine chapchs in this 

3 Ha The.. 

* In the foimdatlon of the Cathedral kirk of Orkaef, confirmed by.Cardi- ' 
Bal Beaton, on the application of Lord Robert Steuart, (who was a natural uncle 
•f Mary Queen of Scots and) Bilhop of Orkney, it is recited, that before 
that period, ** only fircanou^ andas many chaplains, were ereded in, the faid 
**. -Cathedral kirk of St. Magnus in Orkney, which are ftated to be too few, 
« to bear the kbooiy and incumbent burdens in iinging praifes in • the hoursj 
** of the nights and days in the iaid kirk, and fpr divine feryice, as betomca 
**. fuch a kirk.'* Accordingly, a provoftiy, a arch deaconry, chantory,. 
chancellory, fub-deanry and fub.chantory ; likewife leven other canons and 
and prebendars, thirteen chaplains, named vicars of the ^lire, and fix boys» 
wha might be refpeAively a4mic in fciences, and otherwife qualified. Theic 
were of new ereded, conftituted, and founded. The deed proceeds in thefe 
termi : ^ By the tenor of thir prefents, judges, ftatutes, and ordains, that 
•« which we judge belongs to every one : Tht/rfi, the provod, Mr Mai- 
M colm Halero, batchelor in holy letters, the prebendary of holy Trinity, and^ 
<f vicarage of I^onald Shay, with holding up the kiik of Burwick. V^ To 

4^0 Stdtiflical AccoutU 

" The value of the (lipend of this diftrtfl, in 1633, was for-f 
inerl^ dated, the particular articles then paid, continue yet 
to be paid, with the exceptions of fomc vicarage and parfon^ 


(< the arch-dcaeoii, Mr John T»yrte, the arch-deacon*s aociept righti, the 
*( miniilcr of Birfay and chaplaiory of St. Ollay within the cathedral kirk, 
** with holding up the kirk of Harry. 3</, To the chantor, Mr Nicol Ha- 
«* kro, the prebendary of Orphcr and vicarage of Stcnhoufe. 4/A, To the 
** chanccltor, Mr Alexander Scott, the prebendary of St. Mary of Sandy and 
" vicarage of Sandy. 3/A, To the trc^furer, Sir Steven Culrofs, the parfoa- 
(' age of St. Nicholas of StronTay and vicarage of Stronfay. 6/i^ To the fub- 
" dean, Mr Peter Howfton, the parfona^c of Hoy and vicarage of Wails. 
«< 7/A, To the fub-chantor. Sir Magnus Strange, the prebendary of St. Colmc. 
«« 8//», To the firft prcbendar, Sir Thomas Richardfon, the parfonage of Croia 
M kick in Sandy. 9/^, To Sir Hugh Hiicro, the' prebendary of St. Magaua. 
<' 10^, To Mt Henry Barton, the chaplainry of St. John the Evangeiifi, it\ 
«* the faid cathedral kirk. 11A&, To Mr Walter Thorafon, the chaplainry 
" of St Mar)' and vicarage of St. Mary, luif. To Mr John Maxwell, the 
*« chaplainry of St Laurence. Ij/A, To Sir David C.^*rillifon, the prebendary 
«* of St. Catharine. X4/-&, To Mr Robert Malcolmfon, the prebendary of St. 
« Duthas. Chaplains^ — The l/f, of St. Peter, (hall be mafter of the grammar 
«« fchool, %d. Of St Auguftine, (hall be mafter of the fong fcbool. Which 
« two mafters ftiall be found to teach freely all the boys of the qnirc and the 
*< poor wiUmg to be prefcnt. 3c/, The bifliop** quirifter. 4/^, I'hc provoil'«. 
« 5/A, The arch-dean's, btb^ The prcccntor'a. ^ih, The chAocellor's. 8/i5, 
«» The trcafurer's. 9/A, The fub dean*f lort', The prebendary of Holy 
« Crofs. I lib. The prebendary of St Mary. ia<A, The chaplain of St. 
<« CJilhraine. 13M, The chaplam of Holy Crofs. And every one of the 
« quirifters ihall have one lafl of vi&aal and alio ten merks ScoU money for 
« their ttipend in the year, bcfides the daily dlftribvtions which Ihatt be from 
« the rents of vicarage of the cathedral kirk, and from the foundation of on- 
«« cle Thotpas, bifliop of Orkney and Zetland ; and twelve pounds firom the. 
«* foundation of the moft illuftriops late Kings of Scotland, James HI. am^ 
f* James IV. paid by thc'bifliop for the daily maffcs ©f St. Mary, the nufles 
«« of the holy blood in firft holy day, and the regimen of the fecond holy day 
«* though the whole year. An inferior fervant, {Jacrijta^ about holy thing?, 
«» fliall ring the bells, light the lamps,' carry the water and fire Co the kirk, 
?» Kho ought to have the accullomed revenue, and forty IhilliDgs from the 

«• ^i(hop ; 

of Stronfay and Eday. 42 1 

age tithes then paid in kind, which at diiTerent periods after* 
wards M'ere converted into < money at low rates, by mutual 
pontrads between tenants or heiitors, on the one part, and 


**^ bilhop ; he (hould be clad with an honefl furpUce, and go before the procef« 
^< fion wich a white wand after the manner of a bedlar. But the firfl of tho 
** fix boys (hall be nominacc and fuftained by the biihop. The a^» By tlM 
•• prebendar of Sl Magnus. 3*/, By ths prebendar of St. John. 4i^, By th« 
«* prebendar of St. Laurence. 5/^, By the prebendar of Sr. Catharine. 6/£, 
f* 3y the prebendar of St. Duthat. And ereiy one of them (hall have twenty 
** ihiUinga in the year. They fliall be uper*bearer», and (hall fing the re* 
<* fponfes. Moreover, we aflign to the (aid proToft, dignities canon* and pre- 
*' bendars, ceitain dcfanA lands for the manfes of every one of them at tho 
" faid cathedral kirk. But our will is, that every one of them, within three 
« years after getting peaceable poiT^rnion of their benefices, to build an honefl 
** manfe, according to the value of the fruits of the benefice in which he may 
** reft or fleep, otherwife he (hall. not be judged to refide among otherf, 
" Ukewjfe, we will and ordain a vicar an contiDual penfion of ten merkt 
" Scots money, and an half lall of vidual every year, with the manfe of evc- 
<* ry paroch vicarage ercAcd in the prcfcflt foundation, from the fruits siid 
<* emoluments nomncd and impofcd by us and our fuccclfors ; who (hall be 
" bound to ferve his cure perfonally by hinifclf as oft as it (hall be vacant, if 
« need (ball be. But the bilhop (hall be canon cf St. OUay, &c. ; which ap- 
*< plication u attel'ed and fubfcribed by the bi(hop and his chapter, on* the 
. ** aSth Odober, 1544 years, before thefe witncITes. honourable, honcft and 
** difcreet men, viz ; by (figned) Robertut Orcadh, Bpifcopus, Nub9la* 

^ HaUtoAt Orphar, manu propria; Stepbanus Culros, ttAor de Stronfay; 
«« Petrm HoMfiom, redflr de Hoy; Joannes Maxtvril, vtAoT BcaU Marine ^ 
'* de Sanday; MaUolmus HaUro, archideaconus Zetlandis, ac prebendarias 
*< Sandz Trinitatis, Magnuf Strang, prebendariui San(Slx Columbs. After 
reciting fully the application above mentioned, with the atcefiations thereof, 
the foundation procecda to the confirmation and eredion above fpecified, 
and fandioni it in thefe terms : " But if any one (hall prefume to contra- 
f < vcne or infringe, as God forbid, this prefent foundation, in whole or in any 
** part thereof, diredly or indire«5ily, by whatever colour or pretence, he (hall 
»« know, that he will Incur the wrath of Almighty God, of the blelTcd Vir^ 
f< gin Mary, and of all the faints, and cfpecially of St Magnus our patron, 

•* &c. 

4 1 z Statiftical Account 

minifters for the time being, on the other ; therefore, the fti^ 
pend, in ftead of being augmented fince the faid year 165J, 
is actually diminifhed and made woric than it was in 1614, 


« &c. Dated and done lo the Cattle of St Andrew's, at ix hoots fbrenooR, or 
«* thereabout, in the year of the incarnation of the Lord, Jaiv, and forty 
^ five, upon Tuefday the twentie anc day of Jtfly, .being the third indidion 
♦ of the popedom of our 'mod ferene father vid Lord in Chrift, Paul the 
1* third, by the pro»idcn<;c of God, the eleventh year. Venerabk and cir« 
" cumfped men bcin^ prefant there, viz. Sir James Stradiertfync, &c.. 
" (Signed,) Joa n n es Mask, Prmbofitus Cdltvii Sau&i Sai<oai9nty ma/ui prcpriu ** 

The preceding excerpt were taken from a double or copy of faid founda* 
tlon, which appears ro. have been a long verbofe deed ; a full copy of whiJi 
could not be eajQiy contained in Icfs than fifty pages. 

The followicg exc^rpc was taken from the regifter of affignations for the 
minifters ilipends through Scotland, for the year 1574* which rcgitler was 
given in compliment by BiOiop Keith to the Advocates library in EUiiibutgh, 
on xSth Augu{t 1746. 

« Mary Lli I in Strort/jy, PtUr ii'riy St Nicholas Kiri. 
•• Minificr, his (lipend to be paid as follows, via. The 

« thrcd tf thefeuaric of Orkney, extending to anc chalJer nine bolU ihrc^ 
«* parts bear, and eleven pounds eleven (hillings one peiiny, and two parti 
« filvcr, to be paid by the parifliioners and cackfiucn of St Nicholas, parochinc 
«* of Stronfay and North Stronfay." 

Etltjy atiil Falray. 

«* Mr James Maxwell reader of thir IJrks, his ftipcnd twenty pounds, t% 
«' be p2id funh of the thrcd of hi» own benefice, the twa chaplainrics St Ca- 
«' tharine's, prcbcndury and vicarage of Stronfay, with the vicar'* manfc ajid 
« glcib." 

liy an a<a of Piatt or provifion of ftipcnd*, for the kirks of Orkney in the 
year 1^14, which proceeding on, and referring to a contrafi of £rcambion be- 
twixt King James the VI. on the one part, and Biftiop James Law, and the 
chapter of the cathedral kirk of Orkney, on the other part, " The provi. 
« fions and Efll^narions for the mbiflers in the biflioprick, are faid to have 
«* left unexhauftcd not meiklc more than two hundred pounds of the haiU 
*' quantity of the thirds affumed, alloting to ihofc particular kirks, within the 
<* bilhoprick iftcr fpcci£;:4, ta wit. 

^ 2. T^ 

bfStronfay and Eday. 415 

\)y means of faid converfions, which are now found detrimen- 
tal to tJic iiircrefl of the minifter. The rife in vaiucof the com- 
modities paid in kind, '.vas found to be fo inconfiderable, that 



, Mcilt, 



*» I. To Walls and riotta,. 





«* ^. Floy. 6 barrels butter, 

and ball, 





«« 3. Strnmncri and Sandwich. 

6 ditto 





" 4 Orphir. 






" 5. Holm. 





86 ' 

" 6. Shapenftray. 






«« 7. The reaner in Kirkwall. 






** And to the morlerator. 



One hundred pounds. 

" Then the haiU remanctit kirk«, beinor of hit Majcfly's annexed property^ 
•* arc for moft part altogether unprovided ; and diofc \vho have any thing at 
" all, has yet fo fmall means of maintenance, as no honeft man will under- 
«* take to fcrvc thrm. Therefore nfolved to unite and Incorporate together, 
" fuch jlaroch kirks as might be conjoined, fo as to reduce the number of 
" kirks and minifter s, to fuch a few quantity, and their ftipcnds fuch a mo- 
'< derate proportion, as might be the lead diminution polSble of his High- 
** nefs refit, as well for the help and fupply of fuch kirks, as are meanly found- 
« ed, as for the provifion of otheri*, which have no ftipcnds. To allow with 
«* the leaft detriment poflible to his Majcfty's rents, in the i/, to the two" 
«* parifli kirks of South Ronaldftray, and parilh kirk in Bmray united, the 
«• the minifters ftipend to be helped with aeo mrrks. 

« !</, The two kirks of St Andrews and Dcemcfs, in the mainland of 
«• Orkney, united, the minifter's ftipend 40c mcrks money, with the glcbe» 
** and vicarages of the fiid kirks. 

** 3</, Birfay andHarray, twa parifli kirks in the mainland, united, the 
<• minifter's flipend 400 merks, with the glebes and vicarages of the faid 
«« kirk!!. 

« 4M, Evie and Rendal, twa parifli kirks in the mainland, united, the mini. 
*< fter's ftipend 300 merks, with the manfe, glebes and vicarages of the faid 
" kirks. 

«• 5/A, The iflc of Roufay and Fgllftray, twa parlL kirkn united, the mi- 
*• nifter's ftipend 300 merks, with the glebes and vicarages or tl.e faid kirks. 

«« 6tb, The iilcs of Weftray and Papa Wcfiray, united, the minifter's fti- 
^ " pend to be helped 300 merks, wiili the vicarage, manfe and glebes. 

4^4 Statijlical Account 

down to the date of the incumbent's admiflion, m 1779, ,tiii9 
whole benefice^ including ftipend and glebes, ^as let for a 
period of ten or twelve years preceding, from year to year, at 
no greater fum than 54 i. Sterling •, out of this fmall benefice, 
the minifter is obliged to pay one (hilling Sterling of freight 
every time he paffes over the ferry to preach in the ifland of 
£day. There is no fund for communion elements, as the 
ftipend was never modified by the court of Teinds. Lord 
DundasMs patron. 

The kirks were in a ruinous ftate in 1779. The kirk oi 
Stronfay, which was built in 1726, got new flates put on its 
roof in 1685* but it ftill needs great repairs. The kirk of 
Eday, which was built about the year 1730, is in a ruinous 
ftate ; it had not a pane of glafs in any of its windows in the 
memory of any man living. As it is fituated at feven miles 
diftance from t*he manfe, and in another ifland, and in fo 


> <* ;/£, Burnefs and the ifle of Sanda^, and North k«nald(lfay» twa pa- 
^ rifli kirk» united, the miniftcrs ftipend 300 merks, with manfe, glebes, and 
** viccarage of Motth R.onaldftray. 

« 8/i, Stronfay, Eday, and Fairay, four pariili kirki united, the nunifter'a 
^ ftipend to be helped with 100 merki. 

« 9/^, Firth, and Stenhoufe, twa parifli kirks in the mainland, to be pro- 
^ vided with three hundred merks, of the furplus of bifliops thirds, with the 
«« viccarage, glebes, and manfe, of the faid kirks, * 

*^ It being alwife therewith declared, that his gratitude for the help and 
<* fupply, and provifion of thefe kirks^ extending in the year to the fum of 
<* two thoufand four hundred merks, payable furth of his Maje(ly*s rents ; 
•• and duty uf the tack thereof, fet by his Majefty to Lord Ochiltrie for certain 
** years. The which ^im,di vided among the faid united kirks in manner above 
«• fpectficd, by the {aid James Law, now Arch-Bilhop of Olafgow, (hall re- 
<• main at a folid and conftant afiignatioo^ enduring the time of csntiDHaiMt 
u of the prefent uck, &c." 

)kA a ftate, the mitiifter will not be able- to officiate Axett at 
ill^ if the herhots do not rebuild or re^r it^. 

jp0pr> Funds auJ Aviooitr.— -A houie aiid {mall parcel oi 
land was mortified to the poor of the parifii of Stronfay z* 
bout 6£tf ftzts ago, into the pofiefiEipn of wfaieh one of the 
principdd heritor flipt m a ^landeftioe manner, during die 
vacaiM^y of the parifty at leaft during the infane ftate of 
mind ii^o which the minifter had fallen^ about twenty three 
yeari ago \ and diat a&er this heritable fubjed had been many 
yeaffs in the pofieflion of the minifter and kiirk feffion of Stron«> 
fay» as trufteea for the poor. Thefe truftees* feveral years paft^ 
have been have been uGng legal means, all others having pro<» 
¥ed unfuceefsful, to recover their pofleffion and propcrt)r« 

The kirk tdtvoAscf Stronfay and Eday have no other funds 
for the relief of indigent objects, except the weekly and fa« 
cramental coHedbhs, with fame fioiall penalties froiyi delin<» 
i^uents \ wall, not exceeding 8 1* Sterling yearly, but of which^ ' 
the fel&on ckrks and kirk officers falaries muft be paid i (o 
diat^ after payiilg for ooflias £or thofe on die poot^s roll who 
die annually, the pittance it Very fmall, indeed, which remahia 
to be diilributed among the mod deftitute obje£ts in thefo 
united pariQiesi whofe number amounts, at an average^ to 
twenty five* 

Vol. XV. 3 t Ai 

* A decreet olthe presbytery of North ifles Went out in tlie year ij^ 
for repairing the manfe, and building offices. But thefe repairs and buildings 
arc not yet executed ; they are indeed far froih being coinpleated. 

The minifter gave the heritors no charge on this decreet, till fereil yeiri 
after iu date, in hopes that there would be no neceifity for chargiag 
^m ; but thele hopes weTte fndlrated ; accordingly, he gave them a charge* 
Which they inftantly fufpended, and (hey have litigated the auie for Mher- 
fevcn years before the Court of SclTion, and before aibiters, whafe 0nal df^ 
tttei hath net as yet beea givtn oyiU 

4^ Si^ijilcul Ac4wtU 

Asiev^ofjioneof the heritors rcfide within the booiiis: 
of this diftrl^» and as not any of the non-refiding heritors 
contribute any fum whatever for the maintenance of the 
poor; their fupport muft depend on the families of the mi- 
nifter and parifluonc^rs* 

The heritors of Stronfay agreed, about fifteen years ago» 
to give a (alary of three, pounds Stef ling tio a fcho9lmafter. 

. But this falaryt fmaU though it be^ hath not been regularly 
paid; and to procure, in terms of law» a falary and fchooU 
houfei would infer greater expence than the minifter can> 
in his prefent circumftances^ afford. The heritors are un- 

.willing) and the pariftioners of Stronfay and of.Eday are 
unable, to accomplilh this defireable end. A fociety-fchool 
hath, for fereral years paft, been a great benefit to the poor 
duldren in the pariih of Stronfay. Such a fchool is highly 

• nceefiary in the ifland of Eday ; but numberlefs applications, 
at different periods, by the minifter to the fociety ifor propa- 
gating chriftian knowfedge, have been rejeAed, on account 
of a regulation which that fociety have long adopted ; viz. 
to eftablifli their fchoois only in pariflies which have paro* 
diial. fchoois or faiaries paid by fome of the heritors or by 
the parifhioners. 

Clhnate and Difea/es.'-^Thc fituation of this diltrid, fuT- 
rounded as it is by the fea, and at a moderate elevation above 
the level of it, is thus rendered wholefome and agreeable, 
particularly during the fummer months^ when the feafons 
are dry and warm ; but £is it is expofcd to heavy rains and 
thick weather in winter, with gales of wind in fpring and 
autumn, thole who cannot eafily put up with retirement, and 
to be confined within narrow bounds, for feven or eight 
months, muft find it an uncomfortabla place of refidence. 


^ Stf on/ay ani Eday* 417 

Some of tJie'on-eall work, or undefined fervicca et ancient 
limes, are ftiH exaded 5 which circumftanGe, with the great 
proportUm of gloomy and wet weather to whkh the inhabit 
tants are cxpofed, and the little encourageftient given by the ■ 
higher ranks of people to. their inferiors, to excite a fpirit of 
emulation, and to promote improvements in agriculture and 
manufactures, give the inhabitants, in general, and the lower 
ranks in particular, a demure afpeft, and contribute, perhaps,^ 
in fome meafure, tointroduce- and propagate certain m,al3<i> 
dies, which have unfortunately become too common in this'- 
diftrift ; particulary fcverc coid^s, rheumatifms, confumptions,' 
paralytic complaints, and fymptoms of Infanity*. 

3 I 2. CbaraHtr. 

^ The foUowiiig cafe may perlkapi appear fingukr.' A- yovog gif 1; in tko 
iflaod of Stronlay, named Jean Brown, the daughter of a poor labourer, in 
the year 1788, when about eleven yeara of age, was zSs&eA witk paio^ all 
over her body; thefe at firft continued^only a few daySfbiit recttrrcd-eacli 
fortnight periodically, for a coniiderable number of months. Afterwardsi the 
pains recnmed montblyy were of longer continuance and. proved more vio^ 
lent, and her (jpeech became greatly afieAed. In this ilaie flic repnaintid about 
two ^ars. After which period, her internals oi fidcnels and heakh g»dtial<* 
ly approached to an equality of duration, and facceeded each other qu;M'ter» 
ly ; that it, in fpring and avtumn, flic was greatly diftrefled and loft her 
4>«ech entirely ; her pains increafed to fuch a. degree, that Ihe groaned and 
moaned perpetually when awake ;. Aie could fit in a chair, and could movo 
ftowly about the fiddsof the houfeir, leaning to fuch things as &e found ia 
her way. In the fummer ^d winter quarters her pains abated, and flie' re- 
covered her fpeech. In this ftate (he continued until the month of May 1793^ 
which was the periodical feafon of her recovery ; in flead of whSdr) '(he con<* 
tinn^ exceedingly diftreflied, for about fix months ; when ihc again, to the 
great furprife and joy of her parents, recovered not only l^er fpeech, but like<£ 
wife her health, in fuch a degree, as inclined to engage to gotofervico 
lail: winter* which engagement ihe a^uaHy performed.. Whether her paint 
will continue to return periodicaUy» and at increaiing imervaU'of time, as 
In^prly, it a fttbj^dt for the medical facn^y to difcufs. This xaie ha£ied the 


428 Staiyikal A€ci>mt . .. 

Ch^raShr snd Manners of iie lnMdiaf^s.^^Th6 InnoW 
and reftrifted bQUfMbines of thi inhabitatfs of tbefe iflandsy 
circumfcribied as they are bf the fai) faaTe atendkney to 
elevate the min49 of UK>{b who move in the Ughor mnki 


(kill of all the dolors to whom this poor ffrlU parent! had accdr ; at lnfl» 
ftrery medicine which could be procured, waa ineffedual to obtain for her any 
p^e or relief from trouble., 

Amither extraordinarf cafe, is, of a young girl in the fame ilknd of Strofw 
Uj, whofe name ia Ifabe] Sinclair : ^er father poflefTes a fiDall farm ss fei^ 
tenant ; His affurt have been embarrafled, and hia family, cedocnd to ftraita 
by his daughter's illnefs. In November 1785, at eight years of age, when 
going to a well for water, (he was inilantanegufly (buck with what was (up* 
pofed to be the palfy. She was carried to her father's houfe fpeechleis, and 
almoft totally deftitote of the ufe of her limbs, and feemed to have little or 
no eiercifc of her naenul Baltics } fttt wu afterw an i a enttrtly confined to her 
bed. Dmiog whseh oonlmemeiir, |be itaa fomctimes lifted ap and earned to Uk 
elbow chair, whara (ha fat for Ibme hovra, and behoved to be carried bade 
^gatn to her bed. She could hardly lift up her eyes, and fometimes appeared to 
'ht in great diftrefs. Her appetite, however, did not forlake her, and (he ad« 
Tinted in growth, no lefs progreflively than if (he had ^een in health ; bnt, 
vnfoRunately, for the mean 0ation of her parents, there was little meat or 
^rink of the produce of Orkney which (he eould receive into her mouth ; and 
when Qie did teeeive and fwallow the ufual country fare, it did not reft ob 
ha (lomach but came up again. Flour, barley, bifciiiti fieaft, which are exo* 
^c% with poutoea and milk, of Otkncfy produce, were !h« proviiiom by wldch 
fte waa nondtMu bhe eat fo freely, tXat, though deftitute of commoB ei« 
frpifi? and fteih open air, the growth of her perfon advanced aa qui^y aa if 
^a had been in l^alth, 

,In thia dilbrefled and difcnal ftate (he remained for nine compleat yeara, 
|he waa avtrfe to take medicines of any fort, which, howev«f , were often pro* 
eared foe her, in hopes thatthey would coatribttte to her recovery ; and wtoi 
Ihe took them, they bad no influence on her Ib^e of heakh* In the month of 
Kofember 1793, after a violent and painftil Arable one sight, Ihe, to the 
|[reat joy of her parents, and to the aftoniibment of idl who bad feen or hetrd 
of her lingular malady, recovered her (pe^ch and the excreife of her mental 
fKukiei; upon which Ihe foon ezprelled defire for clean clpaths, aod to be 
4rcired| (which (he had not been daring her nine years illneft,) that (he 


tf Str^nfay and Eday. 4^ 

of life, and tor infpire them irltb a degree of Importance^ 
to which ftr«ngera are fre<|ueutly inclined to diipute the 
juftncfs of their claim. The heritors, ia geoen^f ,bave 
not yet exhibited ready difpofitions to encourage and re^ 
ward, an a^Hve fpirit of induftty and improveoKnt, by 
lengthening the leafes of their tenants, or otherwiie ; but, on 
thocontrary, have overlooked fuch indications of fpirit, when 
exiubited by th^ir tenam$, and have been ready to. attribute 
their confequisnt fuccefs to th<r lucrative terms on which they 
held their poifeflionSy and accordingly made this a pretence 
for exaAbig more rent.; with which demand, however un- 
reafonable, if the induftrious farmers did not comply, others, 
leb (kilful. Of lefs a£live, have been preferred^ merely by 
Showing a readinefs to agree to terms, which, infVead of being 
able to implement, they have found, on trial, that they were 
unable to pay up even the old rent exclufive of the additional 

This condud tends greatly to difcouragc tenants, and hath 
contributed much to prevent any improvement of the foil, 
from a dread thus excited in the minds of the tenants of being 
difpoflefied, or of being obliged to promiie more rent than 
diey could afibcd to pay. To this caufe, a fufpicious and 
diftruftful fpirit between heritors, tenants, and fub-tenants, 
may in a great meafure be afcribed. Hence a defire to con- 
ceal their property and their gains, one *from another, and 
to take undue advantages, when an opportunity occurs, by 
way of retaliation, for real or imaginary injuries done them. 


might get out of bed. She was then very week and feeeble, as might natu- 
rally be cxpeded ; (he gradually recovered, though flowly ; ihe now couvcrfes 
ratiooably, and appears to have fuitable impreffioni of pious ^atitude for her . 

Of thofe who have been afieAed or cut off by the other maladies above men- 
tioned, it is unneceflary to Specify inltances, as their cafes appeared to b^ of 
^ common |und« 

43(5 ' Stai0ical Account 

The inhabitants are,' m general, of an obBghig, kind, hof- 
pitable difpolition to one another, and alfo to itrangers ; ef- 
pecialljr when, on particular occdions, as at weddings, bap- 
tifms, &c. they have it in their power to gratify that fpirit 
of importance, which they poffifs, by furnifliing entcrtadn- 
ments in a ftile fuperior to what might be expcfted from 
their ftations and circnmftanccs in life. On thefc occafions, 
the higbeft compliment which the guefts can confer on their 
entertainer^ is to fit to a very late hour, arid to partake freely 
of the beft things fet before them.§ 

' , Mifceilaneous 

$ It is to be lamented that the heritors, Qot ooly in this diftrid, but through 
Orkney, in general, are not fo ready, as might be cxpeAcd, to unite with the 
mtniilers of the gofpcl in promoriog the caufe of religion and virtue, with re- 
gard to parochial fchools and a provifion for the poor, as above ftatcd ; they, 
moreover, do frequently manlfeft a disinclination to build or repair fuitablc 
kirks and manfes, and to make a decent provifion for the fupport of the clef- 
?y» ^y which the intcrefts of religion arc materially injured, and the cfta- 
bliihcd clergymen, with their families, greatly diflrelTed. 

The iifue of Tome tedious and ezpenilve law fuits, it is to be hoped, will 
not only open the eyes of the laity to dieir own intereft, but the prefent Hate* 
€f public afiairs will, it is prefumed, effisdually convince them, that the inte- 
rcils of the clergy, of the laity, and of all ranks in fociety, are fo blended and 
mutually conne(5led, that it is true wifdom and found policy, to ftrengthen 
by combining, rather than to weaken- by dividing them ; cfpccially as a foi- 
table proviiion, and the accomodation of kirks and manfes, are effentially rc- 
quifite to the decent and regular difcharge of a clergyman's office, which con- 
Hits chiefly in explaining and in calculating the dodrines and precepts of our 
holy religion ;■ which will invariably be found the moil effcdual means to 
lecure a due fubordination of ranks in fociety ; which fubordinations is ef. 
iential to the happinefs of the community, as well as the beib means to pro- 
mote the fpiritual and temporal intereft of individuals. 

The common people of this difLti<fl remain to this day fo credulous, as to 
think that fairies do exift ; that an inferior fpecies of witch-craft is {till prac* 
•jEisd, and that houfcs have been haunted, not only in former ages, but that 


t>f Stronfay and Eday. 431 

Mifcellaneous Oi/ervations, — The center of the Orkney i- 
Ilands lies in latitude 56"" North. The weather is in general 


they are haooted, at leaft noifes are heardi which cannot be accounted for on 
rational principle*, even in oyr days. An inftancc of the latter happened on- 
ly three years ago, in the houfe of John Spcnce, boat*carpenter, which houfe 
ftandfl within the diftance of a quarter of a mile from the manfe of Stron£iy. 
In the month of April l^^, ihi$ carpenter had almoft compleaced a boat» 
which he had on the flocks : He, hit wife, hia (errant^ and his children, cue 
zught fometime after they were iaid in bed, heard a noife ivfeinbling what be 
had been accuftomed to make when driving nails into the boat. It continued 
a long time. He fuppofed it to be boys, who having come that way at a 
late hour, were amofing thcmfelves. At laft he got tip, and went on with an 
intemion to reprove and difinift them. The notfe ceafed •n hia going out c£ 
doon to the boat, which Hood hard by hia houfe ; bvt he could neither fee n^r 
hear any body. The noife was heard by all the family, not only that night* 
but many nights after ; not nightly, in conftant fuccdiion, but at irregular in- 
tervals. Whilft the boat lay on the ftocks. It [was ftill apprehended that the 
noife proceeded from it, although no marks of ftrokee could bde ecerned, evoa 
after it had been newly covered otcr with tar, within ind without, when the 
leaft touch will make an impreffion. The miilrcfs of the houfe and the chiU- 
ren were alarmed ; at her eameft reqneft, therefore, in order to remove ef- 
fednally the fuppofed caufe of the noife, the boat when finiflied, was feat 
home, which happened to be to a place on the other fide of the iihnd, from 
which place the noife could not reach the carpenter's houfe. Yet lo ! and 
behold ! the fame noife continned, even vrhen there was no- boat on the ftocks, 
and that for no Icfs than four months ; and as the time elapfed, the noife 
increafed with ftill louder and quicker ftrokes, until it came to refemble the 
ftrokes of two men hard at work on a fmith^a anviL It uttered at laft, not 
only the fonnds of much facigoe, when men art employed in fuch work» b«t 
moans of great diftrefs. 

All whidi feemed to this family to proceed fomettmes from one qoartor, 
and at other times from another quarter within their houfe. Some of the 
oeighbotirs were brought to fleep in the houfe, in order to difcover the dclu- 
fion or impofition, if any fuch eiifted. The feme noife, at the vfual time of 
the Bight, was heard by thefe neighbours as well as by the Dunily* The maf- 
ter of the houfe himfelf b^an at laft to be fomewhat aUrmed ; but, putting 
his truft IB God, he rcfelved (9 addids ibu fupcrnatural diftWber, and lo aik 

43^ Statiftical Account 

moderate, and the climate temperate. But gales of wind, iri 
the end of July, or the beginning of Auguft, have fometimes 


what it meant or what k wanted : Accordingly, in the month of AugaSt 
following, one night after he had lain fometime in bed with hit wife and 
. children, upon hearing the laft mentioned aggratated noiie,aooomp«nied with 
difinai groant, ho fat op in his bod, and folemnly conjnrod it, in the name •£ 
the Holy Trinity, to ^peak, if it had any thing to fay to him. Inarticulate 
foandt of a faultering tongue uoiible to fpeak, accorapaoied with difiaal groani, 
wero heanl. 

The noife foon after ceafed, and did not return any mono to diikurb thif 
fjunily. The preceding. account the mioiAer Decently heard from the laid 
John Spence, and aUo from hi^ wife, when fepacately examined by i)im on thi« 
fubje^ on which occafions they always Itppeared gr^ve and ierioui. 

In thii eminently eidigbtened age, when atheifm and irrcligion have heed 
▼ery adive in bringing, not only fuperilition and cnthufiafm, but religion it* 
ielf to the Guillotine, it it highly probable, that the traiu of charader noir 
exhibited will be held in derifion, and the drawer therof expofed to iofinitd 
ridicule on account of the preceding narrative, by thofie who glory in being 
fuperior to vulgar prejudices. If this fhould be the cafe, 'he will. not attempt 
to remonftrate, but only humbly propofe the following queries, tjl. Are the 
inconfiderable remains of fuperfUtion and endiofiaiki, which do aff&SL the 
charader only in fmall and unimportant matters; or icepticifin, which gives 
a new and totally different diredion to the nnderftanding and the will, leaA 
dangerous to our happy eftabliflimrnt in church and ftate i And whereas the 
hmnan mind is a fruitful field, in whkh whoklbine herbs, or noxious weedj, 
will fpring up and flouriih,*»4^. Is it wifer to pluck up at onoe the whole 
exifting crop, before we Jiave duly oonlidered the native and- tendency of tbfl 
feed to be fiibfUtuted in its place ; or to contsnue to cukiTate the feeds o| rev 
▼ealed religion, (which fyftem hath been held in high eftimationby wifemefl 
. in all ages of vrorld,) and at the tuat time, gradually to chedk teid eradicac^ 
pernicious errors and immoral pradioes f A candid examination of thefe 
querieamay poflibly'fumiih lome apology, why the miaifter and pooplc of thif 
diihid are not very hafty to exchange old prejudices for newandAr^ngedof* 
uinct, which eventually m^y be, and in a neighbouring nntinnhavc bocalii^ 
veriiTe of the piincipUaofreligiaa natural jad rorealtd. 


t>f Stronfay and Ed ay. 43 3 

greatly injured the crop of the whole country. This was 
the cafe in the year 1778^ on the 14th of Auguft, when a 
^ale of wcfterly wind, of not more than four hours continu- 
ance, drove th« fray df the fca over the Orkney iflands, which 
tbniagcd the crop to fuch a degree, that it was found nocef- 
fary td import about x8>o6q bolls of meal and bear, whichi 
with large quantities of bifcut) potatoes, pcafe, barley and 
mah» coH tlie confumers no lefs a {um than 15,000 1. Ster- 
ling, that is, neatly Mirice the grofs rent of the country; Cropd 
1782, 17^53. i784> "7^S» ^^^^ poor indeed, but rot fo bad as 
that<^ *77^' Toftipply the deficiency of the faid four crops, 
nearly 20,000 bolls of vi£):udl were imported into Orkney. The 
crops for fe^crll years lad pad, have been fo much better^ 
that confiderablc quantities of vi£iual.have been exported. 

The ferries in this di ft rift, and through all Orkney, except 
t>n the poft road from Caithtiefs to Kirkwall^ are not undet 
proper regtilations. There are no dated feny-men, the freights 
are accordingly impofeJ at the pleafure of the boatmen whd 
fcrofs over with paficngers, which renders the ex pence and 
trouble of travelling through thefc iflands very gteat, and dif- 
ficult to be afcertained. 

There are ale-hcufes iii almoft all the iflands, but no inns^ 
except in Kirkwall and Sttomnefs, the only towns In Orkney ; 
which circumftance makes it inconvenient fot ftrangers-to 
pafs through this country j this defeft, however, is well fup- 
plicd by th^ mod refpcclable people in each of the iflands, 
who receive and 3^ccommodutc travellers with great hofpitality 
and fcindnefs; 

The inhabitants of Orkney are nearly the fame in number 
now, ( I 794,) according to accounts lately given in by the 
feveral miinders, to the fynod of Orkney, as they were found 
to be by like accounts giv'en in to Murdoch Mackenzie, ma- 
ritime furveyor of thcfe iflands, about the year 1750 5 viz. 
from 23 to 24,coo. 

Vol. XV- 3 R There 

434 Statijlical Account 

There arc eighteen parifli-minifters in Orkney, {the pariflx 
kirks thirty two,) divided into three prcfbyterics, in each of 
which there are fix minifters. Of thofe who filled thefc 
offices twenty five years aga, when the author of this article 
was fettled', only three incumbents now remain, one in each 
of the prefbyteries ; viz. one in the parifhes of Hoy and 
Guymfay, one in the pariihs of Ronfay and Egiifliay ; all 
the other pariflies in Orkney, have been vacated by the death 
of their rcfpeftivc paftors, fome of them by the death of 
more than one incumbent. 

This obfervation tends to (how, that the infcfription over 
the door of the minifter firft in order, in the burgh of Kirk- 
wall, in Orkney, might very properly be put over the door 
of every minifter's manfe in the county, to keep the poifef- 
fors in mind of the rapidity of fucceffion, and fliortnefs of 
the time which all and each of them can reafoT»bly expe£t 
to hold their offices. The infcription is in a MonkUh rhyme, 
as follows : 

Omnia terreoa, per vices funt aliena ; 

Nunc mea, tunc hiijas ; poft moricni ntfcio cujat^ 

^fGlemrofs. 435 


(Presbytery of Dalkeith, Sykod* of Lothian and 


By the Rev. Mr William Torrence, Miui/ler. 


Rev. Dr John Walker, Mtnifter of Colingtcn^ 


Professor OF Natural History in the University of 

Situation end Extent. 

jL his parifh is fituated alsout 7 miles Weft from Edln- 
burg : The roads leading to Biggar, Moffat, and Peebles, run 
through It. The extent of it is nearly about 3 miles frorti 
Eaft to Weft, and the fame diftancc from South to North. It 
is bounded on the Eaft and South by the parifh of Lafswade, 
and on the Weft and North by the parifhes of Pennycuick and 
Colington. It had formerly been a part of the pariflies of LafT- 
wade and Pennycuick, and was eredcd into a feparate parifh 

in 1 6 16, 

3 If i Fopulaiton* 

436 Statifiitfal Account 

Populaikn. — There is Tcafon to believe that tlie popuhtion 
of this parifli has decreafcd confidcrably within thcfc 40 3fears, 
on account of the union of fafins. At prcfent there arc 385 
fouls, 73 families, 175 males, 245 unmarried. 

Ia^t of Baptisms, Marriages, and Bu&JAts, for S years. 




































• M 







• 3 












Jgriculiure. — ^Thc greateft part of this parifh is adapted 
to pafturage, being part of th? Ftrntland hiils \ and it i$ fuppefr 
cd that the farmers would find their account in dire£ting their 
attention more to this object, in other parts of the parifh. 
The mod profitable crops arc oats and grafs, and the moft 
fubftantial improvements are draining and manuring with 

There are in this parifh about 60 fcgre of flieep, about 
150 cows and oxen, and about 10c hoifes. The (heep in this 
parilh are generally of the common black fi\ccd kind- The 
farmers have hitherto found no other kind fo hardy and fo 
profitable. Smearing is univcrfally pradlifed by the farmery. 
They think it defends from the cold, the rot, and the fcab. 
They give 31b of butter to i pint of tar, and about 6 pints of 
tar and i81b of butter to the fcorc. Xia;nbs fell from 4s. to 


qfQJencrafs. 437 

69, ) vooiyfioch'^s. to 7s.,per ilone ; ewes with lamb from toa. 
to I2S; 

The multure paid by die farmers is 1 peck to 6 jiriots of 

{billiagy «nd about half a. ptck of meal to every bo)l of oats* 

'fhc great coniphdnt on this ankle, is,-^that the multaie is 

nicafured, not weighed, and tliat the meafures are large ^nd 

^ uncertain. 

ManufaBures.^^ln this [>aripi there is one didillery, one 
blcadiiield, two corn^mills, oue barky-mill, three fmitlis, twp 
ntaibp$, two Wrights,, twq weavers, one taylor, (wo butchers^ 
and one coalHer. 

FoJJtls. — ^The part dT the Pentland hills which is in this 
parilh, like all the reft of that range of mountains, confide 
of difierent forts of whiuftone, and other lapideous ftrata, 
which are commonly Urmzd J>nmifive Kocir, The lower 
grounds in the parifh, which form part of the valley of Mi4 
Lothian,, contain foflils of a very difl'erent kind, and which 
are known by the name oi fecundaryjlrjia. Tliefe Tire/and^ 
Jlone, Umeftonei coal^ and its concomitant foflils, M'hich are 
lifually called coal mttals* 

Through Scotlartd, in general, thefe fecundary ftrata occupy 
the lower parts of the country j but the mountainous tradls 
are entirely compofcd of ftrata of the prin^ljye kind. The 
fecundary ftrata ftretch through the valley of ^id Lothian^ 
for about 15 miles, from Muflelburgh fands, to the CaerUps 
on the confines of Twecddale, where they arc all cut off. In ' 
fcvcral places, they arrive at the (kirts of the Pentland hills, 
but never afccnd them. They terminate gradually, as they ap^ 
proach the mountains, and feem, at their termination, to over- 
leap, as it were, the primitive ftrata of which the mountains 

43<S Statistical Account 

By the Gdc of the river of Glencrofs, there is a veio fcve- 
ral feet wide, entirely filled with that mineral fubftance call- 
ed heavy /par. It is a foifil tliat abounds in many of the 
xicheftoieUU c veins, both in Scotland, and in fare^ coun- 
tries ; and afibrds indeed a probable indication of meul^ cf- 
peciaily of lead. Tht5. vein appears to have been worked a 
little way in former times, but had foon been given up. It 
is not unlikely, that on fome future occafion, it may be 
thought worthy of further examination. Of all foiTUs, this 
fubilance approaches neareft to the die metals in fpedfic 
gravity. It has even been prcfumed to be of a metaliic na- 
ture. No metal, however, has yet been extraded from it» 
i>or has it ever been applied to any ufe^ore profitable, than 
as a ilux, to facilitate the fufion of the ores of mctaU. 

Threes. — ^There Is a filvcr fir at Woodhoufelee, which is 
the elded tree of its fpccies in Mid Lothian, and has always 
b;;en adjured for its fize and beauty. It was planted in a 
dry fpil, in a garden, about the firft year of the prefent cen- 
tury. In March 1759, at 4 feet above the ground, it raea- 
furcd 7 feet 4^ inches in circumference. In March 1793, 
at the fame height, it meaiiired 1 1 feet i ^ inches. During 
ihefe 33 years, it therefore increafed in circumference 45 
inches. Its greatcft growth was in the year 1760, when it 
increafed precifcly 2 inches. During all the other years, its 
incrcafe in circumference was from one inch, to i^ inch an- 
nually. This fine tree, however, is now upon the decay. It 
is afcertained, from other inftanccs, that the age of the filver 
fir, is limited, in this country, to within a century. It is in 
its grcateft per feci ion, when about 80 years old ; and if plac- 
ed in a proper fituation, it is capable, during all that period, 
of increafing upon an average, above a cubic foot of wood an- 
Bjually. From fome full grown trees of diis kind, lately fel- 

of Glencrojs. 4551 

led in the South of Scotland, it appeared, thit the timber is 
•more valuable and ufeful than has generally been fuppofcd. 

About the year 1700, there had alfo been planted at Wood- 
houfelee, and at Greenlaw in this parifli, a confiderable num- 
ber of laburnums. Some of them were cut in the year 1761, 
and afforded a plank from to to 14 inches in breadth, of 
very beautiful timber. At both pLiccs, thefe trees j^rew \\\ 
a high part of the country, in a meagre foil, and in an ex- 
pofed fituation. When they came to be worked into furni- 
ture?, a remarkable difference appeared, in the quality of their 
wood, compared to that of laburnums of the fiinic age, which 
grew at Panmure in Forfarfhire, in a rich foil, and in a low 
and (heltered fituation : carved work, in tlie Panmure labur- 
num, was executed by the cabinet maker with tlie ordluary 
tools ; but in the Woodhoufelee. and Grccnhw laburnum, it 
required the affiflancc of ftc^l files, from the greater clofencfs 
and hardnefs of the wood. 

Ahimah- — ^The red fqUirrel {fc'mrvs vulgaris rufiH of .Lin- 

n?eus,) has become extremely common of late years. In this 
neighbourhood, the woods abound with them, and they arc 
pretty numerous at Woodhoufelee. Though a beautiful ani- 
mal, they are dcHruftivc of the fmall birds, by devouring; 
their eggs, and are extremely injurious to young pbnting, by 
croping and barking the tender flioots. Tlie larch tree fuffer? 
particularly from this animal. 

In the year 1749, when the coal was worked at Newhall, 
in the neighbouring parifh of Pennycuick, it was^ remarked 
that the coalliers houfcs, and other cottages, in which no- 
thing was burnt but coal, abounded with bugs. In the neigh- 
bourhood of that coal, there was plenty of peat mof?, and 
there, as it happens in other parts of Scotland, many of the 
cottagers chofe rather to ufe peat than coal for their fuel. 


440 - St(UiJik^l Account 

In thofe houfcs ta whkh peac only was buf nt» the bug oe^cf 
appeared, though they were immediately adjacent to houfetf 
where coal was burnt, and in whi<ih the vnitfk prevailed. 

In the year 1 759, when the coal was worked on Olencrofs 
muir, and in Goukly mois, in this pariih, the fame thing was 
obfcrved. The houfes of the lower people, who only ufed 
coal, were infcfted with bugs ; while thofe in which peat and 
turf ferved as the only fuel, were entirely free. 

1 he burning of peat in Edinbutgh, came to be a fort of re- 
ceipt againft bu;7s, though it does not appear to harcbe^nof 
much avail. If peat fmoak ;$ at all a remedy againft them, 
it appears only to be fo, where no ether fuel is ufed but peat 5 
and where the fmoak is at liberty, as is ufually the cafe where 
peat IB burnt, to pervade the whole houfe. 

It i« indeed remarkable, that the bqg prevails only in thoie 
towns and parts of Scotland, where coal is burnt ; "^nd that 
it is unknown in the towns and diftrifts, where peat, tUrf, or 
wood, are the only fuel. Some towns and villages of thi«« 
kind, though they' have always had much commtmicatiou 
with Edinburgh and Glafgow, by means of goods, furniture,- 
baggage, and apparel, ftill remain uninfefled with bugs- This 
would infinuatc, that they poflTcfs fomc antidote agakilt thefe 
vermin. That this antidote is the fmoak of the peat fuel,- 
is not improbable ; but that it really is fo, has not been fuf- 
* ficiently afcertained. 

Hotise-rf^Mnir Market. — There is a market fot fliccp at 
Houfc-of-Muir, at -two feafons of the year, in the end of 
March and beginning of April 5 and there is a market for 
ewes with lamb. They come from Galloway and tlie South- 
em counties, and are bought up by the Mid-Lothian and 
Eaft- Lothian farmers. In the end of Odlobcr, there is 3 
market for fat (hecp from the fame counties, which are 


bfXitencrofs. 441 

WgKt t>y the Edinburgh and Dalkeith butchers, during the 
whole fummer % kmbs arc to'be bought about the be ginning 
of the week. The cuftom drawn from this market is paid to 
the family of Glencrofs, and the town of Edinburgh. 

jintiquities . — ^There arc fome vcftiges of camps at Caftlc- 
law, from which the place has probably taken its name. At 
Rullion green, was fought the battle of Fendand-hilli in No.- 
vembcr aSth 1666. A ftone is crefted in memory of this bat*" 
' tic, with a rude infcription. Old Woodhoufelcff was former- 
ly the property aild refidence of Hamilton of Bothwell-haugh^ 
and it was from this houfe that the Regent Murray turned out 
the Lady of Hamilton to the inclemency of the fcafon \ the 
refentitient of which was the caufe of the Regent^s death. A- 
bout a hundred and thirty years ago, the tower of Fulford^ 
which was likewife a place of great antiquity, was repaired from 
the ftones of this houfe, and took the name of Woodhoufelee* 
It is the property of Alexander Frafer Tytler, Efq; Judges 
Advocate of North Britkiin^ 

Eccieftaftical Siati. — ^There ate fix heritors in this pari(h« 
Mr Frafer Tytler is patron. The (Upend is 35L 8s. id* 
in money, ten bolls two firlots and two pecks of barley, 
feven bolls two firlots and two pecks of meal, and ten 
bolls of oats. The manfc,. which was built withiii thefc 
30 years, was, this year, 179 J, repaired in a very complete 
manner, and is, at prefent, a very commodious and comfort- 
able dwelling. The glebe, with the garden, which is a good 
one, con fids of nearly five acres of ground, together with the 
privilege of grazing a cow with one farmer, and ten (heep or 
a cow with another. The poor are fupported from the col- 
lections at the church door, from the dues from marriages, and 
..mort-cloth, and from the intereft of 20I. at 4 per cent- The 
Vol. XV. 3 L number 

44? Statijlieal ActeuHt 

number of poor in this pariQi is fmall. Two only, have, fW 
fome time pafl, been upon die roll. 

MifcelLneoHS. — ^The advantages peculiar to this parifli, arc 
its vicinity to Edinburgh, the goodnefs of the roads, and the 
neighbourhood of good coal. There are no difeafes peculiar 
to tliis parilh. The people, in general, are very healthy. 
Thcr^: are, hovircver, no in Aances of remarkable longevity. 

It is not unworthy cf particular remark, that the fcene of 
that beautiful paftoral, The Gentle Shepherd^ is generally fuppof- 
ed to have been laid in this pariih. Thete is certainly a very 
ftrift coincidence between the adlual fcenery of this part of 
the country^ and the local circumilances mentioned in the 
poem. The general defcription of the fcene, as given at the 
beginning of the paftoral, is " A fliepherd's village and fields, 
" fome few miles from Edinburgh." The Weft-Port, meri- 
tioned in the firft fcene a» the road from the village to maf- 
ket, fixes the bearing of the country to the vicinity of tbe 
Pentland hills. ' The fiift fcene is 

** Beneath the fouth-ftJe of a craigy bield^ 

** Where cf^Ral fpirings tife hahfome waters yield ;'* 

As the fccond is, 

" Aflovjry hoivra^ tetiueen twa verdant brats ^ 
•' A trotting burnie wlmpling thro* the ground^ 

No defcription could more exaftly chcirafterlfc -the fcenciy 
in tlic neighbourhood of Woodhoufclce, and Boghall burns. 
A romantic fall at the head of Glencrofs v.^atcr is termed, at 
this day, ** Habh/s-hoio*^ The ancient tower of Fulford, or 
Woodhoufclce, repaired immediately after the civil wars, and 
formerly the nianfion houfe of a knight *, may well counten- 

•ir William Parvctbii M|jcfty*i Stollidiw. 

ofGlencrcJi. 443 

aiiCC the fuppofition of Ramfay^s having here fixed the imagi- 
nary rcfidence of his Sir William Worthy. After all, howe- 
ver, this appropriation miift be allowed to be crulrely conjec- 
tural, and to reft more upon fancy, pleafing itfelf in clothing 
its own piftures in the garb of reality, than upon any bafis* 
of evidence. This at leaft may certainly be affirmed, that if 
the poet intended at all to appropriate the fcenery of his paf-. 
toial, farther than to the general afpe£l of the country in the 
neighbourhood of the Pentland hills, there are no a£lual fcenes 
which fo perfeAly correfpond to his defcriptions, as thofe in 
the neighbourhood of Woodhoufelce. 

• Emnent JlfrA.-r-Theic were two gentlemeti, formerly of^ 
ihis t>art(h» whofe names well deferve tq be recordedj in a pa* 
rochial account of this kind. 

William Tytler, Efq; of Woodhoufelce, writer to hi* 
Majefty's Sign^t^ and vice^prefident of the fociety of Scottifti 
Antiquafri^. His Enquiry itito the EvidtneeagainflMary ^ieen 
9f Scots, is allowed to be one of the moft mafteriy pieces o£ 
biftorical criticifm : and has been the means of producing a 
very general alteratioii« iri the opinion of the world, concern- 
ing the €ondu£l and charafker of that unfortunate Princ^fs. 
Befides hiftorical re&avches, he w:as alfo remarkable for his ex- 
tenfive learning and ex/cellent tafte, in otlicr branches of the 
belles lettres. He xefcued from oblivion that valuable fragment 
of antiquity, the King's ^tah^ a poem written by James I. of 
Scotland, during his captivity in England. This remarkable 
poem, written near 400 year-s ago, is mentioned by fpme jold 
writers, but was fuppofed to be loft. Mr Ty tier, was fp fortu- 
nate as to difcover it imong the Stldenian M. S. S« in the.Bod-r 
kian library, and printed it for the firft time, in the year 1 783, 
accompanied with a very learned and judicious commeiitary« 
X^ci^ are two fine Scots poems, formerly of uncertain ori- 

"ihx that 

444 Statijikal Account 

gin, Thi Eagle and Rotin Rtd^breqft and The Vifiony which, 
from careful enquiry, he reftored to their genuine author, Al- 
lan Ramfay. From perfonal knowledge, he alfo afcribcd to 
that poet, the whole merit of the Gfnile Shepherd^ of whichj^ 
by detra£tion or by midake, he had been in part deprived. 

Mr Tytler was no lefs confpicuous for his fcience and tafte 
in mufic* His diflertation on the Scottifli mufic, is the work 
of a mafter in that fine art. He was one of the firft and mod 
ssealous promoters of the gentlemen 'S concert at Edinburgh : 
A public entertainment, which, for liberality and elegance, is 
not perhaps excelled in any other great city. In his younger 
years, he ufed himfelf to be a performer in that ailembly, on 
his favourite inftrument, the German flute. The crouded fu- 
neral concert after his death, which was the higheft exertion 
of the art in this country, (howed the fincere and deep regret 
pf the puUic, fDr the lofs of this excellent man. 

In Mr Tytler, the man of letters, and tlie man of bufincfs, 
were happily united.— A union, which has generally produ- 
ced fome oir the greateft and beft chara£lers in life. -To fu- 
perior abilities in the profeffion of the law, he added the moft 
unfpotted integrity. Keen he was, and refentful, againft e« 
very thing that was bafe or diflionourable : But an ardent 
friend to every thing that was good, and efpecially to unbo- 
firiended merit. His pietyi and his virtues in every relation 
pf life, were weU known to his numerous private friends, 
who will ever have them in remembrance. 

James Ph jlp, Efq*, of Greenlaw, in this parifli, was educa- 
ted as a lawyer under Heineccius, Vitriarius, and other emt« 
nent civilians, in Germany and Holland. Soon after his 
tetum from abroad, he was appointed judge of the High 
Court pf Admiralty. His profound knowledge in maritime 
Uw, piaWcd him to ejtecute this oflicei for many years, with 


tfGlencrofs. 445 

much advantage to his country, and with much honour to 
himfelf. He was a man iioted and beloved^ for the mildnds 
and urbanity of his mind and manners \ but he was a man 
alfo of deep difcernment, and of inflexible reflftude. 

In the year 17549 the prefent Admiral Sir Hugh Pallifer 
was commander of the Sea Horfe man of war^ lying in the 
road of Leith. A man, lunder indentures as an apprentice, 
had been eniifted as a feilor, on board this fhtp. On petition 
from his mafter, and on produ£lion of the indenture, Judge 
Philp granted a warrant to bring the man alhore to be ex- 
amined. A macer of court went aboard to apprehend him ; 
but was told by Captain Pallifer, that he confidered himfelf 
as fubjcft only to the law of England ; and that he ^would 
not fuifer the man to go a(hore; Upon this, the macer, with 
his blazon on his bread, brbke his wand of peace, and re- 
ported this illegal a£l of deforcement to the Admiralty court. 
The judge then granted warrant to apprehend Captain Pal- 
lifer himfelf, to bring him from aboard his (hip \ and to ' 
commit him to prifon, which was accordingly done. Next 
^ay^ he was brought into court \ and, on refufmg to fubmit to 
its jurisdiflion, becaufe he held his commifGon from the 
Board of Admiralty, he was again remanded to prifon, th^re 
to remain, till liberated in courfe of law. 

When the cafe was reported by the Earl of JFindlater, then 
Lord High Admiral of Scotland, to chance^or Hardwicke, 
that great ornament of the law, aitd of human nature, the 
chancellor (aid, '^ he was a bold judge who had done this ; 
but he had done what was right." This jull and high toned 
decifion, from a man fo gentle and amiable as Mr Philp, was 
followed with the univerfal approbation and gratitude of his 
pountry. It rcfcmbled in this, the behaviour of the excel- 

44^ Stattftical Account 

lent Lord Chief Jufticc Holt, who, . in his court of King's 
bench, ordered the fpeaker of the Houfe of Commons, with 
a committee jt his back, to take himfelf away, otherwife he 
would commit him to Newgate, though he (hould have the 
whole Houfe of Commons in his belly. It is the peculiar 
glory of this nation, that the laws are, «s they ought always 
to be, predominant over every other power, fuperior to the 
executive \ and to any individual branch of the Legiflatur^,. 


bfAlford. 447 



(Presbytery of Alford* County and Synod of Aber- 
deen. ) 

By the Rev. Mr Thomas Birnie, Minister. 

Name and Situatiort. 

JN o accoants, but fuch as are merely conjeQure, can be 
given of the origin of the name of this parifh^ though it bears 
the fame with the prcfbytery, and a confiderable trad of 
circumjacent country. Some fay, that the name has arifen 
from the circumdance of the river Don, (which is the northern 
boundary of the parifh, and which runs through the whole 
length of the county called Alford,) being almoft every where, 
in this pan of its courfe, fordable, when in its ordinary fizc. 
Others maintain, that the church was built upon a deferted 
part of the bed of the Lochel, a fmall river which paiTes Tcry 
n^ar it^ and where there had been anciently a ford ; and, 


44^ Stattjlical Account 

from that circumftancei auldfuirie came to be the name o^ 
the church and parilh ; both thefe derivations feem to be of 
modern date, and entirely dcpcnderit upon the prefent man- 
ner of fpeUing ; for the names of almoft all other places in 
this county are of Gaelic original ; and the name of the pa- 
rifti, in records two hundred years dd, is written Awfurde, 
an orthography which correfponds with the prefent pronoun- 

The county of Alford is (ituated from 20 to 31 miles 
Weft from Aberdeen \ and befides the parifli of that name, 
which is the largefti and the fubje£k of this accoont, com- 
prehends four other pariflies, Forbes, Keig, Gillynefsle, and 
Tough. It is furrounded on every fide by hills and moun-^ 
tains, and there is no entrance to it, but by afcending con- 
fiderable heights to gain the hollow pafles between them. 
On the South, it is bounded by Coueny $ ^ on the Eaft by 
Menoway or Cainwilliam ; on the North Eaft, and North, by 
Bennachee *, and the hills of Careen ; and on the Weft by 
Calievar' Theflb boundaries contain a country which, reckon* 
ing from the brows of. the oppofite mountains, is about 1 1 
niks in lengthy and from 4 to 6 in breadth. A confiderable 
portion of this fpace is a level country, efpeci;illy in the low- 
er 'parts ; but the iatnefs is every where varied by gentU 
fwells, and eminences, which in the upper parts rife to great- 
er height. The. climate of this country can neither be faid 
to be very wet or very dry. Its diftance from the ocean oc- 
cafions more intenfe frofts, and longer lying fiiows ; but, on 
the other hand, that, and the furrounding mountains, proteA 
and covGr this country /rom the North Eaft fogs and winds, 
which ate fo unfavourable to vegetation in lefs ftieltered fici^- 
ations, and places which are upon the coaft. Befides feveral 


. % Both ancicntlj royal forrefti. 

ofAlford. 449 

Inferior ftreams, Alford is watered by the Don, a tiver of 
Tome fize, which, gufhing thrbugh a narrow gullet, between 
the mountciirts on the Wefti winds it3 courfe in a direftion 
iFrom Weft to Eaft, through tlie whole length of the coun- 
try, and, after adorning feveral gentlemen's feats on its 
•banks, flows away throu;;h a narrow valleys encompaffcd 
on the Nonhj by Bennachie, which rifes up into high and 
magnificent Alpine tops. 

Thep.irifti of Alford is in length, from South- Weft to 
North- Eafi, from 7 to S Euglilh miles; and from 3 to be- 
tween 4 and 5 in breadth. It contains nearly 8oco Scotch a- 
crcs ; of which there may be 3600 ar;iblc, 37CO of hill, muif, 
tnofs, and pafture grounds, and about 700 of woods. Thefc 
laft confilt of pfanted Scotch Srs, intermixed with larixes, 
beeches, oaks, allocs, birks^, and dvhcr tree$ of different agcs| 
bcfides a good deal of grouai limber about gentle cnen's feats j 
and the tenant's yards. 

S^i/-— The foil on the banks bf the Don, is generally a good 
light loam, very fit for corn crops, but better adapted for 
grafs, btcaufe orf the mildews arifing from the river, which 
are hurtful to grain, efpecially to barley. In the Eaftem 
puts of the pirifti, the foil is in fome places a good deep 
Ibam, in others, a ftrong, but workable clay, and fometimes 
a mixture of both. In this quarter j and the adjoining parish 
bf Tough, there was fornierly a large marQi, nOw called the 
Strath of Tough, or Kincraigic, which was partially drained 
in the end of Ihc laft Century, when the proprietor* arc faid 
to have gained immcnfely, by the rich crops which this itew 
foil produced. Tliat part of :t which lies within this parilh, 
is moflfy ; and, though there are fome ftrOng clay lands in it, 
they have, in general, a confider^ble mixture of mofs. All 
thefc foils of lands, wliich, in this country, are calicd laighs^ 
or laigh lands, yield precarious corn crop*?, as their wetnefa 
NJolXV. 3M and 

450 Statijlical Account 

and lowncfs fubj<t£ls them, in late feafons> to froft \ but the/ 
would make esccellent meadows, if they were propedy^ drained. 
All the mofles ly in tliis quarter of the parifti^ and they 
are very much wore out. The largeft, called, for its extent, 
themeikle mofs^ was accidentally fired, about 1730, in the 
fummer feafon, and beinu unluckily very dry- at the time, was 
nearly confumed. I'he remains of it now afford no better 
' ' fuel than turfs, which are vety clayey, and not only give, but 
retain a ftrong heat. The foils in the centre and weftem 
parts of the parifii, are dry and light, fometimes of a' deep^ 
fometimes of a (hallow ftaple, well adapted for lime, and 
the turnip husbandry, and no lefs fit, with pr(^r cultivation 
and manure, for raifitig heavy crops of corn and grafs. 1 he 
mod wefterly parts are hill grounds, and, with proper ma« 
nagement, would make pretty good (heep walks. 

Farms* — ^The fize of farms it, is di^ult to average, as 
they diifer prodigiouily from one another, not only in the 
whole extent, but alfo in the quantity of the different foils 
of land which make up a farm in that country \ and they are 
in general fliil under the old divifions, with very irregular 
marches, as when antiquated notions of convenience, and no 
idea of inclofing, or regular fields, were in view. The rents 
run from 60I. and 70I. to 7I. or 81. for thofe who are accounted 
farmers* Under that rent, the poflcflbrs of land are cropers, 
who frequently, howcvejr, have cattle fuQicient to work a 
plough. A confiderabie part of the rent is paid in vi£i:ual, 
by the farmers, and fometimes even by tlh: cropers j and " 
they are in general dcfirous enough to convert the vlfbual 
into money, though tliey will. rarely give it's value. Mul* 
tares have generally been changed into paid rents, and the 
tenants only pay knavefliips to the miller, befides the ufual 
miU fervices. They arc bound likewifc to deliver poultry, &c. 

• for 

ofAlford. ^ * 45 1 

for which they are paid at an old convcrGon, which is from 
3/yd. to fid. for a hen, and fo in proportion. On fome c- 
ftatesi the tenants are ftill bound to perform ferviccs, fuch 
as ploughinjr, cafting and carrying peats, carriages, &c. ; but 
as they are rarely, or very few of them, at lead, exacted, the 
tenants are not deGrous to convert them into money ; and, 
in general, they would give nothing in lieu of them. On 
one eftate in the parifl), the barony of Alford, the cotters 
and fub-tenants pajr for their houfes and firing, to thc'land- 
lord only, aTeek hen, and one day's (hearing in harvcft. 
Leafes were formerly granted for long terms, and for lives ; 
but thty do not feem to have given any fpur to the induftry 
©f the people : When a Icafe dropped lad Whitfudday, which 
had been granted in 1743, the fon of the original tenant re- 
fufcd to give the fame rent for the poffeffion, which had be,en 
fo long paid. Now, when improvements are commencing, 
they might be perhaps more beneficial ; but, at prefent, no 
leafes longer than 19 years, are granted, and frequently they 
do not exceed 1 1 dr i j. 

Agriculture. — ^In this quarter of the country, all the old- 
fafiiioned prejudices of husbandry are ftill looked upon as 
fare and infallible rules of good management ; for no differ- 
ences in extent of poffeffion, or in rent, make any difference 
in the plans or exertions of the farmer \ and all poffeffors of 
land, of whatever defcripti^^n, purfue the fame methods, and 
almoil entirely in the fame manner. 

As agriculture is, perhaps, in this country, in as low a 
(late' as in any other part of Scotland, that has the advantage' 
of a good foil, and not an unfavourable climate, it may not 
be improper to detail die mode of management pra£Ufed 
here, which, it is believed, has at one time or other prevail- 
ed, even in thofe parts of the kingdom, which, by the pro- 

3 M 2 grefs 

45 ^ Stalls tical Acc(^ukt 

grofe of impTovcment, are now fo well cultivated and fo ppo- 
du£liye. Such a detail, while it prefcnts the real ftatc of 
this country to the reader, iviil, at the fame time, hold forth 
a pidure of the former ft.ite of Scotland j and, by compart- 
fon with what it prefcntly is, (hew that agriculture has arifen, 
from themSdft ofpttjudkea, fupported by popular opinion^ 
and fauAioned by long habit, to be an art pradifed upon 
reafonable principles, founded upon f^ds and experiments ; 
and t}xx% the time may come, wlicn the ftrength, and 
wealth, and power of the natip «, will, by the refourc^s of 
the foil, and attention to the intercfts of agriculture, be raifcd 
to the higheft pitch of which they are capable. 

Every farm in this county, is compofed of knd of difier* 
cnt qualities, and managed in different manners, which arc 
diftinguiflied by the names of, — i. Infield, 2. Outlicld, 3* 
J^aigh'Unds, 4t Pafturc-gromMs- Of thefe diiEirent fpe- 
cies of land, there are no fixed proportions for a farm. The 
fmaller pofleflions and crops generidly confift altogether of 
in- field ; but all the more confuicrablc f;irms muft be mad^ 
up of the 1 ft and 2d forts ; and thefe are many who have 
no land of the 3d or 4th defcription ; and there arc fomc 
which ate compofed of all the 4 different kinds. 

The in-field or in-town lands, arc conftantly in white 
crop, unltfs when the farm has very little or very bad pafr 
ture, and then, perhaps, a ridge or two is krft untilied, iq 
throw up the weeds which ages have no^riflicd in it, to main* 
tain the farmers cattle. One third of it is regularly manured 
yearly, with all the dung of cme year's gathering \ and rr -s, 
in three years, all the in- field on a farm has been once du j- 
ed. The in-field land is generally all ftirrcd immediately af- 
ter harvcft, and the dunged third part is again ploughed in 
fpring, and fown with bear about the beginning of May, and 
Uiis crop is fuccecded by two crops of oats, fown upon the 


^J Alford. 453 

wlnterfurrcw> as foon as the feafonWl permit^ u:hen the land 
comes again m courfe to- be manuredi and undergoes the fame 
rotation. The in- field land is generally an excellent foil, (ul) 
of manure, buft (locked .with dcftruAive weeds, of which 
wild cats and knotrgrafs are among the worft. Without the 
intenfention of grafs and green crops, to dcftroy the weeds 
and recruit the foil, the produce of the corn crops cannot be 
fuppofed to be in any proportion to the goodnefb of the hnd^ 
An average, in tolerable feafons, will not exceed from 4 to 5 
boUs/tfr acre. . 

Tlie outfield lands are managed in diSerent ways, either 
by folding or croping, without manure, or by water falling. 
This laft method can be pra£iifed only in particular fitua- 
tions» having the command of water, and where the ground 
hangs confiderably ^1 to admit of fpreading the water eafily 
over it J and it is intended to fertilize the foil, for a fuccef- 
fion of three or four crops of oats. Though no great care 
or attention is beftowed^ in fpreading the water equally, che 
firft and fecond crops are faid frequently to equal thofc pro- 
duced on the fame lands by liming ; but the two lad arc, as 
it may be fuppofed, equally inferior. After thefe corns crops, 
the land is left lee 2 or 3 or 4 years, to get a fward for a- 
nother watering, and fucceffion of grain crops. As this mode 
of cultivation is limited to particultr fpots, out-field lands are 
more generally managed, by folding and croping, without any 
manure ; and their extent, and the (lock of cattle which the 
farmer poffeiFes on the padure on hie farm, will enable hiin 
to keep all the circumftances, which lead him to follow either 
of thefe methods. Where the out- field is extenfive, and does 
not produce better than ordinary grafs, it is inipoflible \r\ 


* Land U w^atered in tbli countf for croping, and meadow groucds are 
^cver watered, as in England, for paAure. 

454 Statijlical Account 

general to fold upon the whole, unlcfs the pafture grounds 
arc of a proportionable extent ; and therefore one part is 
folded upon, ^nd the other is not ; and where the out-field 
is fmall, it cannot be divided into folds, of which eleven f is 
accounted by the farmers of this country, the mod proper 
number for their rotation. One of thcfe folds is every fum- 
mer furrounded with a fcal (turf) dyke, and the cattle aare 
inclofed in it during the night, till after hanreft, when the 
dyke is knocked down *, the land is ploughed, and left ia that 
ftate all winter. In fpring, oats are fown *, and as foon as the 
crop is off tlie ground, it is again ploughed for a fecond, ani 
^ fo on till it has hprnafive % fuccefTive crops of oats ; and then 
it is left five years lee, to throw up whatever poor grals foch 
worn out foil will produce. The firfl: two years the grafs is 
as ^ad as pofllble \ and though, during the other three it thick<* 
ens, yet even at the beft, it gives but a fcanty bite to the cat* 
tie. The fath year it is again folded upon and dunged i 
and thus, in eleven years, where'the number of folds is eleren, 
a fold is 5 years in com crop, 5 lee, and one in preparing 
for another fimilar fuccefiion. The out-field$, which are no( 


•f This number is thought the maR proper, where 5 fucceiuve crops 
are taken ; but, upoD fame farms, the out- fields are in divifioos of 9 smd i« 

I It is faid that ^r^r crops only of oatSj upon toathed or dunged out-ficld, 
/ were idlowed by the ancient cudomary law of Scotland ; and that adtiotn for 
dantajTci lay at the iaftance of the landlord, or of the ioconsing a^ainft the 
outgoing tenant, if he injured the pofTcifion by a more fcvere round of xrops,. 
Some documents of the ufe of this adion, are faid tQ be fliiL cxtanr, in the re- 
cords of the Sheriff Court of Perth. It is certain, that where out fields 
were formerly managed by folding, and where they flill are fo, the mod 
general pra&ice is to cake three crops only. In fome places, fiye crope were 
l<tobab^y allowed of old by the landholders ; and the record of a court of the 
barony of Alford, iith May I7^4i affords very good evidence that this w^ 
tlu- cafe in this county. 

ofAlford. 455 

dunged by folding, (or as it is here called, toathed,) are crop- 
ped with oats, nipon the fame plan as thofe that are, vrith the 
difference of being one or two years lefs in tillage, and one 
ortwo more lee. Under this diviGonof the lands on a farm 
in this county, faughs or faughlands, (a corrupt pronouncia- 
tion of fallow) are included. They are ploughed once in 
fummer, and left in that ftate till fpring, when they are fowa 
with very inferior oats, of which they bear three or four foe* 
ceflive crops \ and are then left to ths operations of nature 
for fereral years, to recruit them for another period of tills^c. 
The foil of out-field land, in general, is inferior to that of in- 
field, only by the difference in cultivation, and being more 
ftony. The bad ufage of the untoathed out-fields a!nd favghsy 
will cafily account for their want of fertility, in raifing grain 
crops \ but more efpecially in producing grafs^ the badnefs 
and poomefs of which it is not eafy to defcribe. The oats 
fown upon out- field lands, are in quality according to the 
goodnefs of the foil, and the ftate in which it is. In the beil 
dunged folds, the white oats, and in the inferior lands, and 
on faughs, grey oats, called here hairy and barley com, are 
generally fown. As, after folding, the land is only once 
ploughed, and frequently with a deep fur, the dung is 
buried the firft year, and wofks its effcfls on the fecond and 
third crops ; and, therefore, the firft three crops are nearly 
alike, and will rarely run beyond four bolls per acre, on an 
average ; and for the two la ft years, they dwindle down to 
betwixt two and three, and often lefs. The produce of the 
untoathed out-fields, is much inferior in quantity, as well as 
quality ; and iridced the return from faughs in grain, will 
fcldom defray the expences of labour and feed \ and the far- 
mers are tempted to plough them, though it is to tleir own 
k)fs, merely for the fake of the fm?.Il quantity cf ftraw which 

451' Statijlicdl Accent 

they yield ; and bccaufc, under their bad management, facfi 
lands wilt give no grafs. 

LiighUnds are in genera! a ftrong deep hezry foil, and in 
this country arc either alternately in oat crop, and Ice, or 2 
years in oats, and tine or two in lee. In dry early feafons^ 
they give good crops of good grain, and always a great quan- 
tity of draw ; but in wet and late harvefts the grain is never 
fit for feed, and fometimcs not good enough for meal, a& thefc 
land?, owing to iheir latenefs and wetnefs, (for they arc not 
fufficiently drained in this country,) are liable to be frofted 
before the corn is perfeflly ripe. They howcYcr through 
up abundance of good natural grafs. 

Tlic paflurc lands conCft cither of benty mair, nurfhy 
grounds, which cannot be ploughed, the banks of rivers and 
rivulets, or hil! grounds. Thcfe lands have never received a- 
ny manure to meliorate thcm^ but that which drops from the 
cattle during the day ; but they have for centuries been waf- 
ted by the praftice of cutting up the fv/ard into tuif, for the 
different purpofcs of mixing it with the ftablc and byre dungj 
(muck-fail* •,) of building the walls of houfes, when it is cal- 

• Th^ pratflice of cutting up fward for manure or muck Xwl, was prohibi- 
ted by an Ai^ of Parliament, made fqr the county of Aberdeen, as long ago 
as 1685, under a penalty of icx:>l. Scots bolls, totia qu&tieSf te the mafters of 
the ground ; .and in cafe of their negle^ to execute th« Adl, iHe flierlfft and 
ju (licet were enjoined to put it in execution. There are fiiU many places in 
thit county where thic Uw ihould be enforced. Tills A«£l ibaws th»t the Lc- 
f iflature was, even in thofc timeS} not ignorant of the bad confequeoces of 
cc.ntinual {^raiil crops, and tHe want of proper provender for cattle in winter, 
a:. J that they knew green crops to be the proptr remedy ; for it conuins an' 
eiUtftnacnt, whereby a certain proportion of the in Held of every farm (rala- 
allc according to its Highland or Lowland fiiuation) was oidered to be fowo 
^•Ith peafe yi*arly, and regulations for punilhing perfons vrho fhould Heal ilfs 
pulfc. P^afc was ih^* ca!y jjr^cn crop known in ihofc umec. 

GfAI/ard. \ 457 

i^ fiul ; pf roofiag . hoxS^^ ^feen vthe fward is pared tjbini 
and for fiiel^ which thcjr call travflg. The hill grounds have 
been likcwiffi -much iJjU^h injured by burnLng the hq^th in 
iicprojfWT feaibns . and pUces-, sufid no pains are taken, ereii 
where the Ctuation will admit of it, to cxtiq>ate heath hy wa- 
teringi A confidctaUc part of. the pafture lands in this pa- 
riih, might be made good sizable foilj by idr^uidg, %nd ^he o« 
tiher means of intprovemcnt. -The hitt gfQUpds might, by 
good management, bo! greatly biitterod \ fi^d thore are £cvera} 
tra£is.of grouiid iiriuch fall under the dixiiibo of paftur^ iand^ 
in this difttift, that are 0|&ly fit for plauta^ws? . . 

Ill this- county, and indeed ^pfetty^gOQ^rally over this coun^ 
try, farmers almoil never change their fcaed> uGiig always the 
produce of their own £arh>s J.btit «hcy «ie^ ^rfontepv^injS td 
have it as gc>od and foiihd %t the. beft of thw ($i^n ^vith re- 
peated' wihnowings will give; .The beft o^ts iii this country 
ace of ah esccdietit quabtf i for ih.tQlerabte fe^afons, the boll f 
Will yield 8 or 9 ftoneSi dnd €veii mcH?9,of m^ali which is 
ground much fmaller and better fifted than in the South of 
bcotlijmd. The gray oats, or barley corn, neither give fo mudi 
in quantity^ nor of fuch quality ; and they are ibmetimes fo 
bad, as to require two boUS to produce ei|^ht ftones of mead, 
lii fpring 17S3, when thece was great reafon to apprehend 
that the crop of 1782. was too fcanty and faulty to afford 9- 
fufficiency of good ieed, a cargo of fine Dutch oats was fent 
to this country by the late Mr Farquharfon of Haughton, for 
his own tenants and tlie neighboursi and they opntributed to 
fecure the next crop. Thefe oats were; however^ faid to de- 
generate by.badcultivatioii, and they were liable to Ifaake be- 
fore they were pcrfcdly ripe ; and for thefe rcafoas they arc 
hot now fown; .The Montgomery or Magbiehill oats have 
- Vol. XV. 3N been 

t Our boll is <>.767 per cent, better than the Linlithgow or ftandard mci- 
furfc. . . 

4S8 StaAJHcal Account 

been lately^ introduced by Mr Leitfa of '^^itehangli, opoit Ki^ 
own very extenfive farm, in the neighbouring patifli of TH** 
lynef&Ie ; they poilefs the advantage of ripening three weeks 
before the common oat, and therefore the extenfion of thdr 
ufe will be a great improvement. 

The bear grown in this oountty by comknon farniers» is 
all of the Scotch kind ; and though the feed is procured in the 
fame way as that of oats, weighs, in general, 1 8 ftones per 
boil f y and will, in particular fituations and feafons, even 
come to 20 and 21 ftones. A confiderabk quantity of meal 
and bear, probaUy from Soo to 900 bolls, is annually fent 
from this parrfh to Abardeea,.ouf only or chief market for 
grain. Bear and oatmeal have gi^en good {Hrices.of late years^ 
though the fmallnefs of our meal is a great difadvantage to it 
in the Weft country mSirkec, to which it was ufually fent 
fome years ag^. Oats are never carried to market by our far^^ 
mersj though there is a demand for them ; a circumftance 
which muft be attributed more to habit than iht tSk£k% of 
thirlage. Potatoes are not much ufed here, thouj^ every per-* 
fon who rents land plants a fmall quantity^ The common peo- 
ple are not very fond of them, and they think them unwhole- 
fome ; nor will farm fervants make a meal of them, or even 
eat them without milk or butfer, fo readily as in other parf^ 
of Scotland. To peafe-meal or bear-meal dhey- have rather a 
diflike ; and in general, garden vegetables of alt forts are ndt 
fo much cultivated or ufed as in a6xtr parts of the kingdont. 
Very little flax has been hitherto ratfed in this coftntry 5 and 
as we have excellent foil for it, and the country.pcople ait 
"under the neceflity of buying all the linen^ when they might 
get it much cheaper by manufaduring it at home, this want 
of fiax muft be attributed to the difficulty in drelling the lent} 


f #ne kirlty boU is 9.767 per cent above the fhndard. 

of Afford. 459 

but as that obftaclc is now resioTed by the ere£Hoa of a lint 
mill in the neighbourhood by Mr Leith of Whitehaugh, tho 
eulture of dus plant is becoming much more general and ex<- 

Field turnips and Town graflesi with ordinary attencton> have 
anfwered remarkably well in tlus country \ and as the farmers 
ate convinced, by fmaJl trials^ of the benefits which attend 
that mode of huibandry, they are more defirous than for- 
merly of improving in that way, though it is ftill no eafy talk 
to perfuade them to abandon their old habits and prejudices. 

The number of black cattle in this parrfli (tn December 
1793, when die year's (ale is over) is 9j[3. Of thefe 346 are- 
oxen for the plough, of which there are 65 in the pariih, aU 
moft aU of the^ld Scotch eonftru^icKi* Every fanner is am* 
Intious of having many flairs of b^en m his plough ; fome bare 
tf^ 'many have 5, and few common fanners,, with any extent' 
of pofieifion, have 'lefs than 4 pairs. Smaller tenants yoke 
oxen, horfes, and even bulls, tows, and young cattle, promif* 
cuoufly, to make up what they deem a fufficient ftrength* No 
difference in the nature of the foil is attended to in propor- 
tioning the ftrength and number of the cattle ( for a farmer, 
who yokes 10 or 1 2 oxeo, employs them aH, whether he plow 
his in-fidd land, or the moft rugged ftony out*ficld- Neither 
does this make any greak difference in the quantity of land 
ploughed at a yoking, which is from 4 to 4 of an acre *, and 
which correfpoods with the poor feeding of the cattle. Ox- 
en, which fold 40 years ago at'al. or 3I. fell now from 5I. to 
7I. and thofe of the heft kind and fize among common far- 
mers, will even rife to 81. and 9I. Every farmer fells one or 
two pairs of oxen yearly, and replaces them by others of his 
9wn rearing. 

, 3 N 2 -^ Forty 

*. The country people compote land by the quaotity fown with a boll of 
£;ed ; which may be very litrk more, if any thing, than a Scots acre. 

460 Statifiicul; Account 

Forty years agoj rl. 5s. or iL. lo^* was^ie ^fica of 4 caw 

that will now brijng from 3I. to 5I ; but as ?hcy 91c poorly fed, 
they are of a fmall fize, and will not give above 4 or 5 Scotch 
pints of milk per day, even in the bed of tlie^rafs. A far-- 
mcr's dairyj, therefore, i$ barely fufTicient for family comiunp? 
tion, and as the milk is uied fweet, little butter or cheefe i$ 
made, and that little is.rardy fent to market, but laid up (or 
winter nfe, when milk cannot, i^e had. . The ^ows calve in 
the beginning of March or end of April, which is an addi- 
tional rea(on for their giving little milk ; but,; 00 the othe^ 
hand, early calving is thought, by^the cpcintry people, to be 
advantageous to. the calf, by giving h more utj^ tp acquire 
flrength, befqre the approach: of winrtr* . For the fame rear 
f(H], calves are univerfally permhtcd to go at lirgf|thtofghthe 
fields, during fuMner, andpick up.the grafs at.^.rooti o£ 
the corn* Thi& pra£bice is occa(iona4 by the want of prc^t 
food and inclofures.; as the calves yi^uld be much ifijurvd by. 
feeding or being cof^fined with tfheb^e cati;l^ii^^£otd6»of 
in hqufes, during the fummer feafon ) and it i$:atteii4^d with 
much damage to the corns t^y their Jying upoifs and treading 
it down \ and the calves get. a reftleis habit, fo that €^Fer aiftet 
it is impofiible to confine them but by tl\e fkr9Dgeft;and laoft 
impenetrable fences. In winter, the calves. and i^l. other cattle, 
are houfed, during the night, s^nd fed with :flr^w, which, 
when tlie land is overrun with weeds, is not s^greatdeal in- 
ferior to coarfe hay. After the fir^l winter^ tb^y accoeapa- 
ny the other cattle, till they ave cows or oxen,) for it is not 
ufual to iell very young cattle in this country. In the fpring 
feafon, all cattle in tlys country are to yqry low condition^^ 
the ftr<iw being by that time not only fcarce, but dried, faj^cfs, 
and lefs nouri(hing : and by want of flielter, and en account 
of the poor (late of the land laid. put for grafs, it is very late 
in rifing. 


afAlford. . 461 

Tbc number of horfcs in this parifli i$ 172.. They aw 
well bodied and dean limbed^ but they want a fufficiency of 
bQne*t and, as they feldom life .abore 131 or 13^ hand$ 
biglH they are under fized for draughf. T.hcir other charac* 
leriiUcs are, a large ilKihaped head, with a thici^ neck an4 
ftiff mane^ they are hardy, and eafily fed, and,, upon the 
whole, fervkeahle horfes. In this country, horfes are ,no( 
gei;ierally employed in ploughing, but they draw the harrowsj>« 
which here are only ufed to cover the feed, and are by roucH 
too light and unfit for any of the other, purpojes of ngrteul' 
turc, to which proper harrpw5 are applied. , They perform 
all the cart work, wliich principally conGfts in. jounieys to 
mill and market-; in carrying home the corns in harveil, and 
preparing and carting out dung. Their food vs the faitie as 
that of homed cattle, with the addition of the light cotav 
and tliis, with a little more attention to their clcanlinefs and 
bedding, (though they are not rubbed down or curry rcomb- 
ed) keeps them mote in fie(h, and in better condition,- than 
other cattle* By the rife of price, % which, 40 years ago, 
was from 2l. lio jl. for a horfe;, that npw cods from 9I. to 
111., the breeding of horfes has turned a profitable ufe of 
land ; and farmers endeavour, at Icaft to fupply themfelve?, 
by keeping mares* The number of carts ip this parilh, has 
iiicreafed greatly within thefc 20 years, and is now. 79. 


f Some 31-judged attempts have probably been inade> long ago, to raSfc 
the fiac of the nadve horfef of tbc coontrr* ^ crofling them with tall well 
bred horfet, from other paru of the kingdom, without giving the progeny 
proper and fafficient feeding to keep them up to the fbndard ; for the de- 
fcriptios does not correfpond with the common unmixed b'rreds of Scotch 

.\ The rife of price lately, it owing to the demand from the Southern 
pru of Scotland, or North of England, where our fm<dl horfes are fa Id to 
^york in the colUcriet, 

462 StatiJHtal Account 

Creek and crook-faddles are entirely in difufe. The igno* 
ranee and inattention of the farmers of this couAtry, artf 
more confpicuous in the management of tlieit fliecp, than in 
any other branch of rural oeconomy. There are in the pst- 
rifh, Tf prcfcnt, about 1300 ; but, in fummer, there will be 
twice as many. The .grcateft part of thefe aire the fmall 
white faced Scotch (hecp, which fccm to be natives of this 
country ; but there arc a few which are bred between thefe 
and the black faced Tweeddale, or Linton breed, here called 
bruiket fhcep ; and there are otheVs, which, by the remote- 
nefs of the original, croffmg and intermixing again with the 
fheep of the country, partake, more or lefs, of the two fpc- 

This crofs breed has probably been at firft brought irita 
the country, with a view to raife the fizc of the carcafc ; but, 
although the price of (heep has nearly tripled within thefe 
40 years, neither tlie catcafe nor the wool have been much 
attended to by our farmers, whofe principal objeft, and, by 
their own account, chief gain, is in the dung which manures 
their folds. They are looked upon as prejudicial to cattle, 
becaufe the country people think that they eat up a great 
deal of the grafs; and, therefore, none but thofe who have 
cxtcnfive hillgrazings, keep any fheep. 

The hill grounds are not, however, particularly kept for 
(heep i but young cattle and young horfes are turned out up- 
on them. The flocks of fcveral tenants generally range the 
fame padures in common \ and as every one is defirous ta 
keep as many as he can, they arc very generally over-ftocked. 
When a farmer has not a fufficient flock of his own, or more 
pafturc ground than is proportioned to his winter feeding, 
he takes in flieep during the fummer, at the very moderate 
rate of 2d. per head for three months, though, as he looks 
upon the dung of the animal as his profit, they are allowed 

b/Alford. . 46^ 

io remain fhe. In the fummer, flieep are turned oat to the 
kilU to range at thdr own difcretion, and, at night^fall, a boy 
is fent to drive them down to the folds, from which they are 
frequently not releaibd till the morning is far gone. 

As MFe have no ihepherds, nor even good iheep dogs, fo there 
are no divifions of the flocks, according to their fexes, or ages, 
nor any ground haioed for winter; In this feafon, they are 
turned out upon the arable laiUls of the farm, which have 
not been in corn crop \ and feldom fent to the hill, unlefs th^ 
weather is very mild ) but during ftorm8;ind falls of ihow, 
their fttbfiftenqe muft depend upon heath || broom, or any 
thing elfe, wihich can be reached by fcraping. No . falve or 
fmearing is ufed in this county \ and if a farmer's (lock is not 
Tery numerous, the iheep are crammed into fmall houfes^ 
built for the purpofe, during the night, and what witli the 
Alternate heat an4 cold they thus undergo, and the poor 
fcanty feedbig ^i this feafon, they are in fpring reduced to a 
very lean weakly ftate, which it requires aconfiderable part 
of the fummer to teftore. The grounds, however, are heat* 
thjr, and no very mortal or difficult difeafes prevail among 
the flocks on account of the pafture. The improper burning 
of heath grounds has been highly detrimental to flicep in 
this country ; for the farmers never confult the proper fitua- 
. tion of the pLice in regard to (belter, the nature of the foil, 
and the favourablenefs of the feafon for this purpofe \ nor Ao 
they herd the burnt ground, to prcfcrve the tender grafs, 
which fprings up, from being plucked out at tlie roots, by the 


I In deep fnoWs, the coontiy people uncover the heath wkh fpades, ta 
enable the iheep tb pluck it. Farther up the Don, in the country called 
Stxathdoo, which is more {h>riny, but where they have many more, and 
much better flieep than here, this is a common pradicc. There, hkewife, the 
farmers cut off the heath, when it is in flower; ai.d after drying (hem, I-y ' 
tiiem up for winter proviiion. 

464 ' Statijiictil Account 

fhccp. The had cotifcquenccs of improper burniog arc no^ 
Telt, and likely to be put a ftop to by the proprietors }. Swinc 
arc never kept here but by millersy tiflw difpofe of the refnfc 
bf the grain from thefc mills in feeding them. We hiViC a 
good many markets round the country, at from 4 and 55 to . 
•12 iand 14 miles diftancc, where 4<an cattle arc bought up by 
dfX)vcTSi principally from the South country, and all for the 
fouthern marrkets. Horfes are likewife bought and fold in 
thefc markets, as well as lean Ihcep. Thfc Aberdeen butch^ 
crs, in the autumn, buy the bed grafs-fed urcdders, at froai 
'ios*< iM.; but few if any cattle arc felled here for 
the'fhambies, as dfthcr by eombinBtiatis among Ac butdiers^ 
or for feme odier caufe^ the price given by them is very Xom^ 
and'fuU "^tper cenU under that given in Aiigws. TlieTe were 
tocicntly weekly madiets held at Makkndovitf^ in thb pa^ 
rifli, and great yearly f^irs at that pkce» and Kirkton of Al^ 
4brd. Thofe at Meiklefidovie have been difcontinued fot 
Uia&y years \ but thete aire -ftill three ieXts at the Slirkton, for 
the fale of cattle, horfes, (hcep, &c. and fmall warQS % but 
Itbey areof no'great coniequencc. 

'fhe general manure in tiiis county^ is ftable and byre 
dung, which liie common farnftcrs mix up with a confider- 
able quantity of muckfail or clay. The muckfail is very poot* 
turf, cut up in the neareft muir, a praAice which was once 
in Vogue,' in every quarter of Scotland; and which b ftiH 
looked upon in this country as a mod important article in 
hufbandry, and occupies a great deal of time. Where good 
day is to be had, it is ufed in preference to the milirini 
fward ; and it is certainly much better, though our in-field 


$ Thcrt kre many laws, !cfpc(5ling the burning of heath grounds, 'they 
are all intended with, a view to protedl the game ; but if they were chiefiy 
enforced, they would be advantageous to fliccp, though the ground cannot al- 
ways be burned lo proper fcafon. 

b/Alfoirl 465 

lahds, thofe bnly which are manured in fhu i^jr, do by ncf 
means ftand in need of a claying every threft yearsf. All out 
f^rmeirs are moft hiiferabl; defe^liire in that grand requsBte 
in good firming} the raifing of manure ; for llie whole dung 
inade on a farm in one year, even withihe addition of nnii^k- 
fail or day, is barely fufficieqt for manuring one {eventb^ or# 
at moiki one fitth of the land which produced thj; draw. All; 
attempts to dticover made liave hitherta |>roted Unfucce&ir 
ftti ) and die only fa£)ntbiis manure whkh h^aheen tried iii 
this country 19 lime $ and as trials of it have been made to % 
Very confiderable extent, . there is uo dDtifat of the pt«£]igsr 
bilityi and value of the hnpio/ement. T{h& late Mr Iwecf 
.bf Bredsi; by liming and inclofingi flccoitpasiied by proper 
ku(bandrt, improved a property mtfaisparifliki iventy ycaffsi 
which wad lately fold at triple the prkcthe paid for ic ^ won 
iire there wanting inftancc^ of proprtetohB, said ^cn-^f tf n^ 
ants, thokgh above the ofdinaty level,: who Jiayev^witfa cqi<at 
advafitage^ carried on OniiI«ur (^rove«»em$i> S-be etpeade^' 
however^ though the ret«rii5 whh gddd?liia»illgtiiientj in'the 
hmg run, do miich more than tcpay it, iif»fy 'greatt Th« 
thcapdl mcthod^'bf pfdcUTittgJfmejis K^ briiig it -f rom Abcr-r 
dcen, at the diftance «Pft^ ^ -td 3d Afileii'rArtfiat .poet 
the price is very high ; for adl the lime-'fhe1(s imported there) 
Are either from the Suridcrland lime^wovks, iti the M6rth of 
England, orthofe at CharTeftown, in the PfiA bf F<*th; whidt 
belongs to Lord Elgin; Lime-fhell&, frohi the Srft, give ji«a 
iurns ; and of the laft, from 2 10 '2| of flaked Bme. Th© 
Aberdeen boll of lime-flicHs is fotfr corn firlots, tit 11* ftaiU 
dard Scotch pints ||, fofr which the mcrchtfnf J reeeife^ fiffjitt 
3s. id. to 3s 3d. for Sundcfhnd> and hdm rs. fd* ^ is. pdii 
for Chafleftown flidls. The carrragc ftom-AWrdcen to thif 
Vol. XV*. 3O ' cottmry# 

I Seyen mblc feet, and 150 cu^ic inchtt. 

4^6 iStatiJlical Account 

country, of. io bulky arid heavy an article, is thff chief 06^ 
ftaclc to improvements by means of lime. When Aber- 
deen carters are' employe.d to tranfport lirae-ffieDs to this* 
country, they afre paid at the rate of lis. or 12s. for «very 
three bolls, according to the diflanee 5 three bolls weigh a- 
boot 13C0 cwt.y and require two horfes, as neither the toads 
nor the* horfes are good. S<Mtie reckon this the cheajpeil 
way, but others hire the carters to deliver the (belts 1 5 miles* 
from Abei^deen, where they take them up with their own 
cattle ; and they pay at the rate of 2Qd. per, boll ; but it is not 
uncommon to fend horfes and fervants to Aberdeen with* 
grain, and even without a load, and to bring home lime-(hells 
lATettirn. As the Sunderland (hells contain a greater quan- 
tity, of calcareous matter in the fame bulk, and in lefs weight,- 
fihati thofe 6f Charldftov^, they are generally ufed here, and* 
at the rztt of from 16 to 20 bolls per Scotch acre^ wbich^ 
when properly applied, have con({antly worked great e&£ls. 
"JThe great expence of liming, eipecialif in the carriage, which, 
with their weak iU fed cattle, the country people cannot a-^ 
void, has hi|hett# deterred them from ufing it as a manure ta 
any extent ; aad» ittdpedi, ^ without a total alteration of their 
mode .of cropping, it woi^d be 4a*gOi!0us and hurtful to their 
farms. Heavy as. the expence of procuripg lime, in this coun« 
tlry,'is^^ advs^tag^sof it in melioraAing the foil, are fo great,, 
thtft.'it may be looked upon as an article highly eiiential ^ and 
neecflary for dtt€;aii>tt9g or carrying on. improvements. The 
oftly mpans to ^\xt(rm^ this expcncf > are either to difcover 
toi^fuode. workable limeftone in the country, or to lower tlie 
fXI^GO of carriage* Ti^e attempts to difcover workable 
t^ae-fton^, have nqt hitherto been either general, 01^ well 
«0ndu£led,; and though there are many indications of it in 
* the country,'no regular quarry has been hitherto found. It 
is probable^ that the gentlemen will foon turn their thoughts 


ofAiford. 467 

mdi fome effed» to that important objeft, and if they a¥« 
fuccefsfuli we (hall haye limc-ihelis as cheap, at leaft, as they 
can be purchafcd at Aberdeen, after defraying all expcnce«i 
the heavieft of which will be the price and carriage of coaU 
from Aberdeen to bum the limedone. If this great fource 
of improTement fail, oar only other alternative, is, to cheap? 
en the carriage, by altering and mending the roads, which 
have lately begun to receive very great attention in this coun* 
There are few fields properly inclofed, but thofe wliich 
furround gentlemen's feats ; and the only fences which may. 
be called good, are ftone dykes though there is little doubt 
that, upon a proper plan, with proper preparation and atten- 
tion, thorns would thrive well, make good fences, ^ and, cok- 
fequendy, a moft valuable and lafling improTement in this 
country ; but they have la veiy few places had a fair triah 
The country people are not av«rfe to indoiures, though they 
will neither build nor pay a per ccntage foE building ftono 
dykes, which coft from aid.to4(). perScotchell^, according 
to the materisds and height of the dyke \ beiides carriage of the 
ftones ; and thoyieBiUiot bear the trouble of prote&ing or rait 
ing a thorn hedge. T))oy hfeid^ti. make a proper ufe of indo* 
fures where they have them ; for it is not uncommon to fee an 
inclofed field in patches of com and grafs ; the only real u£b 
of inclofures to dtem^i therefore, is to lisnre as a barrier to tha 
farm in winter, when, if the weather is open, the cattle of the 
great and ot the fmall farmer^ range piomifcuoufly over the 
whole country, without regard to any farm or any boundaries. 
This pra£lice has been proh3>ited jf by the Legiflature long 

3 O 2 ago, 

^ A Scotch elLis little more thap 37 Eoglifli inchet. 

I Winter feeding was ftridly enjoined, and the praAice of taming out 
cattle, to go at random, prohibited, under fevere penalties, in 1606. The ati- 
Uty of the law is obvious.— Pity that it is not more rigoroufly executed. 

46^ Statiftica\ Account 

ago» ind U deferves very fe?^re reproblicion, as it is a moft 
effe£lual bar to improvements of every i^nd \ and efpeciali]^ 
to the culture pf grafs and Corn cr6p6. 

The wages of farm ferrants have been very greatly raifed 
within thefe few years in this country, owing to the great 
demand and high price of labour in Angus, the MeamSf and 
Southern parts pf Scotland, together ivith that occafioned by 
the number of eiitenfive manufactories, recently ere£bed in 
Aberdeen. Forty years ago, a man's yearly wag^s wert from 
i6L Scotch, or il. 6s. 8d. Sterling, to il. ije. 4d. and & wo- 
man'js \6 merkii, or 17s. p^d. and they are now from 51* los. 
to 61. for a man, and i\. ie>8. fpr a woman. Though thcfe wa* 
ges do not appear high, when compared with thofo given iq 
pthcr parts of Scotland, they are very feverely felt by the fur* 
mcrs of this country ; and indeed, when it is confidcied that 
fervants in this quarter do not woxk as in other places ; that 
the extent of ground ploughed, harrowpd, reaped, Ssc. is ve- 
ry great, when compared to the produce \ that for thefe tea* 
fons many fervants are required ; and that the maintenance 
of them is ? much btghet article than their wages, efpeciaily 
where there are many mouths^ and whcii, in addition tq 
to thefe pecuniary difadvantages, the difficulty in procuring 
fervants, their wafte, indolence, careleflbefs, and infolence, 
' are taken into account, it is not to be wondered at, that the 
expencc of farm fervants, in this country, cuts very deep up- 
on the produce of the farm, or (as the tenants generally (ay) 
that it is a greater burden on them than their rent. Befides 
the ordinary fervants of his farm, a farmer has to provide a 
number of extra hands for his harveft vrork. This work is 
never done by the piece or day, but an agreed-upon-fum, to<^ 
gether with the reapers visuals, (frequently accompanied by 

verf ridiculous fUpuiattons *) are given as a faarveft fee, tiarr 
ing the whcrfe time of cutting down and carrying home the 
poms* Thefe harveft fees have been riiing for fome years, 
and. are now il- 15 s. or 2I* for a man, and iL for a woman, 
beGdes vifluals ; and the rifle of, bad weather, to protiaA the 
banreft, and lay hands idle, whom the fanner muft main* 
t^n, and every thing elfe being taken into view, i( will be 
fouild, that the expence of harveft work runs very greatly out 
of proportion to that of every other fpecies of labour. This 
fiifproportion is the caufe of many of the grievances we feel, 
with regard to ordinary fervants \ for thefe high harveil fees 
being nearly equivalent to a half years wages, not oply deter 
the people, efpecially women :):, from engaging to work to a 
mafter, but induces fjcrvants tp defert their fervice upon tlie 
fiighteft pretences ; and it is much to be regretted, that the 
diflike of getting what they call a bad word, among fervants, 
generally ties up the fj^rmcr from applying for that redrefs 
-which the law affords* The fame fiily idea leads them to 
give way to the grofiell abufes in their dameftic concerns. A 
farmer muft often rife from bed at 3 or 4 o'clock, in a win- 
ter's morning, to admit his fervants, who have been junket* 
ting all night in the neighbourhood ; and he muft perform all 
the morning work of a farm, in tending cattle, &c. long be- 
fore they get upi to aflift him ; nor is it uncommon for a far- 
mer to go with his cart and horfes to Aberdeen himfelf, be- 
caufe he vdU not only take better care of his cattle, but per-* 
form the Journey at lefs expence tlian his fervant. In (hort, 


* 3ucb as, for example, that the reaper (hall have fuch and fuch perfons oq 
the fame ridge with him. 

\ W'omen, when they are not engaged a« fervanti, fpin, and make their own 
clothes, or work ftockings, till the harvcfl approach ; and thus are gainers by 
pot entering into farmeri fcryice. 

479 Stali/lical Account 

the common meamng of language here is totally reverfed { 
and fer vants do not fo muck ferve, as rule and tyrannize oTcr 
their mailers. The fubtenants and cottars do not work much 
to the principal tenants ; but they pay them higher rents 
than the principal pays to his landlord, and they eafe him of 
a good many fervices ; and though this ciafs of pofleflbrs of 
land aad to the population of a country, they are not, hare 
at leafti always to be reckoned the moil ufeful and induftri- 
ofiis members of fociety. There are many of them, who, if 
their fmail piece of ground will barely find them fubfiftence, 
will not endeavcmr to better their condition by labour or in- 
dudry, though there is always work enough for labourers ; 
and they lead an e^fy, indolent life, except in harveft, which 
is a feafon of general exertion. The wages of artificers here 
are as high as^n any part of Scotland, and thofe of day lar 
bourers are 8d« in fummer and 6d. in winter; high enough, 
confidering their work ; yet the high price of meal common- 
ly proves a ilrong^r inducement to make them work th^n 
thefe wages. Working by the piece, except at mafon«wdTiB 
and dyking, is not general in this country ; nor will the coun* 
try people undeitake it even for common works, fuch as 
trenching, ditching, &c. unlefs tbcy have an enormous pro- 

The fuel of tliis country is peat, wood, turf, heath broom^ 
&c. . With the firft, there are only two eftates in the parifh 
fupplied i and though the tenants of thofe properties are on 
a better footlnjg than the others, dill the labour of procuring 
peats is fo great, that it admits of a doubt, wfaedier coal,,iJin-^ 
der the difudvantages of a high price, and a long carriage^ 
wpuld not be dieapcr. Except the roots and crops of trees, 
wood is little .ufed for fuel, as it is very expenfive 5 and brooaa 
and heath require much labour. 


ofAlfdrd. 47 B 

il9ads. — The ronds in this county have' been originally 
formed, either by the ftatute labour, or by the military, under 
the order of Government. Of this laft defcription, there arc 
two roads which croft each other, in thi« parifh ; the great 
Northern road, whkh leads from Fettercai/n, over the Gairn 
of Month to Huntly, and the road which goes from Aber- 
deen to Corgarff, a military ttation on the fources of Don. 
Both thcfe roads, fince their forraatidn by the foldiery, have 
^been Jteptin repair by the ftktute labour- 6f the 'U%^t\i\ pa-^ 
riihes through which they pafs, as far as it would go, to 
maintain them jointly with other roads in- the pari (hes. The 
ftatute labour has not been hitherto convorted into mbney in 
^is country ; and, of confequencey as in every other coun- 
try where the ftatute labour is p^ormod ,in work by the 
cettntry people, it is found inadequate to the fupport of the* 
roads, 1>oth public and parochial. The laft mentioned mili* 
tary road, forms the commiiAiicatioH between a very exten- 
five country and tiie city of Aberdeen, and has, of late, 'as 
Well as on feveral former occaiions, become almoft impafiabie^ 
In aid of the ftatut» tabour, the gentlemen whofe eftates ly 
m this country, ha'Ve l^ce made very ttbcrai fublcriptions' 
for it's repair ; but in 1792, wben it was again in a very bad 
ftate, after mature confideration, its dircQ.ion, for a confidera- 
ble ^y, was found to be highly improper ; and it was a- 
grced, that a new road, for nearly miles hi length, with a 
view to obviate the difail vantages of the old track, Qiould be 
tindertaken. L. 600. has been fiibfcribed for this purpofe, 
and the worfc-is confidclrably advanced. When it isfiniflicd,- 
there is good reafon to e:dpe£l, that the tmirrovement of thi» 
country will go on with aditionat brilkne&i as' It will give us 
flrf excellent communication with our chief market place, 
and enable the farmer to bring home lime, coal, and the o- 
Ui€;r ncccflary articles of country confumption, much more 

47* Slatistkal Accvirii . 

cafily, and therefore more cfheaply, than he has been wont 
to do. 

MannfaBuresr-^ho, only manufadiiire in this covoty 
iirorth mehtioning,. is that of knitting ftockings, which has 
hcen king eft«J>liftied in Abcrdecnfliirc*. The country part 
of the manufa£][ure, is tarried on entirely by women, to 
whom the woplisdeKYcred out by the Abefd^n (locking 
toerchantSi who have- fixed ftations oV«r the cpontry, for gtv- 
ing out wooly receiving ftockiags, and reckooing with thofe 
whom they employ. > The wool is almoU ail imported from 
Englandf^ and none of the growth of the couatry ismanvfac- 
tured ; for which reafan» our woot i^very inferior^ and the 
fleeces .of a flock mot w«ilh more thati 6d. each, on an a¥e» 
rage« It is fpun and worked into ftockings^ at a price pro- 
poortiofied to their fineaefs oi coarfenefs \ and the average 
gaia of a good worker, will be 2S. per week* • Tltts manu- 
£a&ure has contriboted to keep bands itk tjae country | but iif 
admits of fome doubt, whether thefe 'hand$ migkt- not be 
more profitably empkyyed, and whether the manuf^Sure has' 
t^romotcd the iotenifbi o£ agricultiiH^i&v^hlK^^it^-cenMuljft Q»^ 
tytiButesr little to health, arid ctmduces k£i-ro mQf«iiitf • 

Antiquities. -^In this parifli, the Maxquis of Montrofe, upon' 
the 2d day of July 1645, won the battle of Alford, by de- 
feating Baillic, one of the Gtnerals of the Covenanters ; but 
his caufe fuftaiaed an Irreparable lofs, in the death of the 
. Lord Gordon, the eldeft fon of the Marquis of Huntly, who 


• • 'According ta the accounti cf the Ab^rdoen merchaoU, (who«ijMrt til 
thcftoCkings, either to HoUandaud the northern parti of Genwiny, fniar 
whence they arc often feat tp America) the furn circulated through the 
country jo the neighbourhood of Aberdeen, merely for fpinning the wool 
and knitting the ftockings, is from 70,000!. to 90,000!. per aiuium. Th* 
accounts arc, howc?er. in all probahility, much beyond the tnnh. 

fell by t random {hot, in the ptitfaiti neat a large (lone on 
the field of battle, Mtrhich is ftiU pointed out by the country 
people. About 50 years ago, fottie men, in calling peats* dug 
up the body of a man on horfeback and in complete armour, 
who had been drowned either in the purfuit, or flight from 
this engagement ; and formerly, thei country people were in 
ufe, when calling peatSj to find ball, and pieces of money % 
which had, probably, dropped from tha flying, and efcaped • 
the fearch of the vi£lors. Upon the top of a little hill, there 
is an immenfe cairn, from which a fmall property in tliis pa- 
ri(h takes the name of Cameveran, though the import of that 
word is not known. This cairn is lao yards in circumfer- 
ence, and of a proportionable height. Of this great monu- 
ment, there is no very di(lin£l tradition, though fome think 
that it marks the burial place of a brother of one of the 
Kings of Scotland. No more certain accounts can be given 
of a pretty large cairn, which lately ftood at a place called 
Caimballoch \ but, when it was removed fome years ago, 
there was foimd near the bottom, a fort of cheft, compofed 
of chin flat ftones, containing an earthen vefiel filled with 
aflies, Tjrfiich mouldered away upon being ctpofi^d to the air« 
In the parifl], there is an eminence called the Gallow Hill, 
which had been anciently a place of execution ; and naiis« 
and other pieces of rufty iron, are turned over by the plough, 
near the fummit, wh6re the gallows had been ere£ted« Many 

3P of 

i * Some of the coini are m the cuflody of Mr Farquharfon of Haughton; 
add ai ji may gratify a curioui reader to know the colni which appear to 
have been then current, two of rhem fliAll be d^ribed. 1*bey are filter; 
^nd the 6rft xi a two florm piece of Maximilian, Count Palatine* &(;. havings* 
en one fide, hif arms, furroonded by the Poifon J'or, and, on the revcrfe, the 
the Patrone£i of Bavaria, with the fame legend which u fliU ufed. The 
«ther it a doUar of Phil. 4. of Spain, having on one fide the arma of Spain 
aosd Aufiria, and the collar of ths Golden Fleece, and tin the reverie, a 
« crois ileuri. , 

^4 Statisiical JccounS 

pf the parifliioticrs rjcport, though without much crcdibiUtyi 
that Gregory the Great was buried in the pariih 5 and ther<j 
are fcvcral prediQions current among the country people, at- 
tributed by them to ThoiXKis the Rhymer, which it would-be 
unneceffary to recite. Th^re aie two old houfes in the pa- 
rifh ; one of them, Afstoune, was built between two and 
three hundred years ago, and fcems to iiave been a place of 
fome-ftrength. It was a fquare building, with a rpund tower 
at each of two oppofite angles, of which there is one ftill re- 
remaining, though the greater part of the houfe was pulled 
down 40 years ago. The firft ftorey was all vaulted^ and 
there was a well in one of the vaults ; but the towers were a 
continuation of one vault above another to tlie roof. 

' About two thirds of the ps^rifh belongs to one proprietor, 
who is an occafional reddent, and the remainder i» divided a- 
mong five others, two of whom refide conftantly. ^ The va- 
lued rent is 3126I. 12s. 8d. and tlic neat rent may be about 
1500I. 19s. Sterling. 

Animals- — ^The Don abounds with trout, and, after high 
floods, with falmon, which, when the river is low, cannot get 
vp'On account of the crieve dykes, near its mouth. There are 
|ia<|>ikes» and few eels in this part of its couriie. A bridge over 
the Dou in the line of the great northern road, would be 
li^ghly Serviceable to this country. Be fides the Don, there 
are feveral inferior ftreams, which p^fs through the partft, 
well .ftocked with trout, &c. Upon one of diem, the Lo^heli 
aJbridgc was bui|t by Mr Mclvine, tb^n clergyman of this 
parifl), in the end of the lad century^ and it is ilill kept in 
good repair, by a n^rtificatipn of iQO iperks, which, hc^J^ft 
ia the charge of the minifter and kirk feflion, for that puqp^fe. 

In the parifli. there are a few Red and Roc Deer, lately at- 
^a£ted to the country by the extcnfive plantations ; and we 
faaycfoxcs, polecats, weafek, the Scotch ermine, and the Muf-* 


'6fAlfoYd. 475 

'^ov'y kaly ^hb has travelled up tBe banks of the river froni 
Aberdeen. We have likewife a few muir-fowl, and plenty 
6f hares, pntrkiges, fiiipes, plovers, and wild diicks \ and, 
dt particular feafons, curleSVs, woodcocks, dottrels, and fcail 
tl rakes. Of other birds, thb country is infe{led with hawks 
of almoft all forts ; the falcoii, fparrow-hawl:, martin, and a 
rare fpecies, commonly called blue fieeves, and ^ith kites of 
different fizes and defcriptionS. The hooded crows are noC 
fo numerous, but rooks and daws are in prodigious numbers. 
Sometimes the great woodpecker has beeii found in our 
Svoods, and the king^s^fiOier on the river, though they are 
txceeding rare. In general, our woocis have iricreafed the 
Dumber of the birds and beads of prey, and confequently di- 
minifhed the quantity of game in the coiUHryi 

Churchy School and Poor. — 'the church is old, atid bears dat^ 
1603. T^^ manfe was btiilt in 1716^ aiid has been repaired; 
and ii convenient. The ftipertd is 60L i3b. 4d; including com- 
munion elemehts, and grafs money; 2 chalders of meal, and i 
bf -bear, befide^ a glebe of 4 acres, and a garden. The laft £• 
pifcSpal clergyman iil thi^'parifli was Mr Jeffrey, who Was 
rfeflloVed ibout the year 1 7 1 5, and Mr Gord6n, the firil Pfef- 
byterian ^^I^t(ler (and a coniidetable leadkt ill tht diurch 
of Scdtlattd), was fcltl'ed in 1717, and removed to AUoain 
1735. The prcfent incumbent is his third fucceflbr. 

The fchool-falary is 1 3 bolls of mealj and 2I. arifing from a 
mortification, and 40 mcrks^ or 2I. 4s. j^d. as the fee of a 
fe^ir clerk; The emoluments of the fchool will not much 
etceed 3I. Tt\e whole amount is too flendeic an allowance 
for any" ptrfon properly qualified to discharge the important 
duties which this clafs of men owe to the public. 

The funds for the maintenance of the poor, are the inte- 
reft of 200I. of mortified money, and the weekly colled ions 
»i churchj together with the fines of delinquents; Thcfe funds 


47^ Statijical Account 

arc applied to the fupport from 12 to 17 pauperSj n<>nc of 
whoin arc permitted to go about begging, though the cottntrf 
is overran with people of that defcriptioiu In tl^c bad fca* 
fon« of 1782 ai)^ 1.783, th(e kirk-feffion wcjrc obliged to f^^tcnd 
thc;lr charity more generally, and, ^^ith the confent of the he- 
ritors, laid out a part of their capital in purch^Gng grain to 
fupply the poprer inhabitants of the parifli, who wer^ in 
thofe years redui:cd to great wapt. 

Poptilatiofi, — ^Tlie population in 1755 ^^^ 99^* 
'The number of fouls under 10 years of age 

in the parifli, are. 


From \o to 20 - 132 

20 to 40 - 210 

4« to 60 - 105 

€0 to 70 . 74 

70 tq 80 - 5 

8q to 90 . 4 

Total, 66^ 
Gi thefe. there are 31 q ntales and 353 females. 
The number of (parrriages 9nd baptifm^ for 14 years from 
7 1 80, ^r^ asi follows : 

1780 81 %% 83 84 85 8^ 87 88 89 90 91 9& 93 Tot. 

Marriages 729^554441463(6 6» 

Baptifmi, SI 19 6 12 10 14 i» 7 li 13 6 9 13 6 150 

The itgiiler of marriages is Tcry exad, and there are none 

irregular ; fo that the arerage may be ftated at 4 ^ per annum. 

, The regifter of baptifms is very inaccurate, and probably not 

one half of them entered, fo that no cdncluCon can be drawn 

from it. There is no rcord whatcYcr of deaths. Of artifi-- 

<4:ers thert are in the parifh, 2 mafom, 9 joiners, wrights, 

coopers, and turners, two of whom make a variety of faiuii- 

cal inftruments Mrithout any education for that purpofe ; 6 

wtSTtrsy 3 bhtck-fmithsi 10 taylbrs^ 6 country merchants, 4 


of Afford. 477 

millers, and % dyers ; but they all have fmall poffeffion of 
land to fvpport them as well as their trade. 

The parUh-regifter goes no farther back than 17 171 and is 
fo very irregular, th^t it is impoffible from it to procure any 
data for afcertaining the ancient population of the parilh, not 
even ?t the time of the return to Dr Webftcr. But tba|t the 
number of inhabitants in the pariih has decreafed very greats 
ly^ lyithin A few y^ars, i^ not to be doubted \ and the princi^ 
pal cjiufe. feems to b^ the gr^^t encovragemient given at A« 
ber4(sep by the manufactures tp labpupng people. This p^«« 
riOi was, however, in all probability, much tpxiftt populous 
loo years ago, than at the time of Pr Webiter's report ^ and 
the rcfafon of the decreafc feems to be, that by the wearing 
out of the mpfTes, fuel has become fcarcer dian it was at 
tl^at time } a reason which will (lill tend to diminifli the 
number of inhabitants, till a more improv^ ftate pf the 
country ^nablQ the people to fupport the expence of 009I. 

There are no prevalent difeafes in this panihi excepting 
the hooping coy^h, meafles, and fmall pox, none of which 
are fatal ; the danger of the laft is much abated by inocula* 
tion, which is becoming very general. There arc feveral 
mineral i^rings in the parifli, and though their waters are 
not ftrong ; fome of them have been attended with advan- 

Qh(iraEler-—\9> t^eir general chvaftcr, th^ people arc wcH 
entitled to commemoatioa, for an phliging hofpitable difpo- 
fition, for their religious condud, and regular attendance of 
diving >^Qr(hip, and for having laid afide that quarrelfome 
temper which once pr^ailed, without adopting m its ficad' 
the fpirit of litigiOttlhefs that has fuccecded it in many places ; 
but candour muft acknowledge, though they poflefs in gene- 
iftil a laudable oecconomjr, they I^ave not yet fully acquired 


478 Statijlical Account 

thofc habits of labour and induftry, that haVc bettctcd thd 
condition of the lower chflcs of pcojplc, in other parts ot 
Scotland j an acquifition which muft always and every where 
be gradual in its beginnings, and which it is hoped^ a few 
years will haften on in this country^ 

That predile£lion and prejudice In favour of ancient modes 
of hufbandry, which has ftill fome ftrong roots iii this corner^ 
is not fo blapeabic, as it has been fo very general, ahd exett- 
edritfelf fo vigoroufly in every country, in the commencement 
6f improvements 5 but when fait means arc taken to opcii 
the eyes of the people^ by examples alid indiljiucable experi- 
ments, perfevering in thttn is not fd eicufeable *, and fome 
degfee of this cenfdre mult be applied to oUr farmers, in per- 
fiding In their old praflices, when they fee 10 6r il bolls of 
grain raited by good huibandry, where they could only raife 
3 Or 4, and excellent crops of turtiips and s^rtificial grades, 
where they denied the polTibllity of producing them; Thij 
ccnfure, however, is much lefs merited than it was, fome 
years ag6 ; And the operations of a few years more may 
change it into applaufe. 

"this account cannot be concluded better, than by a paper, found io tfa^ 
chaner cheft of Mr Farquharfon of Haughcon, of a court of the barooy of 
Alford, during the Ufurpation of the Convention t^arliament o^ Scdtland.— 
The tranCadion which it records, fhtyn, that the means which they or their 
adherents (for the then proprietor of the barony was a moft sealout cove- 
nanter) employed, to fupply their treafnry, maintain their forcei, and ftp* 
port their power, were not very duOmular to thofe that have been fo recent* 
ly and tyrannically put in pradice in a neighbouiing Kingdbra ; for wb^ 
the low (Late of agriculture, the geneial poverty of the country, and the fien- 
der mean* of the commonalty, at that time, are contrafled, with the heavi- 
nela of the uxation tmpofed, and the feverity of the Regulations for enfor- 
cing payment, it is well entitled to be compared to a forced loan. 

It fumllhct a firong proof, that in this, as in every other country, arbitrary 
cxadions have followed hard, after the &11 of equitable government ; and it 
21 a finking example of the burdens and opprcfllons, which, when hwhd 
nthoHty is •vtrtumtd, muft be bom, not only by the rich and the great, 

ofAlford. 479 

but by the hnmblc and the poor, by the friends, as well as the enenues of tbofo I 
Vrho fobvert the order, the peace, and the juftice of focietj. 

This paper demands attention, alfo, as affording fome proof of the an- 
cient population of this diftri^ All the perfons taxed held poffefllone fromi 
the laird, asd were heads of families, with cottars, graifmen, fub-tcnanta. 
apd fervants under them, from whom they were to receive fome lelief of the 
burden of the tax. 

The number taxed by .name is . • 6z 

And foi: the Kirkton of Alford there may be allowed 3 

Total of families renting land 64 

The qnmber of thofe whQ hold of ^he p oprietor at prefcnt 19 43 

, , »■" 
Dccrcafc . ,14 
This decreafe is a diminution of the number of families; and, if we fup- 
pofe the numbers of ferf ants &c. and fub'tenants, was in proportion at that 
time to the number of tenants, the total decreafe of the number of foulsihuft 
be very great. 

\t is proper to obferre, that this eftate was formerly much better provided 
- with mofs than any other in the pariih, or the counti7 in general, which 
p;ay have occa^oned a more than ordinary number of inhabiunts. 

The Court of the landis and barronie of Petiluge, Moihle Endovifi Band-^; 
ley, Badivin, and others pertinentts, with Aidgethen, Walhoufe, 
Midmill, Kirktoune of Alfuird^ and this pertinetts, be the richt 
'honourable Jon Forbes of Lcfly, heritorr thereof, halden at Pctflu^, 
the tent day of Agufl, laivi and fourtie and aught years. 7bomas 
Davidfine portioner, of Aigethcn, bailzie ; WllUame Reii, clarke of 
court; George Touch in Dykcheid, officiar; Dempjier the Ait t is,. caU 
let members prent, the court fenllt in forme and maneir as e^eirs. 

The faid day compeirit George Touch, in Dykeheid, and hes giwen his 
aith to be honed and trew in ye office officiarie, in ye ground and baron ie of 
Pitflage, ay and tyll he be difchargit. 

The faid day compeirit Alexander 'Wat, being perfewit for to fcheir in 
harveft to WilKame Paterfoni, in Bandley ; and being accuHt, hes givvea 
his aith to be free of the faid jperfute ; and theirfoir, the faid Alexander Wat 
tnoft pay his teynd oT beir and Siitts: fine the faid Alexander, his wyf is o« 
bleigt to fcheir in harvcll to Williame Paterfone in Bandley. 

The faid day, James Ingrabame in Mikill En<iovfe, is dccercDit and or- 
denirtbe ye bailze, to go hanie to Jon Couper, and mike his aducUreli- 



Statifticai Account 

^ dence In bii meUling atrd g;f«hind, smd to pey for the fiune tt he )ut pnu 
mdflcfaet, aDd fie lyke to pay to James Winter, fike dewctiet atid fernti as ht 
lies promiffit t6 him for this yeir, aeco^dibg as they wt agreeit ; or elfiTto pey 
the &3ze as the hailie decerns. 

'the faid day it ii decerhit to ^y he Joo Smyth in Cleymyr, 3 dollars for 
lerie and tranfp«rt moneyls to ye forecs, hetwixt this and th^ day atigfat dayes« 

Mr William Zong, in Cleymyr, 

Mr Patrike Innes, in Petflug, 

^r Alexander Smyth, in Shathheid, 

Mr George Touch, in Dykcheid, • 

Mr Andrew Smyth, in BeAtts, 

Joh Bainet, in Bentts^ 

Jon Mitchell, yr, ; 

Jatacs Chalmer, in MtkiU Endovie, 

Ihmcan Mitchell, in Bandley, 

Alctander Ritchie, iA Bandley, 

Tonus Mufchant, cbrdinef, ; 

William Jamefone, webder, 

Janies Tngrahame, tailseor, 

Jon Mikie, fmyth in Mckill EndoYie, 

James £dic, milliart, 

Robert Gib, in Petflug. 

Mr Alexander Calder, in Famtowne. 

Mr James Mar, yr, , 

Mr James Marnoch, is Elriche, 

Mr Jon Walker, yr, . . . 

Walter Robcrtfone, in Cleyttyr, 

Tomas Galloway, MiklU Endovie, 

William Forbes, in IVfikill Endovie, 

Elflpit WilTdn, yr, 

Adam Bamet, yr^ 

Elitpit Cou^land, in Bandley, 

Alexander Wat, in Bandley, 

Jon Mitchell, in Badivin, 

James Banie, in Badivin, 

WilKath W}T, in Smiddlehill. 

Alexander Mitchell, yr, 

Jon Mikie, in Greyflane, 

James Ed wart, in Aidgethcn, 

William Edwart, yr, 

Alexander Yuill, 

twa doUers and ane half. 

sne doller. 

4 dollers. 

* I doUer apd anc half. 

fonrtie (hilling. 


X doller. 

ten mks. 

i dollers. 

ten mks. 

X doller. 

X doller, 

X doller. 

X mk, pcyit. , 

I doller, pcyit. 

I doller. 

X doUcr. 

40 fs. 

X doller. 

X doller. 

1 doller. 

i doller. 

fyVir'c niks. 



f mk. 

iburtie fehilliogs, pey it. 

X doller. 

X doUer. 

I doller. 

I merk. 

40 fchilling, peyit. 

^ dolleri. 

X doUer. 

half doller. 

• G^CBgC 

of Kilbarcban. 489 

Mines^ Coal^ Limeftone- — There are feven different coal 
mines in the paxifti, all the property of the Millikcn family, 
excq>t one, the property of Mr Cunningham of Craigends. 
Lime-ftone is found connected with the coal at each 6f thefe 
mines. Only 4 of them are at prefent wrought, and at 3 of 
them, no coal is fold but the fplint, the reft being confumed 
in burning the lime. But the fourth produces more coal than 
is confumed i>pon the lime. The overplus is fold \ but is 

Vol. XV. 3 R- not 

times, they might have been ufed as pbces of rendezvous, where chiefs and 
▼aiCds might fettle their difputet, yet they appear to have been originaUy 
burrows, or mopoments ere^ed over the bmlies of warriors. 

I am iocUned to think this mound has been a fort, or ou(-poft of the Rjq- 
mans, when (lationed at Paifley, and intended to keep the inhabitants of the 
mountains in check. It commands a ful} view of the Roman camp at Paifley, 
diftant abbttt 6 miles, and might communicate with it by fignals. 

A littk to the £aft of the caftle, there are the vefliges of an old Romiih 
chappl ; though nothing remains but the foundation, yet the prefeht tenant, 
Robert Donaldlbn, fays, his father remembered the waDs 3 feet high. The 
4oor was of clay, which being dug, contained human bones. The farm is 
called Priefion ;'and the houfe remains the fame as when the prieft lived in 

On the top of Bar-hill, formerly mentioned, in a commanding fituation, 
are the remains of an old Danifli encampment. It confifts of a femi.circular 
parapet of loofe ftones towards the South, and defended, on the North, by the 
|ierpeodicular bafaltic rocks, already mentioned. The tradition concerning 
it among the people here, is, that it was an encampment of the celebrated Sir 
William Wallace : and they-ihew a pinnacle of rock, where they fay Wal- 
lace fat, whik he enticed the Englifh forces into a bog at the bottom of th« 
rock, where they periihed. But as our hiftorians make no mention of this, 
I am inclined t« think (he fortiQcation, frqm it« circular fomi^of Daniih ori- 

There arc two other ruinous caftles, one to the We(^, anciently the ff^at 
•f the Crawfords ; but now demoliflied almbft to the foundation. This caftle^ 
with the lands annexed to it, were called Achinames, which in Gaelic means 
ihejidd 9/ hitur. The other, on the North-welk, on the lands of Pcnneld, is 
(aid to be built by one of the name of Haia ; but he being killed in the iA^ 
terim^ It was never finiCbed. * 

4^o Statij^ical Account 

not in gi^t requefti as coil .of a much fupmrior quality is 
brought from the neighbouring parifli of ^^aifley. This 
coal is furnUhed at 6d. each cwt. 

Ecclejtajlical State. — The church was built, or rather re- 
built, in 1724, and is very commodious. It is fituated in the 
village. There is alfo in the village, a houfe of worftiip for 
perfons of the Relief perfuafion, and another on the hills, a- 
bout a mile to the weft, belonging to tlie Seceders. 

The manfe formerly flood in the village, and the glebe in 
different parcels around. Put in 1752, the glcjbe and manfe 
were excambiated, at the requcft of Mr Milliken of ijlilliken) 
the patron, who wiihed to acquire the glebe for the purpofe 
of feuing it for building. The manfe now (lands on a beau* 
tiful eminence one-eighth of a mile (outh qf ijie town, in the 
centre of the glebe, which is i6\ acros, all enclofe4 and fub- 
divided. The ftipend is 7 chalders of meal, 200I. Scotch in 
money, with an augmentation obtained in i792,of 35I. Ster* 
ling. Co|[nputing the meal at is* per peck, the Ilipend a- 
mounts to 14 iL 4s. cjd* communion elements included. 
The patronage of the church is veiled in the family of Mil- 
liken. The church formerly belonged to the Abbey of Paif* 

Rmarkable Perjbns. — ^John Knox, the celebrated .Scotti(h 
reformer, was defcended from a very ancient family in this 
pariih. His anceftors were originally proprietors of the lands 
of Kmchy in the pariih of Renfrew, from whence the family 
derived the fimamc of the Knocks, or Knox, They after- 
wards obtained the lands of Craigends, and of Jlanfutly^ both 
in this parifli, and refided long at the old Caftle of Aanfurly 
already defcribed. In proof of what we here affcrt, we refer 
to Seroplc's hiftory of Renfrcw-lbirc, This family failed in 


if l^itbdtcbau. ' 4^i 

the pe'rfoTi of Mr Andrew Knox, a clergyman of ttic moderate 
party, in the reign of iCing James the VI. and much efteemed 
by men of all parties. On the refloration of bifliops, ^ing 
James tiranlla'ted him to the biOiopficlc of the Ides i66<S \ and 
in 1622, to the Epifcopal feeo^ li^apKo in Treland. He died 
1632. This bidibp had a^fbh, Thomas ICnox, who fucceed- 
ed his father in the Eplfcopacy of the Ifles, but died'foon af- 
ter His promotion •• 

3^ i Briage*' 

* The SeQnplet of Beltreet, whofe refidence wm at Thirdpart, now the 
property of Mr M'Dowall of Garthland, were a very antient iamilj in this 
parifli, and dcfcended from the nobfe faniily'of Semple. From this Bunilf, 
feveral remarkable perfont have fpnmg. As» ift* Sir James Semple, who waa 
a great favourite of James VI. while King of Scotland, and by him fent am« 
baflador to Qaeen Elizabeth. There u yec extant^ a letter, written by King" 
James, daud Sept. 9th,. Z599, to Mr James Semple of Belltrees, while aaa- 
baflador at London, ordering him to pay Robert Fowlis, from the ixQ^ of 
his falary as ambafllidor, the fum of one hundred pounds ftei^iing, for oertain 
purpofes, therein mentioned There is alfo a paflport for his returo/r«N» th€ 
Cmtrt a lUchwiMdy the %^9f PAruarj IS99% ^Z°^ hy •* Thomas Egerton, 
George HanCday, William KnoUys, Thomas Buckhorfe, Robert North, Ro- 
bert CecyU," the minifters of Elizabeth. In the year 1601, after he had been 
made a Knight Bachelor, he was fent ambafiador to France, and there is fiill 
extant, a paiTport^or drdcr, fromthi Cettri at R'ttbrnwdy ibe/tmrtb «f 0&, i6oi. 
to have him conduced with all due rcfpeA, befitting the dignity of an ara- 
b^0ador, through England to Dover, on his way to France, ligned £; Cc 
tyU, Thcfe papers are ftill in the pofieiiion of his defcendants. 

Thi* gentleman poiTeiTed a poetical talent, and was authoi' of tbt Pa$kmam 
mndtht Prufii a Satire on the abfurdities of Popery, the great fubjed which 
then agitated the minds of men. 

.ad, Robert Sample, fon, and fucccfibr of this Sir James, was author of an 
Epitaph and Elegy, on Habie Simpfon, Piper of Kilbarchan, < 

Who on his bags, wore bonie flags. 
He made his cheeks as red as crimfon, 
And bobbed when he blo'ed the bags. 

This piece is too long for infertion ; bat it has acquired much local cele» 

3d, Fr^ds, ion of Robert; vras an adherent of the Stewart Family. He 
wrott ieveral panegyrics 00 James IK while Duke of York and Albany ; and 


4^1 Stati/lical Account 

Bridges, RoaJs'-r-Thc bridges arc in good repair, and 
the roads, though not the very bed, are better than in any 
neighbouring parifh. The roads are moftly made by private 
gentlemen, with the afliftance of the ftatute labour. Any 
repair they get, is from the ftatute labour, which is paid in 
kind, and no commutation allowed, except for the inhabi- 
tants of the village. 

A toll-road is now making from Paiflcy to Newport, Gbf- 
gow, by the bridge of Johnfon, and Elilmacolm, which pafles 
through this parifli. Another is in contemplation, from 


on the bitth of hit children ; idfo, (atires upoo the Whigt, fome of which ftill 
remain in MaDofcript. He was alfo nuthor of two piecet of confiderabie 
merit; the' firft intitled, The hatuJbwBuU ^f .Powriy^ and the fccond, the celfr- 
bntfld Scotch Umg-^Sbe roft ami Ui me itu < 

4* Robert Serople, grandfon of Francis, we mention, as a remarltable m* 
fiance of longevity. He died 17S9, aged 108 years. He was the firft in the 
nomination of Jofiices of the Peace for Scotland, in the year 1708, being the 
year after the Union* Towards the dofe of life, his memory gradually failed 
htm. Two anecdotes of his early life, remained imprefled upon his memo, 
ry , after every other circumftance was forgotten. The firft was, his being 
prefent, while the witches were burnt at Paifley, the laft deteftable ezhibitida 
ef that kind in Scotland, which happened 1697 *• The fecond was, his hav- 
ing feen Pete^the Great, Czarof Ruffia, at Archangel, who,amufing him- 
felf with fome fea animals in a pond^ one of them faapped at him, and bit 
the cock ofi* his hat. This laft occurrence he continued to repeat to the d^ 
of his death, after he had forgotten every other. 

Among the remarkable perfons cooneded with this parifti, wo may mot^ 
tton James Milliken, of Milliken, £fq. He was the firft who mtrodaoed t«- 
ral improTcitients into the parifli, on an eztenfive fcale. He adorned hit c^ 
tate with plantations, arranged with great tafte. He inclofed, drained, fal- 
lowed, and reduced his lands into an elegant form. He fiHl excited a tafte 
for good roads in the parifli, many of which he made at his own expence. 
lit his improvements he i))ared no expence, efteeming nothing done, while 
any thing remained undone. He died An, 1776, much lamcAted by the poor, 
•n account of his extenfive charity. 

« Semple*! Hiftory of Reofrewfliire. 

of KUbarcban^ 493 

Paiflcy by Ltnwoodi interfcaing the eaftcm part of th^ pa- 
Tiih^ until it forms a jun£lion with the new toll road from 
Glafgow to Greenock. Thefe roads will be of great advan- 
tage to the parifliy and make it the thorough-fare between the 
fottthern counties^ and the ports of Clyde. 

Population. — The numbersi as ftated in Dr Webfter's lift 
in 1755, were, 1485. 

Abstract of the Population of Kilbarchan Paris9» 
As taken by aBual Survey in the year 1 791. 


TBI Cou» 


Number of Families, 172 







Under 10^ 



From 10 to so, 



From 20 to 50, 



From 50 to 70, 



Above 70, 




Looms, : 








Acres, , 




L. 454* 


In the Towif» ToTAU 







. 465 




• 598 

• . 97« 


• • 334 














U 454* 

^Vtorn this table it appears^ tliat the number of fouls in the 
pan.(h> when the lift was taken, was, 250V5, viz. 1202 males, 
tad 1304 females. Of thefe, 602 belong to the eftabliihed 
church ; there are about 30 Cameronians ; all the reft are of 
the Burgher, or Relief perfualkm. 

The population in the village, 1740, dicl not exceed 40 fa- 
fldilies. Since thaC time, there is an increafe of 35 1 families, 
which, upon an average, is about 7 families yearly. 


494' Stdtijlicdl Account 

In the year 1 774, wlicn Semplc took* a lift of the popula- 
tion for his Hiftory of Rcnfrewfliirc, there were, in the vil- 
Famines. Mades, Femaleil M. & F. Ko Loomi. 

304 547 637 Todd 1184 t4» M 

In the country there were, • • ilfti 

&i^ in the ParUh are, 2305 

From this ftatement, it appears, that the poj^ulatioh of the 
country part of the panQi, has diixiiniihed 1991 fince die year 
1774; but the population of the village has increafed 400. 
Increafe upon the whole, 201 • 

Fitim 1774' to 17821' there was ah itimaTe in the village 
of iCfo looms, and 24 nevr hoiifes. The> villages haid not in- 
creaTed much Gnce that time, owing to the cotton mills e- 
re&ed within a mile of Kilbarchan, on Mr Houfton's cflate, 
in the pariih of Paifleyi which have attra£b(!d the ^pulation 
to that quarter. 

The diminution of the country population, and increafe 
of the town, may be afcribed to the immenfe demand for 
, manufafturing labour, which took place foon after the con- 
clution of the American war. Yet the country has not fuf- 
fefed in its cultivation. A greater proportion has indeed 
been thrown into pafture, which, inftead ot being a lofs, is an 

One cif cumftahoe muft ftrike every perfon, who ^eruies 
our table of population, that the number of females in the 
country, exceeds the males by 42, ahd, in the town, they ex- 
ceed the males by 60. This may perhaps be accounted for 
by fuppofm^ that the farmer's keep more female fervants 
than males, for the management of their dairies, while their 
younger fons are fent to towns, and trained to buGnefs. In 
the village, on the other hand, th^ bleachfields, and cotton 
manufactories, which have long prevailed| require more fe- 
males than males. 


o/* Kiharcban. 495 

* The village b built of excellent {ireeftone^ procured (rom 
a neighbouring quarry of very great depth) on the weftem 
declivity of the Bar-hill, already mentioned. One remarkable 
circumftance attending this quarry, is, that the frecftone has 
coal over it, and whinftone above. the coal, next the furface. 
The northern fide of the Bar-hill is perpendicular bafalt, in- 
cumbent upon coal, which Was formerly wrought to a con- 
fiderable extent. This.fa£l feems to overturn. the prevailing 
^theories of (Natural Hiftory. 

Lwing, Dre/s and Manners, — All clafles of people live 
better now than they did formerly^ Oatmeal and potatoes 
make a great part of the food of the lower people. About 
20 years ago, tea and butcher's meat were very feldom tailed 
by any of the lower ranks. Now thev are more or lefs ufed 
by people of every defcription. The people are, in general, 
fober and induftrious. If they indulge in any extravagance, 
it is chieQy in the article of drefs ; in this they are much 
more gay and fplandid than formerly. At the fame time, 
they are daily acquiring more politenefs and urbanity of 

-Bm/^m/icw,— There have been no emigrations from the 
parifh thefc 14 years ; but this year, 1794, 3 families have 
emigrated to America, and many more are preparing to fol- 
low, from the fa^tal decay of trade, and want of employment. 

Wars. — ^In former wars, a number of tradefmen were wont- 
to go to fea, particularly to privateers, where they expe£led 
better wages, and were more certain of prize-money, than in 
the iiavy^ But they feldom remained longer than the war 
)a(led. In the prefcnt war, 55 young men have gone from the 
village to the army, and 15 to the navy \ befides otliers from 


49^ Statijlical Account 

the country, as they (zy^from pure neeejjity^ It is remarkablCf 
that thofc who formerly went to the fea fervicc, on their re- 
turn^ generally turned out drunken and diflipated \ thofe a- 
gain, who returned from the army, generally proved ibber and 

Charitable Societies. — ^There are three charitable focieties in 
Ktlbarchan : \fty The farmers fociety, which has accumulat- 
ed a capital of 850I. Sterling : ai, The general fociety, con- 
fiding of heritorsy merchant^, and tradefmen, has accumu-' 
lated a capital of 400I. : 31/, The weavers fociety, has accu*- 
mulated little capital^ from exceflive burdens *, but has been 
Qi very great ufe, and relieved much diftrefst* 

Poor. — The poor» in fo far as they are not relieved by thefe 
charitable aflbciations, are fupported by a voluntary aflefs^ 
ment annually impofed, added to what arifes from the feflions 
funds. Formerly the poor were fupported by church collec- 
tions, Intereft of money accumulate^, money aiiCng from 
iQOTtcIoths, marriages, &c. But, firom the increafe of trade 
and population, and, confequently, of the poor, thefe funds 
proved inadequate* In July 17851 the method of afleiTaiient 
was recurred to, and was levied as follows : Th^ land paid 
at the rate of 3d. per Scots of valuation, on^ half being paid 
by the landlord, the otlier by the tenants, This produced 
78K 9s. 3^d. There was levied upon the houfeholders, in 
the town and country part of tbe pari(h %\\. ios« 8|:d. The 
fciTions funds produced from lol. to 12L The amount being 
from iiol. to 112I. then levied for the relief of the poor. 
The affeflment has been gradually increafing, and now a- 
mounts to about 140I. a year, , 

This fund is managed by fifteen perfons, annually chofen 
on the ift Friday of Noven\]^r \ five of whom are heritorst 


(fAlford. 481 

Georg Marnoch, in Mikill Endovie, . ^ 40 fchiUing^es. 

William Gillcfpie, in Elrike. . • 20 fcbillinges. 

Walltam Ritchie, in Bandley, • « 40 fchiliinget. 

Jon Anderfone, yeir, • • x inerk.s 

AndiTW Bairie, Badivio,. • • fto fchilling. 

Alexander Criftifone, yr, • • i mk. 

James Martfn, in Aidgetfajsn, • 4 likft s 

James Mortimer, yr, ' . . X mk. 

James Coaper, ye zoonger, • • i mk. 

Jon Pailzeor, in Alfoird, . • z mk. 

William Perrie,.in Walhotts, . ao Ichilliag. 

Jane Sept, Mikill Endovie, and his nuriih %o fchilling ; Ifobell Mill, in 

£lrike, 10 fchiUtngs; Itirflfaoe Coutts in Bandtey, lo fchillings; Margret 

Gleny yr, 10 fchillings ; Ifobell Leang in Badivin, lo fchillings; Margret 

Edwart, in Aidgcthen, 10 fchillings; Kirllane Couper in Aidgethen, 10 


The faJcf day if is flatut and ordenit, Be ye baQze, to pey and' delyrer peyit 
to James Wince in Mikill Endovie, 5 mks, 40 pence. 

Item. Elfpet Storach in Bandlcy, • • 5 mks, and 40 pence. 

Jtiwf^ the i^eard* himTeiT fef the- mantis, • • 5 inks', and 40 pence* 
JUm, Patrick Mortimer in Greyftane, • ; 5 mks, and 40 pence. 

James Cooper in Aidgethtn, . • • 5 >nk* &°d 40 pence. 

Item, William Fcrbes in Middleliill, • . 5 mks, and 40 peace. 

JUm. John Cpapland in Bandley, . • 5 mks, 40 pence, peyit. 

The faid day it is ordainit and deccrnit, be ye baiize, that all the forfaid 
perfons that peyis nocht the forfaid moncyis above written, betwiz this axi^ 
th^ day aught dayis, fal be peyndit for the dowbiU; 
Item, the KIrktoune of Alfuird, the haill of it, 5 merks^ 4^ pence, peyit. 

The faid day it is ilatut and ordainit, be ye laird and baike, that the maf- 
terls of the cotters, girfmen, and others, fcrvents that dwells with them, fal 
be obluight for ycir fcrvents ; and gif the pey nocht their maiilcris, they fal 
be pyndit far the dowbill, betwiz thi« and ye daye aught dayes, of ye levie 
and tranfport moneys, and the poyodls to be delyveric to ye maiibies, and 
never to be rejievytt agane. 

The faid it is flacut and ordainit, that the forfaid aA fal be eztendit to ye 
• Over and Nether Hach, to ye tenncntts, fub«tenents and occupiers thereof, and 
the cKcufion to pafs aganis yamtf for therr publick dewls, and levic money, 
and tranfport moneyis, monthly mantencnce, putting out of fit and horfe, 
conform to yc compt of debarfements to- be cqualle dtvydiU amang yame, as 
ye reft of ye ground hes done. 

Contintiis this court to feventie four hours warning. 
CulSglmtu Reld^ »otarius fublicy* ac teflu infremjJIiii ngatus et requifittu. 

Davidsons, BtUU, 

Vol. XV. 3 C^ NUMBE^. 

482 . Statijlical Account 



(County o? Renfrew, Presbttert of Paisley, Synod 
OF Glasgow and Ayr.) 

By the Rev. Patrick Maxwell, Minister. 


HE name Kilbarcban^ (eems to have orgiiiated from the 
perfon who iirft founded a place of worftiip here. 

Some, however, think the name compounded of three 
Gaehc words ; vis. Kll^ (ignifying chapel^ bar or brae^ a billf 
ihan a valley ox plain. According to this derivation, Kilbarch^ 
Oftf means the cAapel of ike InU^founied vale* 

This lad derivation is exafily defcriptive of the local poii* 
tion of the village, in which the church is fituated.. It is built 
upon a declivity, which terminates in a plain towards the 
South, through which runs a clear rivulet, of the fameiiame« 
It is furrounded on three fides, with hilly grounds, having 
the Banks Brae to the South- weft, the lands of Law to the 


ofKilbarcban* 483 

North-weft, amd the Bar Brae to the Eaft, all moil beautiful- 
ly adorned with thriving plantations of trees. 

Extent J Soun Janes, Rivers. — The parifh of Kilbarchan is 
betwixt 8 and 9 miles in length, from Weft to Eaft. Its 
greateft breadth is 5 miles, two where narroweft 5 and its 
average breadth about 3 mites. Its whole furface may a- 
mount t6 about 24 fquare miles. It is bounded on the South 
and Eaft by the water of Black Cart, which runs from the 
lakes of Kilburnie'and Lochwinnock, on the Weft ; on the 
North by Cryfc water, which takes its rife in Duchai muir, 
in the adjoining parifh of Kihnacolm ; thefe two ftreams 
form a jundion at the North-eaft corner of the parifh f . 

3 QjZ (Climate, 

f Tbere i* alfo a confiJcrable nvnlet^ named Loqher, which hai its Tourct 
in Ijochwionock muir, and divides the partihes of Lockwinnock and Kilma^ 
cqlm, before it enters this parifh. It then mm nearly the whole length o£ 
the parifh, parallel to jthe two ih-eams above mentioned ; forn^ing, in its pro- 
grels, federal beautiful cafcades, of which to convey a proper ide», woukl 
require the pencil. 

The whole fall of the Black Cart ii occupied with cotton milU, four of 
which arc fituated in the Abbey parifh of Paifley, on the fouchern bank pf 
the river, and one on the Northern bank, to be afterwards defcribed. 

From the Oryfe on the North, this county derived its mod ancient name 
•i 8tr0*bgrjifi, The tid^ makes about a mile up both Oryfe and Cai;t,a&d tfa^ 
ate navigable to that extent from their point of jundion. But from the c^t-p 
ton mills ereded on Cart, it is afceruincd that the elevation of Kilbumie 
loch, above the level of the fea, does not exceed 84 feet. This loch runs in- 
differently, either Eaft ward or Welt ward, and might eaiily be conveyed Baft- 
ward by a canal to PaiHy and Glafgow, or Weftward to the ocean. 

Qryfe, .Cart^ and Lo^her aboMnd ^itl> fk4mon, pyke, trout, parr. The 
falmoD are caught in June and July, weigh from 3 to 8 lb,, and bring about 
3d. per lb. The other fifh are fcldom fold. 

The whole parifh is abundantly fupplied with fprings and rivulets of very 
pare water, which is of great advantage to the bleachers fettled here, in 
whitening .their clotbt In che low part of the ^ifh, where the foil i« deep 


4^4 Stati^ical Account 

Climatiy Surfofie^ ScU* — ^The climate i^ ycry wet, but is jiet 
efteemed unhealthy. 

The eaftern divifion of the parilh is a flat, level cotatry, 
the weftern is billy and ia part rocky. Abeut one third of 
the Eaft and Nortb-e^ft, copfifts of a vpry deep clay. 

Of^this eaftern divifion, 500 acres are occupied by a mola 
from 7 to 9 feet in depth ; the common property of Lord 
Semplc, Mr Spiers of Elderflie, Mr Cunningham of Craig- 
ends, and Mr Napier of Blackftoiie. About an acre of thia 
mofs is annually taken off in peats, by tlie neighbouring m^ 
habitant?. The foil below is a deep white clay^ where ha$ 
formerly been a foreft The oak is perfe£^ly frefli ; this Or 
ther kinds of timber are rotten. The ftumps in general zrp 
ftandfng in their original poGtion. The trees are all broken 
over at about the height of 3 feet, and are lying frpm South- 
weft to North-eaft. So wherever you fee a ftump, you are 
fure to find a tree to the North-eaft. How an oak tree coutd 
break over at that particular place, I never could underftand^ 
But we may be allowed to form a ponjei^ure, that before the 
tree -fell, the mofs had advanced along its ftem, and rotted 
It there. Wood, immerfed in a wet body, is found to decay 
fir ft at the ring between the wet and the dry. 

The theory of mofles is now illuftrated in a fatisfa£lory 
manner. They have all been woods at a former period* 
Thefe being cut, or falling down, hindered the water from 
getting off the ground where they lay. This encouraged the 
mofs plants to grow over them. Thefe plants^ while rotting 
below, continue to grow above. Hence a mofs continually 
increafes in depth. The pofitioa of the* trees in raoft mofles, 


cUy, the fprings tre left frequent ; and the rivulets become muddy in their 
progreft. But the inhabitants have adopted the method of purifying their 
imer, by iBtcYrngftooes, which readers tt as good as 911710 ihevorid* 

qfKilbarcban. 485 

from Sottth-w€ft} to North-eaft| inftead of being an objeo- 
tion, confirms this hypothefis ; for all our trees are bent in 
this direfiion, by the prevailing current of our winds* A 
tree, whether cut down or decaying, naturally falls in the 
dircftion to which it leaned while growing. The P.oman8 
produced many mofles by cutting down the woods^ to which 
our anceftors fled, for (helter. Others have dpubtlefs been 
produced from woods allowed to fall through decay. 

From what has been obferved of the quick growth of mofs^ 
It fliould feem that this one is not very ancient. What con- 
firms this opinion is, that many places round this, and other 
mofles in thii> country, ftill retain the name of wW« As 
Fuiwood, Linwood, Birchenhead, Woodhead, Woodfide, 
Oak-Shaw-head, fjbaw is wood) Walkinfhaw^ &c. 

Advancing weftward from this flat and level part of the 
parifliy where the foil is of a deep ftifF clay, tlie furface be- 
comes diverfified with gentle rifings. The foil here confifls 
of a more friable and loamy clay, intermixed with ftones. 
Two thirds of the parilh weftward is of a light and (hallow 
ibil, compofcd of the mouldered particles of whin rocks, on 
which it refl:8. This foil, where of. fuflUcient depth, is ex- 
tremely fertile. As you advance weftward, the ground be- 
comes more'and more rocky^ with patches of the. fame light 
{hallow foil, interpofed between the rocks. Among the rocks 
are fereral fwamps, which pr<^er draining would reduce to an 
excellent fofl. In thefc higher parts, there is very little heathj 
and, with a little lime, thefe fliallow foils produce grafs and 
corn of an excellent quality. 

The rocks here arc wholly compofed of whin. Many of 
them have a bafaltic appearance- The north fide of the Bar- 
hill is a bafahic perpendicular rock ; though not very regular 
in its formation, AU the low part of the parifli abounds in 


4^6 Statijlical Account 

excellent frcc-ftonc, and the north- weft with Ofmond llonc, 
in great requeft iot ovens *. 


* Mr Napier of Blackftone has planted about 15 acres of mofi» bent, that 
«, the ftufT-lcCc after the peat is taken off, with trees of all kinds. They ha?e 
been planted about t; years, and are in a thriving condition, tlthoogh flow- 
ing upon 4 feet of mofs. 

In the year 1767, James Milliken of MilUken, Efq; planted a number of 
fir, with a miiture of other trees, on the Bar>brae, among trenaeodoi|s and 
precipitous rocks, which he had cndofcd for thatpurpoTc. He made a fiiM 
foot'paiTage from his houfe, around the bottom of the rockai, among the brok- 
en fragmcnu of balalcs, formerly irapailiLble. It is amating to fc^ the pro- 
^refs the diffcrrer^ kinds of fir have made among tliefe rugged rock^ Ho«r> 
evtr, \ find the pines answer bed on a rocky foil, as their fibres find cr«rvices 
in which they fccuiely fix themfelves, and dften form a kind t>f net-work a- 
round the ftones. Here they are better fetured againft the yioleace of the 
winds, and fuffer \th from the funmicr's drouglit, than when they are plant- 
cd in a light gravelly foil. In this laft fituation, their horizontal fibres at 
have but little hold of ^e oarth, and their perpendicular roou are ifi fmaU 
that they are eafily fhaken with the wind. If they be planted where there 
ii a clay bottom, the damp of it chills them. Upon this eftate of MiOikeo* 
there are about 80 acres of thriving planting. 

' At Craigcnds, the property of Mr Cunningham, there arc 30 aaei of 
planting, in which are foucid £bme very ftately old aih, elm, and plane treei, 
fuperior to any in the parifh. One alh, in particular, defcrves attention. It 
mcafures 5 feet in diameter at 18 inches above the ground. The trunk, which 
is perfedly ftraight, lifcs 45 feet without a branchy and its top is io propor- 
tion to the whole. 

I3r Colquhoun purchaftd in 1787, upon the higher grounds* north weft«f 
the parifli, 369 acres, on which there was then no planting. In 1789 and 
1790, he planted about 16 acres with all kinds of trees, in large dumps. H*: 
thought this fuiUciem for an experiment; but as the plantations are thriviog 
keyond his mod fanguine expedacion, he does not mean €0 (lop. 

This feafon, 1 794, Mr M^Dowal of Walkingfliavr is employed pbotxag 
trees of every kind on £omc rocky fpots on the north- weft of the parifii. b* 
deed it were to be wiibed the ieveral proprietors wonld plant off all the ndty 
^ots in the high and wedern parts of the pariih. The experiments already 
made, Ihew that the planting would thrive. The intennediate fpots, which 
admit the pbugh, fhould be kept as much 19 paflure as polfible : for the (oil 


^f Kiibar^ban. ^ 487 

Antiqukies — About a miles weft ©f the village, on an 
derated plain, ia fituated a huge (lone, called Clocho* 
drxck. This name is fuppofed to be a corruption of the 
words Cioch Druids^ the ftone of the Druids. It conCfts of 
the fame fpecies of whinftone of which the neighbouring 
hills are compofed. This (tone is about aa feet long, 17 
feet broad, and 12 feet high. It is of a rude oval figure^ 
extending Eaft and Weft ; but feveral fragments have been 
broken off, either from defign, or by the injuries of the wea- 
ther, tt feems to reft in a narrow bafe below, and perhaps* 
like other druidical ftones, was capable of being moved ; but 
the lower part is now filled up with ftones gathered from 
the land, over which the grafs is growing. From the weft- 
em fide, there is a gradual afcent to the eaft, which is the 
higheft part. At fome diftance round, are feen a few large 
grey ftones \ but whether they once made a part of a fa« 
cred inclofurc, or are merely accidental, cannot now be af- 
certained, as the land where they ly is in tillage ; and it is 
probable, the moft moveable of them have been carried off. 
A fmall rivulet runs to the weftward of the ftone. There 
are no remains of a facred grove, except a folitary tree. 

It appears, that this ftone has been hewn from an elevated 
rock, a little to the Eaft, on which ftands a farm houfe, call* 
cd alfo, Clochodrick \ but, by what mechanifm it was 


bejng rery light, too much ploughiog makes it hove. Were it once weU 
fwarded, it were better to lop-drefs the grafs, and keep it in pafture as long 
as it remains good. 

In the Touthem part of the parilh, the property of Mr M*Dowal of Oarth- 
Umd, there are 40 acres of wood without, and 13 acrei within this policy. 
But a$ this gentleman** ezteniive pUntattona aie partly in the pariih of Loch- 
waanoch, and partly in this pariih, an account of them was given alusg with 
the particulars lelatire to Lochwinnoch, wherein his houfe is fituated. 

There are feveral beautiful and thriving plantations, to the Weft and 
North Weft of the village, belonging to the Mcffrs Barbouis, and Co Mr 
3pierf, whick we had accaiioa to racadon already. 

4^3 Statiftkal AccouM 

bftHi^t to its prcfent firuation^ exceeds our poisp'ers to deter* 

All rude flat lofls feem to have mad« ufe of fome external 
ob|eQs/a$ incentires to their devotion. This prafticc was 
not peculiar to any. fe£t of religion^ but to z particular pe- 
riod of civilisation and manners. A huge (lone, detached 
fvom all others^ was a confpicuous objeA, round which the 
peopk could' aflemble ; and where thejr could fee what was 
going -on, while the priefts ofleved fattificci or performed 
their facred rites. 

They wcre.earefal, alfo, to chooftf fach fituations as might 
either deprefs the mind with gloom and melancholyi or ele- 
vate by the magnificent fcenery of nature. For this laft 
jjurpofe, the ftone we l^eak of is wiali fituatcd ; fot it com- 
mand's a moft magnificent profped, eaftward of the vale of 
Clyde, below, and wcftward of the lakes of Lochwinnoch 
and Eilbumie ; while the bare rocks behind add to the gran- 
deur of thcr fccne** 

* North from Clochodrick, on the other fide of the hills, ftanda an old 
Btrrow caftle, amciently the refidetice of thd Knoiea. About 120 yards South 
Baft of this caftle, on ait elevated rock, vrhich overtops the caftle, is a green 
hill, ail of forced earth. Ic is now named Ca/lle-biA The afcent from the 
South and Eaft, is gradual ; from the North and Weft, it is fteep and diffi- 
cult. This earthen hill is of a quadrangular form ; the fides fiicing the four 
cardinal points. A trench, dug out of the folid rock, furronnds its hafe, on 
the £aft and partTof the Nonh and South fides. The Weft fide, fromting the 
old caftle, refts on the edge of the fteep rock. Each fide of this hill or mound^ 
is about 30 yartls at the bottom, a»d 19 at the top. h is 7 yards in height* 
The top, though in fome parts defaced, feems to be a hollow fquare, with a 
paraper all round it. There has been an entrance into it on the Eafterm 

From this mount are fcen five other artificial mounds, three in Koufton 
and Killallan, and two in Ktlmacolm, called Law* ; owing, it is thought by 
the people here, to their havmg been places where juftice was adminiftervd. 

But moft of thefe Laws are of a cooical figure s aad chough, ia feudiJ 


of Kilbarcban. 


five tcnantSi and five houfeholders* To thefe the kirk feflion 
are added. The poor are fubdivided into clafies, each claf$ 
being under the infpeAioo of an orerfeer. None can be re- 
ceived upon the poor's lift, unlefs they make a difpofition of 
their efie£ts, to be fold after their deceafe» for the benefit of 
the poor : Any two overfeers can draw upon the treafurer, for 
occafional reliefy either to thofe upon the lift, when uhfor- 
feen diftrefib$ come upon theoif or to thofe who are not upoa 
the lift ; but whofe fituation may require a temporary relief. 

List of Marriages and Baptisms. 


Baptifms J, 







83 . 






«5 . 







24 . '. 



. 27 

34 ' 

89 . 



90 , 



Deaths, — The account of deaths has not been accurately 
kept i only I noticed, that in the year r/po, they were 82 ; 
but 1 dare fay, more than one third of tliein came from the 
towns of Johnfton and Quarrelton. 

JgrlcuUure. — In giving an account of the agriculture of 
this parifti, we muft diftingulfh between the higli and rocky 
divifion, and the low and level pnrt, as in each of tliefe the 
praflice differs in fevcral particulars. 

Vol. XV. 3 S . Eapm 

§ Since the year 1786, when the Relief Meeting took place, the baptifmi 
hare decreafed, as very few of that fociety, or of the burghcis, regider their 
children. But from the proportion of baptifms to marriages, I think their 
fliouU be, at an avemge, between 90 and 100 births yearly. 

49 8 Statistical jlccount 

Eajlern Divificn F^/ir^/.— The Eaftern, or low part of the 
pariihy is moftly enclofed, in fome placesi with (tone dykesy 
but chiefly with hedge and ditch. The thorns are either 
planted in the face of the eaTth> thrown from the ditch, or 
on the top. Another prafiiice prevails here» of building a 
parapet of (lone, about three or four feet high, on the edge 
of their ditch, and then they either plant the thorns perpen- 
dicular on the top, or ftick them in the face of their wall, 
drawing the beft of the earth to the roots. The laft metho<i 
anfvrers very well, and the hedge requires no pailing, or 
weeding. |Thefe fences are either put up by the tenants, 
who have acquired new leafes, or by the landlords, when 
they fet the farms. It were to be wi(hed, they were at great- 
er pains to clean the ditches, and take oflF water from the 
roots of the thorns -, and that fportfmen, and others, who go 
through the fields, would take the trouble of going round by 
a gate, and not crofs a hedge, as trefpafles of this kind have 
produced many infufficient fences, after years of care be- 
llowed upon tiiem. 

Farms, — The medium fize of farms here is from 40 to 
60 acres. There is one farm, occupied by Mr Roger, of 
I 222 acres, all in excellent order. 

Rent. — Some fpots are rented at from 50 to 60 s. ; but 
tho medium rent is from 25 to 30 s. per acre It is thought, 
by perfons of experience, that were the lands out of leafe, 
they could bear an addition of 5 s. at an average. 

About 50 years ago, the ufual rent of good land was a- 
bout 5 s. per acre. 30 years ago, it rofe to about 10 s. ~ 33 
years ago, it rofe to about' 20 s. Yet the tenants are more 
wealthy, and live much more comfortably now, than at any 
{•rmer period. Thcfe fadts (hew, that the jife of rent has 


9f Kitbarcban. 499^ 

uniformly kept pace with the progrefs of manufaAures and 
population. Indeed land is of no value, without inhabitants 
to cultivatet and confume the fruits of it. 

Hotation.'^ifif oats ; 2d, oats i ^d, potatoes, or barley, with 
dung. If barley, laid down with grafs feeds. After pota- 
toes, gcncraiiy oats, with grafs feeds, or 2 crops of hay, paf- 
tured 3 or 4 years. About one«third of the farm in crop, 
two-thirds pafture and hay. 

It was formerly ufual to interpofe a crop of beans between 
the two firft crops of oats, but the feafons have been fo wet 
of Jate years, that they could not get them fown early enough 
in fpring, or dried in autumn. From this circumftance, the 
practice has been generally abandoned. Some farmers have 
tried wheat ; but after their ground was prepared, the cxcef- 
five autumnal rains have either prevented them from fowing 
it, or they were obliged to fow it at a bad time, and it did 
not thrive. 

It were much to be wifti^d, that the proprietors of lartd 
would endeavour to introduce a more commodious fyftem of 
cropping. Where the farmers depend chiefly upon one kind 
of crop, their labotir comes upon them all in a hurry^ and 
Xhtj are obliged to keep more horfes and fervants, than if 
>heir work were divided by a regular fucceffion of objedts. 

I am apt to think, that the great population centered here 
by cotton mills, 8cc, points out the dairy, and fattening for 
the butcher, as proper objc£ls of cultivation. Were farmers 
to manage fo as to have a proportion of cows to calve bcforf 
winter 5 or, in place of them, allot a few cattle for winter 
feeding, they might prepare for them a proportion of cabba- 
ges, carrots, turnips, and winter vetches 5 and, for houfe feed- 
ing in fummer, a patch of red clover fown with barley, to b^ 
cut green, and given to the milch cows. Thefe crops would 

3 S 2 aoiQ 

500 Statyiicai Account 

come in regular fucccfiion, and not overburden tbem with 
labour at any particular period. By feeding much in the 
houfcj great quantities of dung would be produced. Though 
potatoes grow here in perfcftion, and anfwer well for thefc 
purpofeS) they never think of giving